6Fresh Water What percent of fresh water is: Groundwater? Surface water?Ice & snow?
7Fresh Water Fresh, surface water – 0.8% Groundwater – 12% Ice and snow – 87.2%Question: Where is the earth’s fresh, surface water found?
8Liquid Fresh Surface Water Liquid fresh (surface) water is found in:AtmosphereGround water (soil moisture)Lakes & reservoirsMoisture in plants and animalsRivers and streamsWetlandsRank these 6 fresh water sources (above)The most fresh water (1) to the one that has the least fresh water (6)Estimate the percentage of each of the 6 sourcesPut on board…
9Liquid Fresh Surface Water (where & how much?) Lakes & reservoirs %Ground water %Moisture in plants and animals %Atmosphere - 4.8%Rivers and streams %Wetlands - 1.3%
10The Water Cycle What are the major components of the water cycle? Why don’t they show runoff??? I added #4Also, no wetlands
11The Water Cycle Condensation Precipitation Evaporation Runoff TranspirationInfiltrationGroundwater
13Watershed What is a watershed? Why do we discuss/study/use the term watershed?
14WatershedWatershed - an area or region of land that drains into a lake, stream or river.Ridges of higher land on the ground separate watersheds from each other.The quantity and quality of water in streams, rivers, or lakes are dependent on what happens in its watershed.
15Indiana Watersheds Where the water goes. * * Kankakee watershed, draining to IL River (straightened to drain wetlands for crops)
16Indiana Water UseWhat percent of Indiana’s drinking water comes from surface water?
17Indiana Water UseWhat percent of Indiana’s drinking water comes from surface water?40% of Indiana households drink surface water.60% of Indiana households use ground water, including everyone who uses a well.Public water systems use both ground and surface water, depending on where they are located and what is available.
18Wells Where do wells pull water from? What type of geologic formations are used (2 most prominent)?
19Wells pull water from aquifers Wells draw water from aquifers that hold waterThe two prominent types of geologic formations used:Sand or sand & gravel formation that stores water in the spaces between particlesRock formation that stores water in fissures or cracks and joints
21Wells How can wells become contaminated? What can you do to protect your well?
22Potential Sources of Well Contamination This shows potential sources and one type of aquifer. The geology can come in any combination of unsaturated/saturated/confining layer. Discuss/draw my well.
23Protecting Your Well Zone of Management Zone of Exclusion Well Zone of Exclusion: r = 50 feet, minimumZone of Management: r = 200 feet, minimum
24Potential Sources of Well Contamination Typical requiredseparation distancesSeptic tank and absorption fieldftAbove-ground storage tanks with secondary containment (increase separation distance for tanks without secondary containment)10 ftManure storage or application area200 ftPesticide mixing or loading area100 ftLandfill, garbage dumpExisting properly constructed well or properly sealed abandoned wellSurface water (streams, lakes, ponds)25 ftAny structureOuter boundary of any road20 ftProperty boundary15 ft
25Well Maintenance & Life Span Protect the well casingInspect the casing and cap regularlyKeep well records and know where they areProtect the well from contaminantsLandscape around the well to protect it from lawn mowers and other equipmentFollow all manufacturer maintenance recommendationsWell life span is usually 20 to 30 years
26DroughtHow did the 2012 drought affect you/your family/friends water supply?
27Across the U.S.The January-July period was the warmest first seven months of any year on record for the contiguous United States. The national temperature of 56.4°F was 4.3°F above the long-term average.More than 40,000 daily heat records were broken during the six hottest months.The first seven months of 2012 were drier than average, ranking as 15th driest January-July on record.
28Across the U.S.The hot, dry summer followed a warm winter. In many Western river basins, snowpack — the lifeblood of rivers and essential for irrigation — was a fraction of the historical average.Not even the stereotypically wet Southeast was spared. Central Georgia is mired in its second historic drought in the last five years, and the Flint River, vital for the state’s agricultural corridor, is seeing its lowest July flows ever.
29Instruments on NASA’s Terra satellite compare plant growth in the first part of July to average conditions over the last decade. Green areas show vigorous growth, whereas brown areas indicate stunted crops.(Image courtesy NASA)
30Hydrologic DemandsWhen the demands on a hydrologic system increase — when cities grow, when farming becomes more intensive and when water withdrawals increase— the consequences of heat and cloudless summer months are magnified.In other words, a moderate dry period may now produce more serious effects than it would have in the past. A city of 100,000, for instance, is much more vulnerable than a city of 40,000, if water-use behaviors remain the same.
31Drought and the Water Supply Dr. Jane FrankenbergerYouTube videoWhat can this drought teach us?
32Water Consumers Worldwide Agriculture uses: There are three categories of water users: agricultural, domestic, and industrial.What percent % does agriculture use?What agricultural practice uses the most water?Agriculture uses:67% of water withdrawn (total amount removed for any purpose)85% of consumption (water withdrawn for human use)
33Water ConsumersThe agricultural practice that uses the most water is irrigation (particularly inefficient methods)Why is this inefficient? (Remember the water cycle and evaporation….)
34Indiana’s Water Shortage Plan History:1988: Drought focused attention on need for statewide plan to minimize impacts of a water shortage1991: Indiana General Assembly enacted HB which required DNR to develop Water Shortage Plan1994: Water Shortage Plan completed with input from Industry, Agriculture, Public Water Supplies, Municipalities, Environmental Groups, Government Agencies, etc.
36Indiana’s Water Shortage Plan Developed by a Task Force (as required by the state Senate Enrolled Act No. 369)Suggested Model OrdinanceDevelopment of a “Water Management Strategy” by Local Unit of GovernmentAdoption and Implementation of Ordinance for Effective Management of Water during Temporary Water ShortageDevelopment of Water Shortage Plan Web Page,
37Water Management Strategies Increase public awareness of value of waterIncrease public knowledge of wise water useProvide economic incentives for desirable water management practicesEnhance sum of net benefits from water resourcesReduce frequency, duration, and severity of water shortagesProvide economic development consistent with water supply outlook
38Baseline Steamflow Policy Ecological protection is understood to be one of the recognized “beneficial uses” of water in the State.Therefore, the Water Shortage Task Force recommends that the 80-Percent Flow Duration (Q80) stream discharge for the months of May through October be used as a trigger to initiate a local action process to protect aquatic and riparian habitat by monitoring minimum streamflow in surface waters during a shortage.
39Water Use PrioritiesFirst Priority is for domestic purposes described in ICSecond Priority is for the use of health and safetyThird Priority is for power production with contingency planning provisionsFourth Priority is for industry and agriculture with contingency planning provisionsFifth Priority is for power production, industry and agriculture without contingency planning provisionsSixth Priority is for any other purpose
40Task Force Recommendations Encourage the Legislature to establish a sustainable Water Planning Task Force to coordinate regional water supply and demand planning, and data collection effortsImprove regional water conservation, allocation and management throughout IndianaProtect public health and safety during water shortages
41Task Force Recommendations Implement policies and programs that encourage efficient use, including conservation of water in wet, normal, and dry years, and allocation during water shortageStudy the supply and demand by establishing water use databanks that are standardized and shared through metering and reporting requirementsPromote installation of accurate water metering devices at all withdrawal and/or end use points
42Water Shortage Warning July 17, 2012To: Owners/Operators of Significant Water Withdrawal FacilitiesApplicable to all counties in IndianaIssued by the Indiana Department of Natural Resources and the Indiana Department of Homeland SecurityRequested a voluntary reduction of current water use of 10-15%
43Example: The Ogallala Aquifer Center-pivot sprinklers are commonly used in the High PlainsLarge quantities of groundwater pumped from the Ogallala Aquifer allows these semiarid western lands to yield abundant harvests
44The Ogallala AquiferWater is being extracted 100 times the natural replacement rate (recharge)Water level in the aquifer dropping at the rate of five feet per yearEight states draw water from the aquifer:ColoradoKansasNebraskaNew MexicoOklahomaSouth DakotaTexasWyoming
45Report, 2012The High Plains Underground Water Conservation District says that agriculture producers are drawing water from the Ogallala Aquifer at unsustainable ratesThey predict that the aquifer will dry up within the next 30 yearsCotton producers said the Conservation District is using its report to justify regulations to restrict groundwater and aquifer usageAg producers said the report has been manipulated to take control of the resource, not to conserve it
46Many major aquifers have reduced yields due to over-pumping Ref. Hightower, 2006Many major aquifers have reduced yields due to over-pumpingOver-pumping also causes significant ground water quality issues
47A Note about Bottled Water In 2004, Americans, on average, drank 24 gallons of bottled waterConsumption of bottled water is growing more quickly than that of soft drinks and has more than doubled in the past decadeThis year, Americans will spend around $9.8 billion on bottled water, according to the Beverage Marketing Corporation.Ounce for ounce, it costs more than gasolineBottled water costs 250 to 10,000 times more than tap water. Globally, bottled water is now a $46 billion industry
48FYI: bottled water industry Why has bottled water become so popular? “Companies like Coca Cola and Pepsi, with their Dasani and Aquafina bottled water products, spend millions of dollars on ads that depict fresh mountain springs and nature... when in fact both of these, like many other leading brands, use municipally treated tap water as the source.”--National Resources Defense Council
49Surf Your Watershed EPA – Environmental Protection Agency Information availableNameOther counties sharing this watershedWatersheds upstreamWatersheds downstreamStream flow informationImpaired watersWebsite:
50Assignment Surf Your Watershed Read the general instructions Complete the assignmentDue: Wednesday, Aug. 28