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Water One of Our Basic Needs.

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Presentation on theme: "Water One of Our Basic Needs."— Presentation transcript:

1 Water One of Our Basic Needs

2 Water What are the concerns about water quantity?
What are the concerns about water quality? Give them time to answer…

3 Major Points How much fresh water is available?
Understand the water cycle (components and flow) Understand where we our fresh water comes from

4 Water – Salt or Fresh? What percent of the Earth’s water is fresh water?

5 Fresh Water Fresh Water – 2.4% Salt water – 97.6%

6 Fresh Water What percent of fresh water is: Groundwater?
Surface water? Ice & snow?

7 Fresh Water Fresh, surface water – 0.8% Groundwater – 12%
Ice and snow – 87.2% Question: Where is the earth’s fresh, surface water found?

8 Liquid Fresh Surface Water
Liquid fresh (surface) water is found in: Atmosphere Ground water (soil moisture) Lakes & reservoirs Moisture in plants and animals Rivers and streams Wetlands Rank these 6 fresh water sources (above) The most fresh water (1) to the one that has the least fresh water (6) Estimate the percentage of each of the 6 sources Put on board…

9 Liquid Fresh Surface Water (where & how much?)
Lakes & reservoirs % Ground water % Moisture in plants and animals % Atmosphere - 4.8% Rivers and streams % Wetlands - 1.3%

10 The Water Cycle What are the major components of the water cycle?
Why don’t they show runoff??? I added #4 Also, no wetlands

11 The Water Cycle Condensation Precipitation Evaporation Runoff
Transpiration Infiltration Groundwater


13 Watershed What is a watershed?
Why do we discuss/study/use the term watershed?

14 Watershed Watershed - an area or region of land that drains into a lake, stream or river. Ridges of higher land on the ground separate watersheds from each other. The quantity and quality of water in streams, rivers, or lakes are dependent on what happens in its watershed.

15 Indiana Watersheds Where the water goes. *
* Kankakee watershed, draining to IL River (straightened to drain wetlands for crops)

16 Indiana Water Use What percent of Indiana’s drinking water comes from surface water?

17 Indiana Water Use What percent of Indiana’s drinking water comes from surface water? 40% of Indiana households drink surface water. 60% of Indiana households use ground water, including everyone who uses a well. Public water systems use both ground and surface water, depending on where they are located and what is available.

18 Wells Where do wells pull water from?
What type of geologic formations are used (2 most prominent)?

19 Wells pull water from aquifers
Wells draw water from aquifers that hold water The two prominent types of geologic formations used: Sand or sand & gravel formation that stores water in the spaces between particles Rock formation that stores water in fissures or cracks and joints

20 Aquifers can be unconfined or confined

21 Wells How can wells become contaminated?
What can you do to protect your well?

22 Potential Sources of Well Contamination
This shows potential sources and one type of aquifer. The geology can come in any combination of unsaturated/saturated/confining layer. Discuss/draw my well.

23 Protecting Your Well Zone of Management Zone of Exclusion Well
Zone of Exclusion: r = 50 feet, minimum Zone of Management: r = 200 feet, minimum

24 Potential Sources of Well Contamination
Typical required separation distances Septic tank and absorption field ft Above-ground storage tanks with secondary containment (increase separation distance for tanks without secondary containment) 10 ft Manure storage or application area 200 ft Pesticide mixing or loading area 100 ft Landfill, garbage dump Existing properly constructed well or properly sealed abandoned well Surface water (streams, lakes, ponds) 25 ft Any structure Outer boundary of any road 20 ft Property boundary 15 ft

25 Well Maintenance & Life Span
Protect the well casing Inspect the casing and cap regularly Keep well records and know where they are Protect the well from contaminants Landscape around the well to protect it from lawn mowers and other equipment Follow all manufacturer maintenance recommendations Well life span is usually 20 to 30 years

26 Drought How did the 2012 drought affect you/your family/friends water supply?

27 Across the U.S. The January-July period was the warmest first seven months of any year on record for the contiguous United States. The national temperature of 56.4°F was 4.3°F above the long-term average. More than 40,000 daily heat records were broken during the six hottest months. The first seven months of 2012 were drier than average, ranking as 15th driest January-July on record.

28 Across the U.S. The hot, dry summer followed a warm winter. In many Western river basins, snowpack — the lifeblood of rivers and essential for irrigation — was a fraction of the historical average. Not even the stereotypically wet Southeast was spared. Central Georgia is mired in its second historic drought in the last five years, and the Flint River, vital for the state’s agricultural corridor, is seeing its lowest July flows ever.

29 Instruments on NASA’s Terra satellite compare plant growth in the first part of July to average conditions over the last decade. Green areas show vigorous growth, whereas brown areas indicate stunted crops. (Image courtesy NASA)

30 Hydrologic Demands When the demands on a hydrologic system increase — when cities grow, when farming becomes more intensive and when water withdrawals increase— the consequences of heat and cloudless summer months are magnified. In other words, a moderate dry period may now produce more serious effects than it would have in the past. A city of 100,000, for instance, is much more vulnerable than a city of 40,000, if water-use behaviors remain the same.

31 Drought and the Water Supply
Dr. Jane Frankenberger YouTube video What can this drought teach us?

32 Water Consumers Worldwide Agriculture uses:
There are three categories of water users: agricultural, domestic, and industrial. What percent % does agriculture use? What agricultural practice uses the most water? Agriculture uses: 67% of water withdrawn (total amount removed for any purpose) 85% of consumption (water withdrawn for human use)

33 Water Consumers The agricultural practice that uses the most water is irrigation (particularly inefficient methods) Why is this inefficient? (Remember the water cycle and evaporation….)

34 Indiana’s Water Shortage Plan
History: 1988: Drought focused attention on need for statewide plan to minimize impacts of a water shortage 1991: Indiana General Assembly enacted HB which required DNR to develop Water Shortage Plan 1994: Water Shortage Plan completed with input from Industry, Agriculture, Public Water Supplies, Municipalities, Environmental Groups, Government Agencies, etc.

35 July 10, 2012

36 Indiana’s Water Shortage Plan
Developed by a Task Force (as required by the state Senate Enrolled Act No. 369) Suggested Model Ordinance Development of a “Water Management Strategy” by Local Unit of Government Adoption and Implementation of Ordinance for Effective Management of Water during Temporary Water Shortage Development of Water Shortage Plan Web Page,

37 Water Management Strategies
Increase public awareness of value of water Increase public knowledge of wise water use Provide economic incentives for desirable water management practices Enhance sum of net benefits from water resources Reduce frequency, duration, and severity of water shortages Provide economic development consistent with water supply outlook

38 Baseline Steamflow Policy
Ecological protection is understood to be one of the recognized “beneficial uses” of water in the State. Therefore, the Water Shortage Task Force recommends that the 80-Percent Flow Duration (Q80) stream discharge for the months of May through October be used as a trigger to initiate a local action process to protect aquatic and riparian habitat by monitoring minimum streamflow in surface waters during a shortage.

39 Water Use Priorities First Priority is for domestic purposes described in IC Second Priority is for the use of health and safety Third Priority is for power production with contingency planning provisions Fourth Priority is for industry and agriculture with contingency planning provisions Fifth Priority is for power production, industry and agriculture without contingency planning provisions Sixth Priority is for any other purpose

40 Task Force Recommendations
Encourage the Legislature to establish a sustainable Water Planning Task Force to coordinate regional water supply and demand planning, and data collection efforts Improve regional water conservation, allocation and management throughout Indiana Protect public health and safety during water shortages

41 Task Force Recommendations
Implement policies and programs that encourage efficient use, including conservation of water in wet, normal, and dry years, and allocation during water shortage Study the supply and demand by establishing water use databanks that are standardized and shared through metering and reporting requirements Promote installation of accurate water metering devices at all withdrawal and/or end use points

42 Water Shortage Warning
July 17, 2012 To: Owners/Operators of Significant Water Withdrawal Facilities Applicable to all counties in Indiana Issued by the Indiana Department of Natural Resources and the Indiana Department of Homeland Security Requested a voluntary reduction of current water use of 10-15%

43 Example: The Ogallala Aquifer
Center-pivot sprinklers are commonly used in the High Plains Large quantities of groundwater pumped from the Ogallala Aquifer allows these semiarid western lands to yield abundant harvests

44 The Ogallala Aquifer Water is being extracted 100 times the natural replacement rate (recharge) Water level in the aquifer dropping at the rate of five feet per year Eight states draw water from the aquifer: Colorado Kansas Nebraska New Mexico Oklahoma South Dakota Texas Wyoming

45 Report, 2012 The High Plains Underground Water Conservation District says that agriculture producers are drawing water from the Ogallala Aquifer at unsustainable rates They predict that the aquifer will dry up within the next 30 years Cotton producers said the Conservation District is using its report to justify regulations to restrict groundwater and aquifer usage Ag producers said the report has been manipulated to take control of the resource, not to conserve it

46 Many major aquifers have reduced yields due to over-pumping
Ref. Hightower, 2006 Many major aquifers have reduced yields due to over-pumping Over-pumping also causes significant ground water quality issues

47 A Note about Bottled Water
In 2004, Americans, on average, drank 24 gallons of bottled water Consumption of bottled water is growing more quickly than that of soft drinks and has more than doubled in the past decade This year, Americans will spend around $9.8 billion on bottled water, according to the Beverage Marketing Corporation. Ounce for ounce, it costs more than gasoline Bottled water costs 250 to 10,000 times more than tap water. Globally, bottled water is now a $46 billion industry

48 FYI: bottled water industry
Why has bottled water become so popular? “Companies like Coca Cola and Pepsi, with their Dasani and Aquafina bottled water products, spend millions of dollars on ads that depict fresh mountain springs and nature... when in fact both of these, like many other leading brands, use municipally treated tap water as the source.” --National Resources Defense Council

49 Surf Your Watershed EPA – Environmental Protection Agency
Information available Name Other counties sharing this watershed Watersheds upstream Watersheds downstream Stream flow information Impaired waters Website:

50 Assignment Surf Your Watershed Read the general instructions
Complete the assignment Due: Wednesday, Aug. 28

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