3 Know for test 1. Definition mixture solution solute solvent solubility diluteconcentrated
4 MIXTURE: Two or more substances existing together that can be separated by physical means such as filtration or raising or lowering the temperature. The substances do not form chemical bonds.
5 SOLUTION: A homogeneous mixture consisting of a substance that is evenly distributed throughout another substance.
6 SOLUTE: A substance that is dissolved in another substance SOLUTE: A substance that is dissolved in another substance. SOLVENT: A substance that dissolves another substance. The compound in the largest percentage is the solvent
7 SOLUBILITY: Amount of solute that can dissolve in a solvent at a given temperature, or the maximum amount of grams of a solute that will dissolve in 100 mL of solvent at a certain temperature.
8 CONCENTRATION: Comparative amounts of solute in a solvent DILUTE: Small amount of solute in the solvent CONCENTRATED: Large amount of solute in the solvent We’ll consider anything greater than a 6 molar (6M) solution as concentrated
9 Answer the following: 2B turned in 1. Is a 5 molar solution of sulfuric acid dilute or concentrated?2. Name for maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in 100 mL of solvent at a given temperature.3. Is a solution a heterogeneous or homogeneous mixture?
10 Know for test 2. Define Rate of dissolution Dissociation Ionization ElectrolytesNonelectrolytes3. In a solution pick the solute andsolvent based on ratios
11 RATE OF DISSOLUTION: How fast a solute dissolves in a solvent RATE OF DISSOLUTION: How fast a solute dissolves in a solvent. DISSOCIATION: Separation of an ionic compound into ions in water.
12 IONIZATION: Separation of a polar covalent substance into ions by water. Water pulls the molecules apart.
13 ELECTROLYTE: A substance that separates into ions or forms ions in a water solution and allows electricity to flow through the solution. Examples: NaCl - separates into ions; HCl - forms ions
14 NONELECTROLYTE: A substance that does not separate into or form ions in a water solution and does not allow electricity to flow through the solution.
15 I. The ratio of the compounds involved in a solution determines which substance is the solvent and which substance is the solute.
16 A. Is it a solvent or a solute. 1 A. Is it a solvent or a solute? 1. The substance present in the higher percentage is the solvent. 2. The substance present in the lower percentage is the solute.
17 Answer the following: 2B turned in 4. In a solution made of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, .09% argon, and .01% other gases which is the solvent?5. Sulfuric acid is a polar covalent molecule that when placed in water breaks apart into positive and negative charges, is this process called dissociation or ionization?6. When sodium chloride is placed in water electricity can be conducted, is this dissociation or ionization?
18 Know for test 4. Conditions for dissolving 5. Know alloys Bronze NickelSterling silverBrass6. Factors affecting rate of dissolving
23 a. Other polar covalent compounds like sugar or HCl b a. Other polar covalent compounds like sugar or HCl b. Ionic compounds like salt (NaCl) c. The hydrogen and oxygen dipoles in water are attracted to the positive and negative charges of the ions in the ionic compound.
24 4. Some molecules have a polar end and a nonpolar end. a 4. Some molecules have a polar end and a nonpolar end. a. They will combine with either polar or nonpolar substances.
25 b. Alcohols are both polar and nonpolar b. Alcohols are both polar and nonpolar. Ethanol will combine with iodine (I2 is nonpolar) on the nonpolar end and water on the polar end.
26 c. Soaps and detergents remove oil because the nonpolar molecule ends combine with oils and the polar molecule ends combine with water to pull the oils into solution.
27 II. The type of solvent determines what type of solution is formed.
28 A. Solid solutions are a solid solute dissolved in a solid solvent.
29 1. Composed of two or more solids - usually metal alloys 2 1. Composed of two or more solids - usually metal alloys 2. Made by melting the solids and mixing them together
30 3. Bronze is tin (along with zinc, lead or silver) dissolved in copper 4. Nickel coins are copper dissolved in nickel
31 5. Sterling silver is copper (7. 5%) dissolved in silver (92. 5%) 6 5. Sterling silver is copper (7.5%) dissolved in silver (92.5%) 6. Brass is zinc dissolve in copper
32 B. Liquid solutions are a solid, liquid or gas solute dissolved in a liquid solvent.
33 1. Tincture of iodine is iodine (a solid) dissolved in alcohol - a solid in a liquid
34 2. Lemonade is sugar and lemon juice dissolved in water - a solid and a liquid dissolved in a liquid.
35 3. Vinegar is acetic acid dissolved in water - a liquid in a liquid
36 4. Rubbing alcohol is isopropyl alcohol dissolved in water – a liquid in a liquid
37 5. Ocean water is many types of salts and gases dissolved in water - solids and gases dissolved in a liquid.
38 6. Seltzer is carbon dioxide dissolved in water - a gas in a liquid
39 7. The solvent and the solute must be the same type of chemical compound (ionic, polar or nonpolar).
40 C. Gaseous solutions are gas solutes dissolved in a gas solvent.
41 1. Air is various gases dissolved in nitrogen a. 78% nitrogen b 1. Air is various gases dissolved in nitrogen a. 78% nitrogen b. 21% oxygen c. 0.9% argon d. 0.03% carbon dioxide
42 2. Trace amounts of hydrogen, ozone, methane, carbon monoxide, helium, neon, krypton, xenon, and varying amounts of water vapor
43 2. Divers use a solution of oxygen and helium dissolved in nitrogen in their air supply tanks.
44 III. The solubility and rate of dissolving for a solute depends upon:
46 1. The larger the surface area, the faster the solute is dissolved. 2 1. The larger the surface area, the faster the solute is dissolved. 2. A 10 gram cube has less surface area than 10 grams of powder.
47 3. Smaller particles mean increased surface area of solute covered by the solvent, causing the solute to dissociate into ions or the molecules of solute to ionize more quickly.
49 B. Stirring or agitation increases energy and brings more fresh solvent in contact with the solute.
50 1. Stirring lemonade causes the sugar to dissolve faster and the lemon juice to disperse more quickly. 2. Water erodes rock more quickly at waterfalls, rapids, and eddies.
51 C. The temperature of the solvent - increased temperature means increased energy.
52 1. Increasing temperature increases the rate of dissociation of the solid
53 2. Warmer particles move faster a 2. Warmer particles move faster a. Causing the solvent particles to collide more frequently with the solid
54 b. Faster moving particles have greater energy c b. Faster moving particles have greater energy c. This causes solute particles to break off more rapidly
55 D. The pressure applied to the solute and temperature of the solvent affect solubility in gases.
56 1. Soda pop is produced by a. Cooling the soda syrup b 1. Soda pop is produced by a.Cooling the soda syrup b.Pressurizing the carbon dioxide
57 c. The carbon dioxide stays in solution until the pressure in the bottle or can is released.
58 2. The best fishing grounds are found in northern waters – fresh or salt water
59 a. The water is colder. b. It can hold more dissolved gases (oxygen) than when it is warmer.
60 3. Thermal pollution in bodies of water causes less oxygen to be available for organisms
61 a. El Nino caused a rise in ocean temperatures near Australia causing a die off in the populations of corals in the Great Barrier Reef.
62 b. Rising temperatures off the coast of Florida have caused a massive die off in corals and fish populations.
63 c. Many nuclear power plants release warm water and have caused a change in the flora and fauna that are found downstream of their outlet pipes. Fish and plant life now found in these streams are usually found in streams much further south.
64 Answer the following7. Name three methods that will increase the rate of solubility.8. Name for a solution of copper, tin, and silver.9. Which of the following will increase the solubility of a gas in a liquid?Increased surface area, increased pressure, increased temperature, stirring
80 V. Unsaturated, Saturated, and Supersaturated solutions
81 A. Saturation depends upon temperature and has to be specified whenever the saturation of a liquid or gas solution is discussed.
82 1. Usually the reference temperature is room temperature (20 C or 72 F).
83 2. As the temperature of the solvent increases, the amount of solid solute that can dissolve in it increases.
84 3. As the temperature of a solvent decreases, the amount of solid solute that can dissolve in it decreases.
85 4. Saturation values are often expressed as percentages, but more precisely as grams of solute per 100 grams of solvent (g/100g).
86 5. Saturation values for water solutions are expressed as grams per 100 mL or 100 grams of water. Water has a mass of 1 gram per 1 mL of volume; the measurement system was set up this way.
87 B. Unsaturated solutions: 1 B. Unsaturated solutions: Any solution that can dissolve more solute at a given temperature is unsaturated.
88 2. More solute can be dissolved in the solvent at the specified temperature No undissolved solute is visible in the container.
89 4. Each time a saturated solution is heated to a higher temperature it becomes unsaturated.
90 5. Unsaturated is an imprecise term – the amount of solute can be anything less than the saturated amount for the specified temperature.
91 C. Saturated solutions: 1 C. Saturated solutions: Solutions that have dissolved all of the solute that they can hold at a certain temperature.
92 2. No more solute can be dissolved in the solvent at the specified temperature Undissolved solute is still visible in the container.
93 D. Supersaturated solutions: 1 D. Supersaturated solutions: 1. More solute is in solution than the solvent can normally dissolve at the specified temperature.
94 2. No undissolved solute is visible in the container
95 3. Supersaturated solutions are obtained by: a 3. Supersaturated solutions are obtained by: a. Raising the temperature of a saturated solvent until the solute dissolves completely
96 b. Cooling the solution to the specified temperature. c b. Cooling the solution to the specified temperature. c. The solute will remain in solution if allowed to cool slowly and not shaken or disturbed in any way.
97 4. A supersaturated solution is unstable and crystals will form if a 4. A supersaturated solution is unstable and crystals will form if a. The solution is agitated (shaken or stirred) b. The solution contacts other crystals
98 Answer the following12. On the following chart what is the saturation state of a solution containing 80g of KBr at 30° Celcius?
99 VI. CONCENTRATION - the amount of solute in a solution
100 A. Concentrated and dilute are not precise terms A. Concentrated and dilute are not precise terms. Sometime we need to know how concentrated a solution really is.
101 B. Precise concentrations are expressed in percentages. C B. Precise concentrations are expressed in percentages. C. Concentration of a solid dissolved in a liquid is expressed as percentage by mass
102 Examples: Remember: 1 g of water = 1 mL of water
103 A potassium chloride solution contains 88 grams of KCl in 1 A potassium chloride solution contains 88 grams of KCl in 1.0 L of solution. How many grams of solute are in 50 mL of the same solution?
105 Steps to the answers: 1. Change Liters to mL using 1.0 L = 1000 mL
106 Use the following mass = SOLUTE grams/mL X SOLUTION mL = Use the following mass = SOLUTE grams/mL X SOLUTION mL = TOTAL SOLUTE grams 88g/1000mL x 50 mL = 4.4 g
107 Answer the following13. Use the following chart to determine how many grams of KBr would be required to saturate a solution in 300 mL of water at 70 degrees Celcius
108 D. The concentration of two liquids in a solution is expressed in percentage by volume.
109 Examples: 1. Juice drinks are usually 10% juice and 90% water Examples: 1. Juice drinks are usually 10% juice and 90% water. If there is 100 mL of drink in a box, how much of the drink is juice and how much is water?
110 The drink contains 10 mL juice (10% of 100 mL) and 90 mL water (90% of 100 mL).
111 Answer the following14. How many milliliters of isopropyl alcohol are in 300 mL of a 70% solution?
113 A. Dissociation of ionic compounds in water: 1 A. Dissociation of ionic compounds in water: 1. Positive and negative ions separate in water in a process called dissociation
114 2. Dissociation is due to a 2. Dissociation is due to a. The negative partial charge of the oxygen atom in the water molecule attracting the positive ion in the compound.
115 b. The positive partial charges on the hydrogen atoms in the water molecule attracting the negative ion in the compound.
116 c. The force of attraction between the partial charges of the water molecules and the ionic particles in the compound is strong enough to break the bonds holding the ionic compound together.
117 B. Ionization of polar covalent substances in water
118 1. Polar covalent compounds can be pulled apart by water in a process called ionization
119 2. Ionization is due to a. The oppositely charged poles of the compound and water molecules attracting each other.
120 b. The force of attraction for the water is so high that atoms are pulled from the solute by the water molecules forming ions.
121 Answer the following15. Sulfuric acid is a polar covalent molecule that breaks into a hydrogen cation and sulfate anion when placed in water. Is this process called dissociation or ionization?16. NaCl separates into a sodium cation and chlorine anion when placed in water. Is this process called dissociation or ionization?
122 VIII. Effects of solute particles on a solvent(colligative properties
123 A. Pure water does not conduct electricity – nonelectrolyte B A. Pure water does not conduct electricity – nonelectrolyte B. Some particles in solution cause water to conduct electricity because they form electrolytes.
124 1. Both dissociation and ionization cause the water to conduct electricity because of the formation of ions that are called electrolytes in a solution.
125 2. Many polar compounds are nonelectrolytes in solution because they do not ionize in water.
126 C. Solute particles interfere with the organization of the solvent particles.
127 1. This interference lowers the temperature required to freeze the solvent for example: antifreeze or salt added to water lower the freezing point of water.
128 2. The interference raises the boiling point of the solvent also.
129 a. The solute interferes with the evaporation of the solvent b a. The solute interferes with the evaporation of the solvent b. More energy is needed to allow the solvent to evaporate c. Example: antifreeze or salt raises the boiling point of water
130 3. The size of the changes in the freezing and boiling points depends on the amount of solute in the solvent (concentration) **number of particles determine size of changes
131 Above a solution are solvent particles that have entered a gaseous state that create a vapor pressure above the solution in a closed container.This vapor pressure slows down the rate that state changes take place (liquid to gas, solid to gas)Increased numbers of solute particles lower the vapor pressure above the solution
132 Colligative properties: depend on number of solute particles 1. Freezing point depression2. Boiling point elevation3. Vapor pressure lowering
133 Answer the following17. Name three colligative properties