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Bottled Water: Environmental Health Factors Jacquelyn Burton PUBH-5165-1 Environmental Health Instructor: Howard Rubin April 24, 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Bottled Water: Environmental Health Factors Jacquelyn Burton PUBH-5165-1 Environmental Health Instructor: Howard Rubin April 24, 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bottled Water: Environmental Health Factors Jacquelyn Burton PUBH Environmental Health Instructor: Howard Rubin April 24, 2011

2 Introduction Bottled water versus tap water –For better –For worse

3 Overview Bottled Water Consumption Bottled Water Waste Bottled Water Quality Bottled & Tap Water Regulations & Safety Chemical composition of plastic bottles & exposure health risk Chemical composition of plastic bottles & exposure health risk Bottled Water Types

4 Bottled Water Consumption Approximately 155,600,152 million people in the United States Approximately $4 billion/yr in sales Marketing tactics Perception of bottled water Pure Clean Safe Studies by The Natural Resources Defense Council

5 Bottled Water Waste Contamination of bottled water –Manufacturing facilities Energy waste –Expensive habit & wasted oil Disposing of plastic bottles –Recycling –Chemical breakdown

6 Bottled Water Quality Impure sources Contaminants –Bacterial –Chemical Violations Excessive levels of fluoride Excessive levels of coliform bacteria

7 Bottled Water Quality Synthetic organic chemicals Arsenic Inorganic contaminants Nonpoint source pollution

8 Bottled & Tap Water Regulations Bottled Water Regulations Regulated by the FDA –Food Federal Food, Drug, & Cosmetic Act Provides regulatory authority to the FDA Title 21: Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR) Defines different types of water Processing & Labeling Quality standards & Levels of contamination Tap Water Regulations Regulated by the EPA Stricter regulations –Production & Distribution –Quality & Source water protection –Operations of systems –Levels of contamination –Reporting

9 Bottled & Tap Water Regulations & Safety Bottled Water Regulations Inspections –No specific program Collects samples for testing Plastic containers State & local governmental regulations Development of new regulations Tap Water Regulations Water testing schedules Water treatment State enforcement autonomy List of contaminants acceptable levels

10 Artesian Water Mineral Water Purified Water Sparkling Bottled Water Spring Water Bottled Water Types

11 Chemical composition of plastic bottles & exposure health risk Properties found in plastic bottles ChemicalsConsequences or health risk Effects & symptoms TolueneNervous system Loss of appetite Kidneys Death XyleneHeadaches Nervous system Skin, eye, nose, & throat irritation Digestive discomfort Liver Kidneys

12 Properties found in plastic bottles Polyethylene terephthalate Phthalate (Adipate- a phthalate) Endocrine disruptors StyreneNervous system Hearing loss-observed in animals Liver damage-observed in animals Possible carcinogen ArsenicSore throat-inorganic Irritated Lungs-inorganic Skin darkening Corns/warts (palms, soles, & torso) Carcinogenic-skin, liver, bladder, & lungs NitratesPregnancy issues Acquired methemoglobinemia Carcinogenic Chemical composition of plastic bottles & exposure health risk

13 Conclusion Bottled water –$$$,$$$,$$$ –Attributed to marketing tactics –Not regulated by the federal government –Has contaminants & plastic used is not biodegradable –Pollutes the environment & Comprised of tap water Tap water Regulated by the federal government $$

14 References Agency for Toxic Substances Registry. (2011). Toxic substances portal. Retrieved from American Beverage Association. (2011). Reincarnation. Retrieved April 23, 2011 from Brown, L. (2009). Plan B 4.0: Mobilizing to save civilization. Earth Policy Institute. Retrieved from policy.org/images/uploads/book_files/pb4ch04.pdfhttp://www.earth- policy.org/images/uploads/book_files/pb4ch04.pdf Clean Air Council. (nd). Waste and Recycling Facts. Retrieved April 23, 2011 from Natural Resources Defense Council (nd). Bottled water, pure drink or pure hype? Retrieved from

15 References Posnick, L. and Kim, H. (2002). February/March 2002 Ask the regulatorsbottled water regulation and the FDA. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. SpecificInformation/BottledWaterCarbonatedSoftDrinks/ucm htmhttp://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/Product- SpecificInformation/BottledWaterCarbonatedSoftDrinks/ucm htm Santa Clara Valley Water District. (2007, February 1). Bottle vs. tap water. [Video File]. Retrieved from Sax L. (2009). Polyethylene Terephthalate May Yield Endocrine Disruptors. Environ Health Perspectives 118(4). Retrieved from Environmental Health Perspectives web site doi: /ehp U.S. Census Bureau (2011). U.S. & World Population Clocks. Retrieved from

16 References U.S. Government Accountability Office. (2009, June). Bottled Water: FDA Safety and Consumer Protections are Often Less Stringent than Comparable EPA Protections for Tap Water. Retrieved June 2010 from Unites State Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Current drinking water regulations. Retrieved April 24, 2011 from United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). What is nonpoint source pollution? Retrieved April 23, 2011 from


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