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Clicker Question #1 Have you logged onto D2L and taken the Excel Quiz? A.Yes – I am totally on top of this B.No – If I am not careful I will miss the 2/7.

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Presentation on theme: "Clicker Question #1 Have you logged onto D2L and taken the Excel Quiz? A.Yes – I am totally on top of this B.No – If I am not careful I will miss the 2/7."— Presentation transcript:

1 Clicker Question #1 Have you logged onto D2L and taken the Excel Quiz? A.Yes – I am totally on top of this B.No – If I am not careful I will miss the 2/7 deadline

2 Clicker Question #2 I have logged into D2L and registered my clicker in the clicker survey A. Yes – of course B. No – I really need to do that

3 Clicker Question #3 If you could eat an ice cream right now, which of these would you order? A.Vanilla B.Chunky Monkey C.Chocolate D.Mint Chip E.Bubble gum

4 Water and Energy (The water-energy nexus) ENGR 10 Developed by Juneseok Lee & Thalia Anagnos

5 Water is essential to all of us! Human health and socioeconomic welfare depends on supplying adequate quantity and quality of water. Conversely, too much water results in socioeconomic damages and loss of life due to flooding.

6 Oil and Water: How Similar? Adapted from Peak Water by Palaniappan and Gleick,2009

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8 < 1% usable

9 Oil and Water: How Similar? Adapted from Peak Water by Palaniappan and Gleick,2009

10 Our water gets to us through rivers, pipes, pumps and water treatment plants From:

11 Water has no substitute! Adapted from Peak Water by Palaniappan and Gleick,2009

12 Current Issues and Challenges Rapidly growing population and scarce resources Uncertain impacts of global climate change Increased hydrologic, environmental, and economic constraints on developing additional water supplies

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16 Demand increases with population - even with our efforts at conservation U.S. public supply withdrawals (source:

17 Current Issues and Challenges Rapidly growing population and scarce resources Uncertain impacts of global climate change Increased hydrologic, environmental, and economic constraints on developing additional water supplies

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19 1)use of renewable water 2)sustainable groundwater use 3)susceptibility to drought 4) growth in water demand 5)future increased need for water storage

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21 Climate change affects the watershed (e.g. Sierra Nevada watershed) Future projections indicate a strong likelihood of a warmer future climate in Sierra Nevada. – More winter precipitation will fall as rain rather than snow – Shorter seasons of snow accumulation at a given elevation; – Less snowpack accumulation as compared to the present

22 Percentage Remaining, Relative to Currently the Sierra Nevada provides over 65% of California's water supply Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, 2004

23 Current Issues and Challenges Rapidly growing population and scarce resources Uncertain impacts of global climate change; Increased hydrologic, environmental, and economic constraints on developing additional water supplies

24 By 2025, more than 2.8 billion people will live in 48 countries facing water stress or water scarcity

25 The situation will continue to worsen

26 Urbanization – Impact on Water Resources Transformation of undeveloped land into urban land (including transportation corridors) Increased energy release (i.e. greenhouse gases, waste heat, heated surface runoff) Increased demand on water supply (municipal and industrial)

27 Water Resources Sustainability The ability to use water in sufficient quantities and quality from the local to the global scale to meet the needs of humans and ecosystems for the present and the future to sustain life, and to protect humans from the damages brought about by natural and human-caused disasters that affect sustaining life. (Larry W. Mays, Water Resources Engineering, 2009)

28 A Measure of Water Sustainability Water footprint Water required to sustain a population Virtual Water Volume of water required to produce a commodity or service

29 Our Water Footprint Sufficient > 1700 m 3 per year Water stress m 3 Scarcity m 3 Extreme scarcity < 500 m 3

30 Annual per capita water needs for food to cover 2500 kcal a day 20% meat: theoretical 680 m 3 actual m 3 Vegetarian: theoretical 250 m 3 actual m 3 From Zehnder et al. 2003

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32 Contribution of different crops global water footprint (Hoekstra and Chapagain, 2007) VWC = 1334m 3 /ton VWC = 2291m 3 /ton Question: Why are we growing rice in California?

33 Average National Water Footprint Per Capita (m 3 /capita/yr) Green = smaller than global average Red = above global average

34 High Water Footprint United States – Large meat consumption – High consumption of industrial products Iran – Low crop production yields – High evapotranspiration

35 Water footprint of the US, (Hoekstra and Chapagain, 2007) From imported goods

36 Global Transport of Virtual Water The U.S. is a net exporter From Yang et al. 2006

37 Global Transport of Virtual Water A. Y. Hoekstra · A. K. Chapagain, 2007

38 70% of Precipitation in North 75% Demand in the South Water Demand: 43 maf 9 maf Urban 34 maf Agricultural Water-related Energy Use: 19% of Electricity 33% of Natural Gas 88 billion gal diesel annually Population by 2030: 48 million 2030 Water Demand: maf Californias Water-Energy Nexus Krebs, Oct 2007 maf = million acre-feet

39 Supply and Conveyance Energy Demands Edmonston pumping plant Power plant at Pyramid Lake captures 25% of energy used at Edmonston

40 Supplying water is energy intensive Santa Clara Valley Water District, From Watts to Water, 2010

41 Supplying energy is water intensive Santa Clara Valley Water District, From Watts to Water, 2010 Mining fuels Refining fuels Farming (for biofuels) Transporting fuels Cooling in power plants Producing wind & solar devices

42 Water consumption varies with different fuels and cooling technologies Santa Clara Valley Water District, From Watts to Water, 2010

43 Role of Hydropower Hydroelectric power production is the most obvious use of water for the production of energy. The energy in falling water is used directly to turn turbines that generate electricity.

44 Components of Hydroelectric Plants Dam has two major functions of i)creating the head (pressure) necessary to move the turbines and ii)impounding the storage used to maintain the necessary flow release pattern.

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46 Electric Generator An electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. The reverse conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy is done by a motor; motors and generators have many similarities. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine, water falling through a turbine or waterwheel, an internal combustion engine, a wind turbine, a hand crank, compressed air or any other source of mechanical energy (all info from Wikipedia).

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48 Energy relations in a typical hydroelectric plant Two types of turbines (1)Impulse turbines (or Pelton Wheel), a free jet of water impinges on a revolving element of the machine that is exposed to the atmosphere (2) Reaction turbines, the flow takes place under pressure in a closed chamber

49 Impulse Turbine installation

50 Water- Energy Laboratory Activities

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52 Pipes in parallel produce good results (higher power)

53 Phase II of the experiment (student designed activities) Students will set up the experiment with given conditions. Objective – Max { Power Output} Constraints – water volume (drought issues) Students can collaborate among teams to use turbines in series & pipes in parallel


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