2About Saroj Sharma http://www.unesco-ihe.org/iu/staffmember/roj Saroj Kumar Sharma graduated in Civil Engineering with distinction in 1988 (M.R.Engineering College, University of Rajasthan, India), completed his MSc in Sanitary Engineering with distinction in 1997 (IHE Delft, The Netherlands) and PhD in Groundwater Treatment in 2001 (Wageningen University and IHE Delft, The Netherlands). He is specialized in water supply engineering - water quality, treatment and distribution.He has 22 years of professional and academic experience in planning, design, implementation, and operation and maintenance of urban, semi-urban and community-based rural water supply projects. He has worked with several government agencies, international consultants and donors (UNICEF, WHO, ADB, WB) in various water supply projects in different parts of the world.His teaching and research interests are in the field of physicochemical treatment processes (filtration and adsorption based processes), natural treatment systems (bank filtration and soil aquifer treatment), water transport and distribution (water loss management, urban water demand management, corrosion of water pipes) and decentralized water supply systems for small towns and urban poor areas.
3Contents This Course is built up from 5 parts: Introduction Uses, advantages and limitations of RWH systemSystem components and design considerations for roof RWH systemQuality aspects of RWH systemExamples of RWH systems
4Introduction into rainwater harvesting Part 1Introduction into rainwater harvesting
5Introduction (1)Rainwater harvesting (RWH): technology used for collecting and storing rainwater for human use from rooftops, land surfaces or rock catchments.One of the world’s most important ancient water supply techniques (practiced for more than 4,000 years), is beginning to enjoy a resurgence in popularity.Rainwater is an important water source in many areas with significant rainfall but lacking any kind of conventional, centralised supply system.
7Sigiriya, Sri Lanka. This reservoir cut into the rock was used centuries ago to hold harvested rainwater.
8Source: http://www.irpaa.org.br Cistern of the Maya people, called ChultunCapacity: LitresDiameter: 5 m,Catchment area: 150 m²Source:
9Introduction (2)Rainwater is also a good option in areas where good quality fresh surface water or groundwater is lacking.It could be used as a supplement to piped water supply e.g. for toilet flushing, washing and garden sprayingRWH is a decentralised, environmentally sound solution, which can avoid many environmental problems often caused in centralised conventional large-scale water supply projects.
10Types of Rainwater Harvesting Systems Roof catchmentsSimple roofwater collection system for householdsLarger systems for educational institutions, stadiums, airports, and other facilitiesRoofwater collection systems for high-rise buildings in urbanised areasGround catchments (man-made)Rock catchments (natural, impervious outcrops)Collection of storm water in urbanized catchments for recharge
11Typical Domestic Rainwater Harvesting System Source:
15Uses, advantages & limitations Part 2Uses, advantages & limitations
16Use of Harvested Rainwater Non-potable purposes (mainly in urban areas)- Gardening- Flushing- Washing clothes/cars Potable purpose after ensuring quality(mainly in rural and peri-urban areas)
17Small-scale rainwater harvesting systems and uses
18RWH in Urban AreasIn view of increasing migration to urban area and the emergence of mega-cities in the next millennium, it is imperative that water supply systems should be evolved to cater for such a development.In areas with relatively high rainfall spread throughout the year, where other water resources are scarce, RWH is an important option, for example parts of Sri Lanka, Philippines, Indonesia, Nepal and Uganda.Installation RWH system is mandatory for the construction of buildings in some towns in India and on the Virgin Islands, USA.Many government agencies and municipalities worldwide provide grants/subsidies and technical know-how to promote RWH system.
19RWH in Urban Areas (2)In case of roof catchment systems, there is sufficient flexibility to utilize systems that will be adaptable to suit all socio-economic levels of population including the urban poor.Examples of typical options in urban area- Rainwater use in households as a supplement- Public institutions- High rise building in high density urban areas- Collection of rainwater in industrial areas- Use of runoff in airports- Collection of rainfall from public open spaces for recharging
20Advantages of RWHRWH systems provide water at or near the point where water is needed or used.Rainwater is relatively clean and the quality is usually acceptable for many purposes with little or even no treatment.System is independent and therefore suitable for scattered settlements.Local materials and craftsmanship can be used in construction of rainwater system.Ease in maintenance by the owner/userProvides a water supply buffer for use in times of emergency or breakdown of the public water supply systems
21Advantages of RWH in Urban Areas Flood control - by greatly reducing urban runoff; Stormwater drainage - by reducing the size and scale of infrastructure requirements; Firefighting and disaster relief - by providing independent household reservoirs; Water conservation - as less water is required from other sources; Reduced groundwater exploitation and subsidence - as less groundwater is required; Financial savings – where rainwater can be used in place of water purchased from water vendors.
22Limitations of RWHThe initial cost (mainly of storage tank) may prevent a family from installing a RWH system.The water availability is limited by the rainfall intensity and available roof area.Mineral-free rainwater has a flat taste, which may not be liked by many.The poorer segment of the population may not have a roof suitable for rainwater harvesting.Domestic RWH will always remain a supplement and not a complete replacement for city-level piped supply or supply from more ‘reliable’ sources.
23Uses, advantages & limitations Part 3Uses, advantages & limitations
24System Components and Design Considerations Part 3System Components and Design Considerations
25RWH System Components - the surface upon which the rain falls Catchment Area/Roof- the surface upon which the rain falls Gutters and Downpipes- the transport channels from catchment surface to storage Leaf Screens and Roofwashers- the systems that remove contaminants and debris Cisterns or Storage Tanks- where collected rainwater is stored Conveying- the delivery system for the treated rainwater, either by gravity or pump Water Treatment- filters and equipment, and additives to settle, filter, and disinfect
26Design considerations for rooftop catchment systems (1) The material of the catchment surfaces must be non-toxic and not contain substances which impair water quality. Roof surfaces should be smooth, hard and dense since they are easy to clean and are less likely to be damaged and shed materials into water Precautions are required to prevent the entry of contaminants into the storage tanks.- No overhanging tree should be left near the roof- The nesting of the birds on the roof should be prevented- A first flush bypass such as detachable downpipe should be installed
27Design considerations for rooftop catchment systems (2) All gutter ends should be fitted with a wire mesh screen to keep out leaves, etc. The storage tank should have a tight-fitting roof that excludes light, a manhole cover and a flushing pipe at the base of the tank. The design of the tank should allow for thorough scrubbing of the inner walls and floor or tank bottom. A sloped bottom and a provision of a sump and a drain are useful for collection and discharge of settled grit and sediment. Taps/faucets should be installed at 10 cm above the base of the tank as this allows any derbis entering the tank to settle on the bottom where it remains undisturbed, will not affect the quality of water.
28Factors affecting RWH system design Rainfall quantity (mm/year) Rainfall pattern Collection surface area (m2) Runoff coefficient of collection (-) Storage capacity (m3) Daily consumption rate (litres/capita /day) Number of users Cost Alternative water sources
29Feasibility of Rainwater Harvesting The technical feasibility of roof RWH as a primary source of water is determined by the potential of a rainwater to meet the demand more effectively than other alternatives. Often the attraction of RWH may be as a supplementary water source to reduce the pressure on a finite primary source or as a backup during the time of drought or breakdown. The total amount of water that is received in the form of rainfall over an area is called the rainwater endowment of that area. The collection efficiency accounts for the fact that all the rainwater falling over an area cannot be effectively harvested.
30Feasibility of Rainwater Harvesting The size of supply of rainwater depends on the amount of rainfall (R), the area of the catchment (A) and its runoff coefficient (C). An estimate of mean annual runoff from a given catchment can be obtained using the equation:S = R * A * CWhere S = Rainwater supply per annumR = mean annual rainfallA = Area of the catchmentC = Runoff coefficient The actual amount of rainwater supplied will ultimately depend on the volume of the storage tank or reservoir.
31Catchment Area Size The size of roof catchment is the projected area of the roof or the building’s footprint under the roof. To calculate the catchment area (A), multiply the length (L) and width (B) of the guttered area. It is not necessary to measure the sloping edge of the roof. Note that it does not matter whether the roof is flat or peaked. It is the “footprint” of the roof drip line that matters.
33Source: http://www.eng.warwick.ac.uk/dtu/rwh/components2.html Characteristics of Roof TypesTypeRunoff coefficientNotesGI sheets> 0.9Excellent quality water. Surface is smooth and high temperatures help to sterilise bacteriaTile(glazed)0.6 – 0.9Good quality water from glazed tiles Unglazed can harbour mould Contamination can exist in tile joinsAsbestos Sheets0.8 – 0.9New sheets give good quality waterSlightly porous so reduced runoff coefficient and older roofs harbour moulds and even mossOrganic (Thatch)0.2Poor quality water (>200 FC/100ml)Little first flush effect; High turbidity due to dissolved organic material which does not settleSource:
34Example 1:For a building with a flat roof of size 10 m x 12 m in a city with the average annual rainfall of 800 mmRoof Area (A) = 10 x 12 = 120 m2Average annual rainfall (R) = 800 mm = 0.80 mTotal annual volume of rainfall over the roof= A * R = 120 m2 x 0.80 m = 96 m3 = 96,000 litresIf 70% of the total rainfall is effectively harvested,Volume of water harvested = 96,000 x 0.7 = 67,200 litresAverage water availability = 67,200 / 365 ~ 184 litres/ day
35Storage System There are several options available for the storage of rainwater. A variety of materials and different shapes of the vessels have been used. In general, there can be two basic types of storage system:- Underground tank or storage vessel- Ground tank or storage vessel The choice of the system will depend on several technical and economic considerations like, space availability, materials and skill available, costs of buying a new tank or construction on site, ground conditions, local traditions for water storage etc.
36Storage System The storage tank is the most expensive part of any RWH system and the most appropriate capacity for any given locality is affected by its cost and amount of water it is able to supply. In general, larger tanks are required in area with marked wet and dry seasons, while relatively small tanks may suffice in areas where rainfall is relatively evenly spread throughout the year. Field experiences show that a universal ideal tank design does not exist. Local materials, skills and costs, personal preference and other external factors may favour one design over another.
37Requirements for Storage System A solid secure cover to keep out insects, dirt and sunshine A coarse inlet filter to catch leaves etc. A overflow pipe A manhole, sump and drain for cleaning An extraction system that does not contaminate the water e.g. tap/pump A soakaway to prevent split water forming puddles near the tank. Additionally features- sediment trap or other foul flush mechanism- device to inside water level in the tank
49A wooden water tank in Hawaii, USA Source: Rainwater Harvesting And Utilisation. An Environmentally Sound Approach for Sustainable Urban Water Management: An Introductory Guide for Decision-Makers. ITEC, UNEP, Japan
53Storage capacity When using rainwater, it is important to recognize that the rainfall is not constant through out the year; therefore, planning the storage system with an adequate capacity is required for constant use of rainwater, even during the dry period. Knowledge of the rainfall quantity and seasonality, the area of the catchment surface and volume of the storage tank, and quantity and period of use required for water supply purposes is critical. There are two commonly used method to estimate storage requirements.
54Storage capacity Method 1 – Storage required for dry period A rough estimate of the maximum storage requirement can be made based on the (i) per capita consumption (ii) no of users and (iii) length of the longest dry period For a household with a 5 people, assuming water use of 20 lpcd and if longest dry period is 30 days and rainwater is the only water source, storage required = 5 x 20 x 30 = 3000 litres
55Storage capacity Method 1 – Storage required for dry period This simple method assumes sufficient rainfall and catchment area which is adequate, and is therefore only applicable in areas where this is the situation. It is a method for acquiring rough estimates of tank size.
56Storage capacity Method 2 – Based on rainfall and water demand pattern A better estimate of storage requirement can be made using the mass curve technique based on rainfall and water demand pattern. Cumulative rainfall runoff and cumulative water demand in year is calculated and plotted on the same curve. The sum of the maximum differences, on the either side, between the rainfall curve and water demand curve gives the size of the storage required
57Storage capacity Example 2: Calculate the size of the storage tank required for a school with 65 students and 5 staff, assuming average water consumption of 5 litres/day.Roof area = 200 m2.Assume runoff coefficient of 0.9.The rainfall pattern in the area is given in the table belowAverage daily demand = 70 x 5 = 350 litresYearly demand = 350 * 365 = litres = m3 Average monthly demand = /12 ~ m3
64Gutters Gutters are channels all around the edge of a sloping roof to collect and transport rainwater to the storage tank. A carefully designed and constructed gutter system is essential for any roof catchment system to operate effectively. When the gutters are too small considerable quantities of runoff may be lost due to overflow during storms. The size of the gutter should be according to the flow during the highest intensity rain. It is advisable to make them 10 to 15 per cent oversize.
65Gutters (2) A general rule of thumb is that 1 cm2 of guttering is required for every m2 of roof area. Gutters can be semi-circular or rectangular and could be made using a variety of materials:- Locally available material such as plain galvanised iron sheet (20 to 22 gauge), folded to required shapes.- Semi-circular gutters of PVC material can be readily prepared by cutting those pipes into two equal semi-circular channels.- Bamboo or betel trunks cut vertically in half.- Wood or plastic
66Gutters (3) Gutters need to be supported so they do not sag or fall off when loaded with water. The way in which gutters are fixed depends on the construction of the house;- it is possible to fix iron or timber brackets into the walls, but for houses having wider eaves, some method of attachment to the rafters is necessary. A properly fitted and maintained gutter-downpipe system is capable of diverting more than 80% of all runoff into the storage tank, the remainder being lost through evaporation, leakage, rain splash and overflow.
67Gutters - Shapes and Configurations Gutter configurations
73Roof area (m2) served by 1 gutter Gutter sizingRecommended gutter widths for use in humid tropicsGutter width (mm)Roof area (m2) served by 1 gutter55136017652170257529803485409046955410066Source: (Still and Thomas, 2002)
74Optimum roof area served by gutter (m2) Gutter sizingOptimum roof area drainable by square gutters (considering only conveyance)Square guttersSlope (%)0.5124Gutter widthOptimum roof area served by gutter (m2)33 mm1014202850 mm2942608575 mm88125177250100 mm190269380538Source: (Still and Thomas, 2002)
75Source: http://www.eng.warwick.ac.uk/DTU/rwh Guttering for a 60 m2 roofSquare0.5% slope1% slopeHalf round1.0% slope45o Triangle 1.0% slopeMaterial use(mm)214189150175Gutter width at top (mm)716396124Cross sectional area (cm2)47393638Source:
76Roof area (m2) served by one gutter Guide to sizing of gutters and downpipes for rainwater harvesting systems in tropical regionsSource:Roof area (m2) served by one gutterGutter width (mm)Minimum diameterof downpipe (mm)17604025705034804690636610012812575208150
77First flush system (1) Debris, dirt, dust and droppings will collect on the roof of a building or other collection area. When the first rains arrive, this unwanted matter will be washed into the tank. This will cause contamination of the water and the quality will be deteriorated. Many RWH systems therefore incorporate a system for diverting this ‘first flush’ or ‘foul flush” water so that it does not enter the storage tank. Several first flush system are in use. The simplest one is a manually operated arrangement whereby the inlet pipe is moved away from the tank inlet and then replaced again once the initial first flush has been diverted.
78First flush system (2) For an average roof catchment it is suggested that the first 20–25 L could be diverted or discarded. First flush devices should be regarded as an additional barrier to reduce contamination and should not be used to replace normal maintenance activities designed to keep roof catchments reasonably clean. The inlet pipe to all rainwater tanks should be easily detachable so that, when necessary, the tank can be bypassed. Manual detachment could be used as an alternative to an engineered first flush device, although the level of control will not be as good.
79Developed by Khon Kaen University, Thailand First flush system (3)Developed by Khon Kaen University, Thailand
87Quality of Rainwater (1) The quality of rainwater is relatively good but it is not free from all impurities. Analysis of stored rainwater has shown some bacteriological contamination. The rainwater is essentially lacking in minerals, the presence of which is considered essential in appropriate proportions. Cleanliness of roof and storage tank is critical in maintaining good quality of rainwater. The storage tank requires cleaning and disinfection when the tank is empty or at least once in a year.
88Quality of Rainwater (2) The extraction system (e.g. taps/faucets, pumps) must not contaminate the stored water.The first run off from the roof should be discarded to prevent entry of impurities from the roof.Some devices and good practices have been suggested to store or divert the first foul flush away from the storage tank.In case of difficulties in the rejection of first flow, cleaning of the roof and gutter at the beginning of the rainy season and their regular maintenance are very important to ensure better quality of rainwater.
89Quality of Rainwater - Bacteriological Dust from the soil, and droppings of birds and animals could be the source of contamination by the bacteria.When first flush eliminating devices are absent, all the indicator bacteria are generally present in water samples in numbers beyond what is acceptable by any standards.Tree hanging in the vicinity, definitely enhances the possibility of contamination due to increased access of the roof to birds and animals. Also leaves contribute to organic loading of the water samples, which in turn act as nutrient for bacterial growth.
90Disinfecting rainwater Rainwater is generally of very good chemical quality. However, it may not meet WHO drinking water quality standards, specifically microbiological quality standards, hence some disinfection is recommended.Rainwater can be used for drinking, if it is clear, has no or very little taste or smell and is from well maintained system.Disinfection can be done by:boiling the water in before consumptionadding chlorine compounds/bleaching powder in required quantity to the water stored in the tankusing slow sand filtrationsolar disinfection (SODIS)
91Disinfecting rainwater (2) For disinfection using bleaching powder, the general dosage recommended is 10 mg of bleaching powder containing 25% of free chlorine per litre of water. This meets the required standard of 2.5 mg of chlorine per litre of water. After adding the bleaching powder, the water should be stirred thoroughly for even distribution of the disinfectant agent. The water should be kept without use for about 30 minutes after adding bleaching powder.
92Operation and maintenance The simple operation and maintenance of RWH systems is one of the most attractive aspects of the technology. The extent of maintenance required by a basic privately owned household RWH system includes- Regular cleaning of the roof tops and gutters- Frequent cleaning of storage tanks- Inspection of gutters and feeder pipes and valve chambers to detect and repair leaks When ground catchment is used for collection and/or ground tank is used for storage, proper fencing of both is recommended to keep the children and animals away, thus avoiding contamination and risks of falling into the tank.
94Also, dirt on the leaves can still be washed into the storage tank. One example of a flat screen over the gutter to keep large debris out of the tank.A problem with gutter screens is that they require a lot of maintenance to keep leaves and debris from piling up and blocking the screens.Also, dirt on the leaves can still be washed into the storage tank.Source: Guidelines on Rainwater Catchment Systems for Hawaii
96Tank desludging and cleaning (1) Accumulated sediments can be a source of chemical contamination and off-tastes and odours. All tanks should be examined for accumulation of sediments every 2–3 years. Sludge can be removed by siphoning without emptying the tank. Sludge may also be pumped from the tank with minimum loss of water by using a suitable motor-operated pump and attachments. Sludge can also be removed by draining and cleaning the tank. If a drain plug is provided at the base of the tank, water can be run to waste to discharge the sludge. Once the tank is empty, the remaining sludge can be scooped up and removed through the access opening.
97Tank desludging and cleaning (2) It is important to check the structural condition of the tank before choosing a method of cleaning. Cleaning should generally be limited to removing accumulated sediments, leaf litter etc. Harsh (chemical) cleaning methods may accelerate deterioration, for example, removing the protective layer on the inside walls of a steel tank will lead to tank corrosion. After cleaning, it is recommended that the internal walls and floor of the tank be rinsed with clean water. Rinse water and sediment should be run to waste. Where cleaning necessitates entering the tank, take care to ensure adequate ventilation is provided and an additional person is in attendance.
98The Thai Rainwater Jar Programme Nationwide rainwater harvesting programme which dramatically improved the rural water supply coverage, especially in North eastern Thailand10 million rainwater jars constructed in 5 years ( ).Factors favouring rapid development RWH programmea real felt need for watera preference for the taste of rainwaterthe availability of cheap cement and skilled artisansa pool of indigenous engineers, technicians and administrators committed to rural development programme
100Rainwater Harvesting - Australia More than one million people in Australia rely on rainwater as their primary source of water supply
101Rainwater Harvesting - Australia In Australia the use of domestic rainwater tanks is an established and relatively common practice, particularly in rural and remote areas. Between 1994 and 2001, 16% of Australian households used rainwater tanks, with 13% of households using tanks as their main source of drinking water. 7% of the capital city households and 34% of non-capital city households have rainwater tanks. In a 1996 South Australian survey, 28% of Adelaide households used rainwater tanks as the primary source of drinking water compared to 82% households in the rest of the State.Source: Guidance on use of rainwater tank. En Health, Australian Government 2004
103Source: Nepali Times (16-22 August 2002) Rainwater harvesting system, in Patan,Nepal1 - Overhead tank 2 - Downtake PVC pipe from roof 3 - First phase storage drum 4 - Overflow goes into underwater tank 5 - Pump to lift water to overhead tank 6 - Sediment discharge tap ,000 litre underground ferrocement tankSource: Nepali Times (16-22 August 2002)
105Rainwater Harvesting from Domed Stadium in Japan Source: Zaizen et al. (1999)
106Rainwater Harvesting from Domed Stadium in Japan _________________________________________________________Stadium Tokyo Fukuoka NagoyaCatchment areafor storage (m2) 16, , ,000Capacity ofdetention tank (m3)Utilization Flush toilets Flush toilets, Flush toiletswatering plants watering plants__________________________________________________________Source: Zaizen et al. (1999)
107Rainwater Harvesting at Changi Airport - Singapore Rainfall from the runways and the surrounding green areas is diverted to two impounding reservoirs. One of the reservoirs is designed to balance the flows during the coincident high runoffs and incoming tides, and the other reservoir is used to collect the runoff. The water is used primarily for non-potable functions such as fire-fighting drills and toilet flushing. Such collected and treated water accounts for 28 to 33% of the total water used, resulting in savings of approximately S$ 390,000 per annum.
108Rainwater Harvesting in Presidential Estate, New Delhi, India - About 7000 residing in the estate and about 3000 visitors every day. There is also famous “The Mughal Garden”.- Total water demand 2 million litres per day- 30% of demand met by Groundwater wells in the estate and groundwater level is going down rapidly)
109Rainwater Harvesting in Presidential Estate, New Delhi, India Rainwater from the northern side of the roof and paved areas surrounding the presidential palace is diverted to an underground storage tank of 100,000 litres capacity for low quality use (5%). Overflow the rainwater storage tank is diverted to two dug wells for recharging. Rainwater from southern side of the roof is diverted for recharging a dry open well. Rainfall runoff from the staff residential area is also diverted to dry wells. 15 m deep recharge shafts have been constructed for recharging.
110Verschiebungen: Bad, Dusche, WC Water Supply at Millennium Dome, London Water Supply Plant, installed at the UK's Millennium Dome can supply around 500 m3 per day of reclaimed water to flush all of the toilets and urinals on the site. Water is reclaimed from greywater produced by the hand wash basins, rainwater from the dome's roof, and groundwater from the chalk aquifer which is located below the site.Verschiebungen: Bad, Dusche, WCVerbrauch für Bad/Dusche und WC in D & NL fast gleich
111Verschiebungen: Bad, Dusche, WC Water Supply at Millennium Dome, London Rainwater is collected from dome roof and adjacent areas (100,000 m2) Size of collection tank is 800 m3 Reed beds are used for treatmentVerschiebungen: Bad, Dusche, WCVerbrauch für Bad/Dusche und WC in D & NL fast gleich
112Socio-cultural Considerations (1) The success of any rain water harvesting system or programme ultimately depends on the interest, enthusiasm and active support of the user community for the technology. RWH system, even if technically appropriate and justified based water resources condition, it is not likely to be successful if it is socially unacceptable or inappropriate in anyway. Local customs, perceptions and preferences must be given high priority when considering the feasibility of the technology and possible implementation strategies.
113Socio-cultural Considerations (2) It is always vital to be sensitive to local perceptions regarding quality and suitability of rainwater. Although some people regard rainwater as sweet and tasty (especially those used to drinking somewhat saline groundwater), others consider it to be flat and tasteless (particularly when compared to water with high mineral content). Local customs, perceptions and preferences must be given high priority when considering the feasibility of the technology and possible implementation strategies.
114Public Awareness and Demonstration Public awareness and education are essential in order to improve acceptance of rainwater collection and utilisation. Efforts should be made to change public perception of rainwater from being viewed as a nuisance to being viewed as an asset. Demonstration projects are key for improving public acceptance and assisting in the removal of institutional barriers. To promote rainwater utilisation, basic policies, implementation strategies, technology development and networking are required.
116Bibliography Rainwater Harvesting and Utilization. An Environmentally Sound Approach for Sustainable Urban Water Management: An Introductory Guide for Decision-Makers. IETC-UNEP, Japan. Rainwater catchment systems for Household Water Supply (1991). Environmental Sanitation Reviews No No 32. ENSIC, Bangkok, Thailand. UNEP-IETC (1999) Proceedings of the International Symposium on Efficient Water Use in Urban Areas - Innovative Ways of Finding Water for Cities. (8 to 10 June 1999), Kobe, Japan. Gould, J. and Nissen-Petersen, E. (1999) Rainwater Catchment Systems for Domestic Supply. IT Publications, London Hasse, R. (1989) Rainwater Reservoirs- Above Ground Structures for Roof Catchment. GTZ. NGO Forum and SDC (2001) Rain Water Harvesting System. NGO Forum for Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation and SDC, Bangladesh.
117Web Resources on RWH International Rainwater Catchment Systems Association American Rainwater Catchment Association Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), India Development Technology Unit, School of Engineering, University of Warwick, UK Chennai Metrowater, India Rainwater Partnership
118Web Resources on RWH (2) Lanka Rainwater Harvesting Forum Intenational Rainwater Harvesting Alliance Greater Horn of Africa Rainwater Partnership (GHARP) The Web of Rain