Presentation on theme: "Water Considerations. Requirements One gallon/day/person for emergencies Digestion requires water. Protein and fats require more water to digest. If you."— Presentation transcript:
Requirements One gallon/day/person for emergencies Digestion requires water. Protein and fats require more water to digest. If you do not have water, eat carefully Dehydration symptoms: Headache, nausea, dry mouth, thirst, lethargy, low urine output About three days without water (depending on climate and activity level) can lead to permanent kidney damage with death following
Emergency Planning Store enough water for 14 days. Of course, more is always better. The assumption is that you cannot store enough to meet your needs indefinitely so, at the end of two weeks, you will need to find a way to replenish your water supply.
Where to find water Outdoorssprings, creeks, ponds, lakes, etc. Other sourcesdew rag, clogged rain gutters, water heater, pool, storage (best) Dig in the bottom of dry creeks and streams at the lowest point or in the shady area of the cut-bank At the first sign of emergency, fill all tubs in the house with water
Cut Bank of Dry River Bed
Make Water--Solar Still
Purification Methodsfiltration, chemical treatment, boiling, distillation, UV A combination of the three is usually required Filtrationmany commercial filtration systems are available. Do your homework. We cannot cover all methods or brands. I like First Need. All filters eventually clog or reach the end of their useful life expectancy. To be safe, especially in an unplanned emergency, you must be familiar with field expedient water purification methods including less sophisticated field expedient filtration.
Filters RO (not really a filter but a semi-permeable membrane) Hiker versions High capacity counter top Whole home systems
Chemical treatment Chlorine bleach (household) one gallon will treat 3,800 gallons of water. Treat as follows: 2 drops per quart 1 tsp per 10 gallons Mix and let stand in open container for 30 minutes. It should smell like bleach. If not, add more. If the water is cloudy, double the amount of bleach. If the water has suspended particulates allow to settle and pour off or filter if possible before treating. Bleach has been proven to be 2-3 times more effective than iodine and does not pose long-term health risks like iodine. For sanitizing, use 1T per gallon, allow utensils to air dry. Make sure storage containers are sanitized. Bleach loses its effectiveness over time and there is no good way to check this, that is why you should be able to smell bleach when your water is treated.
Chemical treatment contd Iodineuse crystals or commercial tablets according to instructions. Vitamin C or ascorbic acid is used to get rid of the iodine taste. Make sure not to add any Vitamin C or mixes containing Vitamin C to the water until the required time has elapsed. Vitamin C precipitates the iodine out of the water and makes it settle at the bottom thus rendering it useless as a sterilizing agent. In an emergency, tincture of iodine (2%) such as commonly used in surgical procedures can be used to purify water at the rate of 5 drops per liter.
Boiling If you have the resources and time, boiling is perhaps the best method of purifying water. To purify water by boiling, use the following reference (at sea level): 158F kills all organisms within 30 minutes 185F within a few minutes 212F nearly instantly Botulism spores require 244F (pressure cooker) to kill Botulism toxin is neutralized at 185 F Boiling also eliminates all contaminates that boil at temperatures less than 212F (most fuels, alcohols, and solvents excepting oils, toluene, naphtalene, and xylene) Boiling does not remove radioactive waste or heavy metal contamination. These items should be removed by filtration before boiling.
Distillation A very effective method for procuring water if chemical contamination is not a concern. A solar still can be built using field expedient materials as in the diagram on slide #5. If you have the materials and fuel, a full-blown still can be built that will provide pure water, even from saltwater Rainwater is essentially distilled water
Example Scenarios Rainwaterprimary source of contamination is fecal coliform (bird feces). Most filters will make rainwater safe. Chemical could also be used. Petroleum contaminants (lakewater, ground runoff)filtration or monitored distillation* Monitor temperature and allow water to boil for some time to boil off petroleum products then begin to condense. Be careful not to pressurize water so contaminants that boil at higher temps remain in the container. Iradiated waterwater cannot be irradiated only particles and minerals in the water. A good filter can remove radiation but the filter will become radioactive and need to be handled carefully. Biological contamination (virus)chemical treatment. Some of the very best filters will remove viruses. Raw Sewagewhat combination would you use to make raw sewage potable?
Water Strategies UltimateWell with solar pump. Water pumped into above ground storage tank or better yet, homemade water tower, whenever sun shines. When tank is full, overflow relief to pond. If water has been tested no further treatment required. Practicalrain barrels under all downspouts ft2 of roof yields 288,000 in3 of water if one inch of rain falls; at 60% collection yields 172,000 in3 which equals gallon drums. ¼ rain yields gallon drums! Use a solar pump to pump this water into a homemade water tower. Requires filtration and treatment. Practical--Pond, springs, creeks; good sources if available, especially if they are year-round. A pump and a large storage tank are still great things to have on hand. Home Storagebottled water, 55 gallon drums, etc Primitivefind, carry, and filter on as needed basis.
Big Berkey Water Filter The versatile Big Berkey system is the ideal system for use at home with small or medium sized families, travel, outdoor activities or during unexpected emergencies. This powerful system purifies both treated water and untreated raw water from such sources as remote lakes, streams, stagnant ponds and water supplies in foreign countries, where regulations may be substandard at best. Perfect for everyday use, outdoor activities and a must in hostile environments where electricity, water pressure or treated water may not be available. The Big Berkey system removes pathogenic bacteria, cysts and parasites entirely and extracts harmful chemicals such as herbicides, pesticides, VOCs, organic solvents, radon 222 and trihalomethanes. It also reduces nitrates, nitrites and unhealthy minerals such as lead and mercury. This system is so powerful it can remove food coloring from water without removing the beneficial minerals your body needs. Virtually no other system can duplicate this performance. Constructed of highly polished 304 stainless steel, the system comes complete with four purification elements and utilizes the latest technological advances. This system has a storage capacity of about 2.25 gallons (8.5 liters) and when in use it stands 19.25" in height with a diameter of 8.5". The upper chamber nests within the lower chamber for transport and stands only 13" in height. Configured with four Black Berkey purification elements the system will purify up to 7 Gallons (13.3 liters) per hour.