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1 Advanced Placement Environmental Science La Canada High School Dr. E
Water Chapters 13 and 20 Living in the Environment, 11th Edition, Miller Advanced Placement Environmental Science La Canada High School Dr. E

2 Key H20 Characteristics Water is the prime constituent of all living organisms. Water moves easily-from one physical state to another, and from one place to another. Water slowly absorbs and releases large quantities of energy. Water is a superior solvent. Michael D. Lee Ph.D. Geography and Environmental Studies (Source: Wright & Nebel 2002)

3 Importance of Water Properties
Running water can quickly erode topsoil rendering farmland infertile and streams contaminated. Lack of access to clean water supplies can quickly lead to dehydration and death. Chemical spills, excess nutrients & acids dissolved in H20 can lead to massive die offs. Michael D. Lee Ph.D. Geography and Environmental Studies

4 Water Water Pollution Supply, Renewal and Use Too little Water
Dams and Reservoirs Transferring water Groundwater and Saltwater Efficiency Too Much Water Water Pollution

5 Available Water Total = 326 million cubic miles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Available Water Total = 326 million cubic miles 97% of Earth’s water is in oceans 2.997% is locked up in ice caps and glaciers 0.003% is easily accessible Soil moisture Groundwater Water vapor Lakes Streams

6 Water Supply & Use

7 Water Cycle SW%20Management.htm

8 Hydrologic Cycle Powered by solar energy and gravity
Evaporation and precipitation Continuous recycling of water Runoff Infiltration Evaporation Temporary storage as snow and ice Temporary storage in lakes Temporary storage in plants (transpiration) and animals Chemical reactions with rocks and minerals Volcanism also causes melting of snow caps and mudflows as melted water mixes with ash Source of additional water? volcanism (steam)

9 Surface Water Surface runoff flows into streams, lakes, wetlands and reservoirs A watershed or drainage basin Region that drains into a streams, lakes, wetlands or reservoirs watershed.asp

10 Groundwater As precipitation infiltrates and percolates through voids in soil and rock Pores, fractures, crevices, etc. Shallow rock has little moisture Zone of saturation is at a depth were ground is filled with water Top of this zone is water table Falls in dry weather Rises in wet weather

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12 Groundwater Movement Groundwater moves from recharge area through an aquifer and out a discharge area well, spring, lake, geyser, artesian well, steam, ocean Normally moves downhill at only a meter per year Some aquifers get little recharge and were formed thousands of years ago Removal from these nonrenewable resources is called water mining

13 Use of Fresh Water United States China 41% agriculture 87% agriculture
38% power plant cooling 11% industry 10% public China 87% agriculture 7% industry 6% public

14 Water Use Globally People and Planet
70 per cent of all water withdrawn for human use on an annual basis is soaked up by agriculture (mostly in the form of irrigation) Industry accounts for 23 per cent Domestic use (household, drinking water, sanitation) accounts for about 7 per cent

15 Water Use People and Planet
The average person needs a minimum of five litres (1.3 gallons) of water per day to survive in a moderate climate at an average activity level, according to UN figures. The minimum amount of water needed for drinking and cooking, bathing and sanitation is 50 litres (13 gallons).

16 Water Use - (minimum 13 gallons) People and Planet
The average person in the United States uses between to 300 litres of water ( gallons) per day for drinking, cooking bathing, and watering their yard. The average person in the Netherlands uses 104 litres per day (27 gallons). The average person in the African nation of Gambia uses litres per day (1.2 gallons of water).

17 Water Use - United States
In 1990, about 408,000 million gallons (Mgal/d) of water were used each day Of that, about 339,000 Mgal/d was fresh water and about 69,400 Mgal/d was saline water California used the most water, about 46,800 Mgal/d, with most of that going towards irrigation The state with the second-highest water use was Texas, with about 25,200 Mgal/d, mostly for use in the power-production industries and for irrigation

18 1 Mgal/d = 1.547 cubic feet per second
Some conversions: 1 Mgal/d = cubic feet per second 1 Mgal/d = thousand gallons per minute 1 Mgal/d = 1,121 thousand acre-feet per year 1 million gallons = 3.07 acre feet

19 Water Water Pollution Too little Water Supply, Renewal and Use
Dams and Reservoirs Transferring water Groundwater and Saltwater Efficiency Too Much Water Water Pollution

20 Too Little Water Causes Dry climate
Drought - a period in which precipitation is much lower and evaporation is much higher Desiccation - drying of soil because of such activities as deforestation and overgrazing Water stress - low per capita availability of water caused by overpopulation

21 Precipitation Varies Greatly
US cities vary in their precipitation from an average of less than 8 to 60 inches a year. Globally, the extreme is even greater – averages of less than 1 inch to more than 70 inches per year. However, this masks variations between years. Some locations may get ten times more, or less than 1/10 of their annual average from year to year. Meeting demands for water when precipitation is so highly varied creates many challenges.

22 Global Precipitation Patterns
Wright and Nebel, 2002. Michael D. Lee Ph.D. Geography and Environmental Studies

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24 In most areas of Nevada and California, potential transpiration and evaporation is in excess of precipitation, which causes a net moisture deficit

25 Water Water Pollution Dams and Reservoirs and Transferring water
Supply, Renewal and Use Too little Water Dams and Reservoirs and Transferring water Groundwater and Saltwater Efficiency Too Much Water Water Pollution

26 Egyptians perfected the shadouf to draw water from canals and the river to the adjacent bank and into ditches. Michael D. Lee Ph.D. Geography and Environmental Studies Nomadic herders and, later, sedentary civilizations developed chains of wells – qanats, karez, foggaras, falaj – to route water across miles of desert from distant aquifers.

27 Example of noria – water driven wheels lifting water into irrigation ditches or elevated aqueducts (This is in Vietnam) Slaters Mill in Rhode Island, one of the earliest American water powered industrial systems. Artists impression of the Three Gorges Project, Yangtze River, China – world’s biggest hydropower project 19 m kW. Michael D. Lee Ph.D. Geography and Environmental Studies

28 Chinese Dam Fish Bypass System Earthen Dam Aswan Dam, Egypt Hoover Dam

29 Large Dams - Pros Collect and store water from rain and snow
Produce electricity Irrigate land below the dam Control flooding Provide water to cities, towns and rural areas Provide recreational activities such as swimming, boating, fishing

30 Large Dams - Cons Enormous loss of water due to evaporation
Mass of water can cause earthquakes Flooded land destroys forests or cropland and displaces people Danger of Dam collapse Downstream areas deprived of nutrient-rich soil, which will eventually clog the reservoir Migration and spawning of fish disrupted Expensive to build

31 Los Angeles Aqueduct (DWP) Eastern Sierra
Started in 1908 by William Mulholland appropriated water feeding Owens Valley

32 LA Aqueduct is

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34 Mono Lake In 1941, L.A. DWP started diverting Mono Basin streams to add to L.A. Aqueduct. The state and courts now mandate raising the level of the lake 17 feet. It will take about 20 years.

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38 Colorado River Aqueduct
Established 1928 to bring water to L.A. and rest of Southern California First delivery in 1940; serves 15 million people Lawsuit from Arizona (1953) finally began to be implemented in amount will decrease and this amount will be replaced by State Water Project water. Five pumping stations Diversions for agriculture

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40 The State Water Project: The California Aqueduct
Constructed beginning in the 1960s. About 1/2 for irrigation, about 1/2 for domestic use. Domestic use supply helps offset that lost to Arizona in 1985 court case. Includes the huge Oroville Dam on Feather River in Sierra foothills. Pumps at Tracy lift water, then it flows by gravity to the Tehachapi Mountains.

41 California Aqueduct

42 Dams and Global River Degradation
Shasta Dam, CA Aswan Dam, Egypt Lake Nasser

43 The Geography of Large Dams
Over 39,000 large dams by 1986

44 World Reservoir Inundation
Area submerged size California

45 Upstream of Dams - Negative Impact
Environment Loss of terrestrial/riparian habitat and species Creation of artificial lacustrine (lakes) system exotic species introductions Reservoir/storage for contaminants Cultural / social Loss of cultural resources Displacement of families (villages, regions) Water quality hazard Economic Shift in land use / economy Water loss via evaporation Water loss via seepage Aesthetic landscape inundated

46 Upstream Impact of Dams
Built Aesthetics: Glen Canyon, Colorado River

47 Water Water Pollution Groundwater and Saltwater
Supply, Renewal and Use Too little Water Dams and Reservoirs Transferring water Groundwater and Saltwater Efficiency Too Much Water Water Pollution

48 Tapping Groundwater About half of the drinking water in the United States is pumped from aquifers Roughly 40% of the water in streams/river is from groundwater The number one removal of water from aquifers is for irrigation for farming

49 Groundwater Problems Aquifer depletion Aquifer subsidence
more water is removed than is naturally refreshed Aquifer subsidence land sinks due to withdrawal of groundwater (Mexico City) Intrusion of salt water into aquifers Contamination from multiple sources

50 Groundwater Depletion
Aquifer Depletion 95% of water removed from Ogallala Aquifer is for irrigation and the removal rate is greater than the refreshing rate Saudi Arabia, China, northern Africa, southern Europe, Middle East, Thailand, India

51 Aquifer Subsidence Well casing projecting from the ground (40 years) Mexico City’s aquifer has shrunk enough that land has dropped up to 7.5 m

52 Salt Water Intrusion “One-third of the water supply for coastal areas of Greater Los Angeles comes from local ground-water sources. Saltwater has penetrated a part of the supply, and a significant part of the remaining supply is at risk.” U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 030–02

53 Desalination Removal of salts from ocean water distillation
first land-based desalination plant was established in 1928 in the Netherlands Unit/oea59e/ch21.htm

54 Desalination Removal of salts from ocean water
reverse osmosis using high pressure The Santa Barbara facility began operation in March 1992

55 Water Water Pollution Efficiency Supply, Renewal and Use
Too little Water Dams and Reservoirs Transferring water Groundwater and Saltwater Efficiency Too Much Water Water Pollution

56 Reducing Water Waste Up 70% of water is lost through evaporation & leaks

57 Specific Uses for Recycled Water
Toilet flushing Subsurface drip irrigation Safer Non-aerosolizing of water and pathogens More prone to clogging Requires more maintenance More efficient Less evaporative water loss Feeds roots of plants/grass directly

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60 Water Water Pollution Too Much Water Supply, Renewal and Use
Too little Water Dams and Reservoirs Transferring water Groundwater and Saltwater Efficiency Too Much Water Water Pollution

61 Flooding

62 Too Much Water: Floods Natural phenomena
Aggravated by human activities Renew and replenish Floodplain Levee Flood wall Dam Reservoir

63 Water Law Riparian Rights (Sharing)
from English Common Law applies to surface waters owner of waterfront land to use amounts correlated with other riparian owners. Works well in areas with water surplus Prior Appropriation (1st come, first served) from Spanish law no preference given to those adjoining water course water rights based on use; earliest has rights use protected as long as it is continuous and “reasonable”

64 Advanced Placement Environmental Science
Water Pollution Chapters 13 and 20 Living in the Environment, 11th Edition, Miller Advanced Placement Environmental Science La Canada High School Dr. E

65 Water Quality Definitions
Contaminants Contaminants Pollutants isis.csuhayward.edu/alss/Geography/ mlee/geog4350/4350c4f01.ppt

66 Water Pollution Any chemical, biological and physical change in water quality that has a harmful effect on living organisms or makes it unusable for agriculture In general, water pollution is concerned with 3 issues, huge as they are: Remember 0.6% of the worlds total water supply? bss.sfsu.edu/ehines/geog600/ Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

67 Types and Sources of Pollution
Pollution of Streams and Lakes Ocean Pollution Groundwater Pollution Drinking Water Quality Waste Water Treatment Water Legislation

68 Sources of Pollution Point sources (e.g., factories, sewage treatment plants, mines, oil wells, oil tankers) Nonpoint sources (e.g., acid deposition, substances picked up in runoff, seepage into groundwater) Agriculture is largest source of water pollution in the U.S. (64% of pollutants into streams and 57% of pollutants entering lakes) © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP

69 Types of Pollution Disease-causing Agents – pathogens
Oxygen Demanding Agents – organic waste: manure Water-soluble Inorganic Chemicals – acids, toxic metals Inorganic Plant Nutrients – nitrogen and phosphorus Organic Chemicals – oil, pesticides, detergents Sediment or Suspended Material – erosion, soil Water-soluble Radioactive Isotopes – radon uranium Heat – electric and nuclear power plants Genetic Pollution

70 Waterborne Bacteria Disease symptoms usually are explosive emissions from either end of the digestive tract Escherichia coli Vibrio sp. Barbara E. Moore, Ph.D., Department of Biology, University of Texas at San Antonio

71 Waterborne Protozoans
Disease symptoms are usually explosive emissions from either end of the digestive tract *P. Darben Giardia sp.* Barbara E. Moore, Ph.D., Department of Biology, University of Texas at San Antonio

72 Waterborne Human Viruses
Hepatitis A virus Hepatitis E virus Norwalk virus* Rotavirus* *F. Williams Barbara E. Moore, Ph.D., Department of Biology, University of Texas at San Antonio

73 Dracunculiasis Water and Sanitation – Critical Elements in Development - Mike Lee Hayward

74 The Guinea Worm grows down the leg and its sex organs appear at the ankle or on the foot usually, bursting when it senses water, releasing ova. Water and Sanitation – Critical Elements in Development - Mike Lee Hayward

75 No vaccine for Guinea worm is available.
People do not seem to build up any resistance and the disease can be reinfected over and over. No research is being conducted for any vaccine or cure. Worms are removed slowly each day by winding around a stick. Water and Sanitation – Critical Elements in Development - Mike Lee Hayward

76 Types and Sources of Pollution
Disease-causing Agents - Pathogens Oxygen Demanding Agents Water-soluble Inorganic Chemicals Inorganic Plant Nutrients Organic Chemicals Sediment or Suspended Material Water-soluble Radioactive Isotopes Heat Genetic Pollution

77 Fish Die

78 BOD and Oxygen Sag Curve
All streams have some capability to degrade organic waste. Problems occur when stream is overloaded with biochemical oxygen-demanding waste.

79 Types and Sources of Pollution
Disease-causing Agents - Pathogens Oxygen Demanding Agents Water-soluble Inorganic Chemicals Inorganic Plant Nutrients Organic Chemicals Sediment or Suspended Material Water-soluble Radioactive Isotopes Heat Genetic Pollution

80 Heavy Metals Metallic elements having a density greater than 5 g/cm3
Most are extremely toxic Heavy Metals by Dr. Jena Hamra

81 Acid Rain Broad term used to describe several ways that acids fall out of the atmosphere Dr. Harvey F. Illinois State University

82 Wet and Dry Acid Rain Wet deposition refers to acidic rain, fog, and snow. Dry deposition refers to acidic gases and particles.

83 Causes of Acid Rain Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) are the primary causes of acid rain. In the US, about 2/3 of all SO2 and 1/4 of all NOx comes from electric power generation that relies on burning fossil fuels like coal.

84 Buffering Capacity Acid rain primarily affects sensitive bodies of water, which are located in watersheds whose soils have a limited “buffering capacity” Generally high in limestone deposits

85 Effects on Wildlife Generally, the young of most species are more sensitive to environmental conditions than adults At pH 5, most fish eggs cannot hatch At lower pH levels, some adult fish die Some acid lakes have no fish

86 Nutrients Acidic water dissolves the nutrients and helpful minerals in the soil and then washes them away before trees and other plants can use them to grow. Releases Al+3 which is toxic to fish

87 Types and Sources of Pollution
Disease-causing Agents - Pathogens Oxygen Demanding Agents Water-soluble Inorganic Chemicals Inorganic Plant Nutrients Organic Chemicals Sediment or Suspended Material Water-soluble Radioactive Isotopes Heat Genetic Pollution

88 Selected Pollutants: Nutrients
Phosphorus and nitrogen are the major concerns Sources: Human, animal (e.g., Hog Farms), and industrial waste Storm water Soil erosion Excessive use of fertilizers for crops, lawns, and home gardens

89 Eutrophication

90 Types and Sources of Pollution
Disease-causing Agents - Pathogens Oxygen Demanding Agents Water-soluble Inorganic Chemicals Inorganic Plant Nutrients Organic Chemicals Sediment or Suspended Material Water-soluble Radioactive Isotopes Heat Genetic Pollution

91 Biological Magnification
concentrations increase at increasing levels in the food chain – PCBs, DDT, etc. Fig. 12–20 © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP Water Resources and Water Pollution by Paul Rich

92 Types and Sources of Pollution
Disease-causing Agents - Pathogens Oxygen Demanding Agents Water-soluble Inorganic Chemicals Inorganic Plant Nutrients Organic Chemicals Sediment or Suspended Material Water-soluble Radioactive Isotopes Heat Genetic Pollution

93 Effects of Sediment Loading

94 Types and Sources of Pollution
Disease-causing Agents - Pathogens Oxygen Demanding Agents Water-soluble Inorganic Chemicals Inorganic Plant Nutrients Organic Chemicals Sediment or Suspended Material Water-soluble Radioactive Isotopes Heat Genetic Pollution

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96 Types and Sources of Pollution
Disease-causing Agents - Pathogens Oxygen Demanding Agents Water-soluble Inorganic Chemicals Inorganic Plant Nutrients Organic Chemicals Sediment or Suspended Material Water-soluble Radioactive Isotopes Heat Genetic Pollution

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98 Types and Sources of Pollution
Disease-causing Agents - Pathogens Oxygen Demanding Agents Water-soluble Inorganic Chemicals Inorganic Plant Nutrients Organic Chemicals Sediment or Suspended Material Water-soluble Radioactive Isotopes Heat Genetic Pollution – Invasive Species

99 ZEBRA MUSSEL DISTRIBUTION

100 Pollution of Streams and Lakes
Types and Sources of Pollution Pollution of Streams and Lakes Ocean Pollution Groundwater Pollution Drinking Water Quality Waste Water Treatment Water Legislation

101 Pollution of Streams and Lakes
flowing water can recover rapidly by dilution and decay © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP Water Resources and Water Pollution by Paul Rich

102 Accelerated results with human input of nutrients to a lake
Eutrophication Accelerated results with human input of nutrients to a lake © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP Water Resources and Water Pollution by Paul Rich

103 Ocean Pollution Types and Sources of Pollution
Pollution of Streams and Lakes Ocean Pollution Groundwater Pollution Drinking Water Quality Waste Water Treatment Water Legislation

104 Ocean Pollution: Petroleum
Oil spills can be caused by: Tanker accidents Intentional dumping Drilling/ pumping operations Major oil spills into the ocean are a fact of our modern oil-powered economy… Can be the result of : loading/unloading accidents, collisions, or tankers running aground, like the 1989 Exxon Valdez Others are intentionally created, like the oil spilled in the Persian gulf war in 1991 Or the blowout of an undersea oil well during drilling or pumping… Ixtoc #1 oil well, gulf of Mexico…1979 Bay of Campeche blowout and oil slick, affected up the Texas coast. The well blew out, caught fire, and flowed for 10 months, spilling 140 million gallons of oil into the gulf…the world’s largest oil spill from an oil well. bss.sfsu.edu/ehines/geog600/ Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

105 Ocean Pollution: Petroleum
Petroleum is biodegradable Many pollution experts consider oil to be among the least damaging ocean pollutants Data from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill shows the recovery of key organisms Oil is a hydrocarbon, composed of hydrogen and carbon, organic substances, so they can be broken down or biodegraded by microorganisms… In fact, natural undersea oil seeps have occurred for millions of years… Still oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons and other substances, including oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and other trace metals. When this mixture mixes with sea water, the results are usually devastating for ocean organisms…we really only know what happens to the ones we can see… bss.sfsu.edu/ehines/geog600/ Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

106 Ocean Pollution: Petroleum
Various processes act to break up and degrade oil in the ocean environment When oil enters the ocean, it initially floats, oil is less dense than water and forms a slick at the surface Where it starts to break down through natural processes. The volatile, lighter components of crude oil evaporate over the first few days, leaving behind a more viscous substance that aggregates into tar balls and eventually sinks…this also coats suspended particles, which settle to the seafloor as well If the floating oil hasn’t dispersed (wind, waves, currents) it can be collect with specially designed skimmers or absorbent materials and disposed of somewhere else….however, wind, waves, and currents will disperse an oil slick and mix it with water to make a frothy substance called ‘mousse’ bacteria and solar radiation (photooxidation) can break this oil down into compounds that mix with water…. bacteria or fungi can be used in a clean up process to biodegrade oil…called bioremediation. Exxon, spent $10 million to spread fertilizers rich in phosphorus and nitrogen on shorelines to boost the growth of indigenous bacteria that breaks down oil….the cleanup rate was more than twice that of natural conditions. bss.sfsu.edu/ehines/geog600/ Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

107 Case Study: Exxon Valdez Oil Spill
March 24, 1989, tanker in Prince William Sound, Alaska, worst oil spill in U.S. waters Coated 1,600 of shoreline, killed wildlife, and caused serious contamination Exxon spent $2.2 billion on direct cleanup + $1 billion fines and damages; another $5 billion being appealed © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP Water Resources and Water Pollution by Paul Rich

108 Exxon valdez spilled almost 11
Exxon valdez spilled almost 11.6 million gallons of oil into a pristine wilderness area in crude oil from northern Alaska is carried by the pipeline down to Valdez, where it is loaded onto supertankers (can hold 53 million gallons) Ran aground on a shallowly submerged rocky outcrop, Bligh Reef. What spilled out was only 22% of her cargo, into Prince William Sound into the Gulf of Alaska, fouled over 1775 km of coastline (1100 miles) Right after the spill, Exxon spent over 2.5 billion in cleanup and $900 million in subsequent years for restoration. Molly McCammon, executive director of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council, the sound will need much more time to heal. "It is clear that the oil spill affected areas have still not recovered from that earlier devastation. We know that while there is progress toward recovery, there is still oil on the beaches. We know that weathered oil can still be toxic at very low levels. We know that many resources are still not recovered and we know that the people of the region have not healed." The trustee council was established following the Alaska spill to protect habitat and monitor recovery of Prince William Sound. That means rebuilding lost populations of fish, birds, and animals. By official counts, the spill killed 250,000 seabirds, 2,800 sea otters, 300 harbor seals, 250 bald eagles and 22 killer whales. Numerous other species, from salmon to clams, also suffered casualties. More than 500 miles of remote wilderness shoreline was oiled. Yet a decade later, the river otter and the bald eagle are the only species to have recovered. Thirteen other species, such as salmon, harbor seals, and several seabirds, are listed as "recovering." Still other species, such as the sound's killer whales, have shown little sign of bouncing back, SENNER: "Killer whales have shown some small progress since the oil spill back in We've seen a gain of some three animals to the injured AB pod since However, we continue to place this species in the not recovering category because when you have an animal that lives to be 30 to 50 years old, it's simply premature to declare we've got real progress here." Sea otters--those cuddly ocean mammals that became the poster children of the oil spill--were among the hardest hit. In heavily oiled areas, sea otters have had to cope with long-term exposure to oil. Stan Senner says it may take twenty more years for these populations to fully recover. But not all the news is bad. To protect birds and animals, the trustee council spent $400 million dollars, from an out of court civil settlement with Exxon, to buy 650,000 acres of wilderness in the spill area. Molly McCammon says protecting habitat will ensure the recovery of the sound's ecosystem. McCAMMON: "These lands include 1,500 miles of shoreline, more than 300 salmon streams--incredible habitat for all of the species listed up here today." Yet to some, the most fitting conclusion to this ten-year ordeal is the end of Captain Joseph Hazelwood's legal appeals. Convicted in 1990 of illegally discharging oil he will this summer begin 1,000 hours of community service. He'll spend that time picking up trash along Alaska's highways. Two sea otters, victims of the Exxon Valdez oil spill, recuperate at a rehab facility set up in a remote cove in Kachemak Bay bss.sfsu.edu/ehines/geog600/ Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

109 http://www. google. com/imgres. imgurl=http://newsimg. bbc. co

110 Ocean Pollution: Sewage Sludge
Sewage sludge is the semisolid material that remains after sewage treatment Much sewage sludge was dumped offshore until laws restricted sewage dumping Sewage treated at a facility typically undergoes primary treatment, where solids are allowed to settle and water to separate, and secondary treatment, where it is exposed to bacteria-killing chlorine….sewage sludge remains It contains a toxic brew of human waste, oil, zinc, copper, lead, silver, mercury, pesticides, and other chemicals. Since the 1960’s, about 500,000 metric tons of sewage sludge were dumped into the coastal waters of southern California, more than 8 million tons in the New York Bight. Clean water act in 1972 prohibited dumping sewage into the ocean after 1981, but the cost was prohibitive, so extensions and waivers were given to many cities….remember in 1988, all the syringes and garbage that washed up on the Atlantic coast? Here’s where sewage sludge was disposed of from New York and Philadelphia…95feet deep at New York Site 58 sq miles, 130 feet deep in Philadelphia (92 sq miles)…very shallow, everything goes right to the bottom, species diversity takes a dive and some areas are completely anoxic with such a concentration of organic and inorganic matter. They moved it in 1986 to a deep water site 106 miles out to sea….fishers began noticing lower catches, and people were worried the sludge would go out into the Gulf Stream, now they dispose of sewage on land. bss.sfsu.edu/ehines/geog600/ Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

111 Mercury and Minamata Disease
Mercury has many industrial uses but is extremely toxic A chemical plant released large quantities of mercury into Minamata Bay, Japan Minamata is a farming and fishing area on the west coast of the southern Island of Kyushu. The town is located on Minimata Bay on the Shiranui Sea. Minimata is also a factory town and the largest factory is run by the Chisso chemical company. Construction of the factory began in In 1932 Chisso began producing acetaldehyde, which is used in making plastics, drugs, perfumes and photographic chemicals. Mercury was used in the process as a catalyst. In 1956 a strange disease became an epidemic in Minimata. The sickness came to be known as Minimata disease. The mercury was discharged into the bay, where bacteria degraded it into a form where it was ingested by ocean organisms…. Mercury poisoning showed up in 1953, known there as Minimata disease, which degenerates the nervous system…this was the first major human disaster resulting from ocean pollution. The Japanese government did not announce mercury as the cause of the disease until 1968… By 1970, 47 fishing families had the disease, over 100 people, ½ died… The government officially recognizes 2,265 victims - 1,435 already dead - of the dumpings in the bay in southern Japan, Some victims died after eating mercury-tainted fish, while others suffered spasms and blurred vision. Babies of poisoned mothers were born with gnarled limbs. Reports of victims began appearing in the 1950s. Another 15,000 people have registered with the government as victims of mercury poisoning - but that number could more than double under new research that suggests weaker concentrations of the chemical than previously thought can cause brain damage and birth defects. ``Twenty-thousand more could very easily be damaged, that we can clearly say,'' said Shigeo Ekino, a professor at the Kumamoto University medical school who is spearheading new attempts to identify what concentrations pose a danger level to humans. bss.sfsu.edu/ehines/geog600/ Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

112 Ocean Pollution: Non-Point Source
Any type of pollution entering the surface water system from sources other than underwater pipelines…. Mostly, non-point source pollution in coastal and urban areas arrive at the ocean directly from storm drains. Because non-point source pollution comes from so many locations and sources, its difficult to pinpoint where it originates, though the cause may be readily apparent, like trash that is washed down a storm drain… Pesticides and fertilizers from agriculture, oil from cars when it rains. The amount of road oil and improperly disposed oil regularly discharged each year into US waters is as much as 26 times the amount of the Exxon Valdez oil spill! bss.sfsu.edu/ehines/geog600/ Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

113 Plastic in the Ocean Environment
However, plastic floats, and is not biodegradable, and strangles ocean organisms and birds that have been caught in plastic netting and packing straps….ocean turtles have been killed when they ingested plastic bags, mistaking them for plankton or jellyfish…so it is illegal to dump plastic anywhere in the ocean.. Female northern elephant seal bss.sfsu.edu/ehines/geog600/ Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

114 Groundwater Pollution
Types and Sources of Pollution Pollution of Streams and Lakes Ocean Pollution Groundwater Pollution Drinking Water Quality Waste Water Treatment Water Legislation

115 75% of 175,000 known waste disposal sites in US may be producing hazardous subsurface plumes (contaminated regions of the subsurface) Into the watertable……the zone of saturation bss.sfsu.edu/ehines/geog600/ Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

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117 Drinking Water Quality
Types and Sources of Pollution Pollution of Streams and Lakes Ocean Pollution Groundwater Pollution Drinking Water Quality Waste Water Treatment Water Legislation

118 Municipal Water Purification Plant

119 Coagulation Rachel Casiday, Greg Noelken, and Regina Frey, Washington University (http://wunmr.wustl.edu/EduDev/LabTutorials/Water/PublicWaterSupply/PublicWaterSupply.html) isis.csuhayward.edu/alss/Geography/ mlee/geog4350/4350c4f01.ppt

120 Sedimentation Rachel Casiday, Greg Noelken, and Regina Frey, Washington University (http://wunmr.wustl.edu/EduDev/LabTutorials/Water/PublicWaterSupply/PublicWaterSupply.html) isis.csuhayward.edu/alss/Geography/ mlee/geog4350/4350c4f01.ppt

121 Filtration Rachel Casiday, Greg Noelken, and Regina Frey, Washington University (http://wunmr.wustl.edu/EduDev/LabTutorials/Water/PublicWaterSupply/PublicWaterSupply.html) isis.csuhayward.edu/alss/Geography/ mlee/geog4350/4350c4f01.ppt

122 Adsorption Rachel Casiday, Greg Noelken, and Regina Frey, Washington University (http://wunmr.wustl.edu/EduDev/LabTutorials/Water/PublicWaterSupply/PublicWaterSupply.html) isis.csuhayward.edu/alss/Geography/ mlee/geog4350/4350c4f01.ppt

123 Waste Water Treatment Types and Sources of Pollution
Pollution of Streams and Lakes Ocean Pollution Groundwater Pollution Drinking Water Quality Waste Water Treatment Water Legislation

124 Septic Tanks Approx. 22 million systems in operation ( 30% of US population) Suitability determined by soil type, depth to water table, depth to bedrock and topography Commonly fail due to poor soil drainage Potential contaminants: bacteria, heavy metals, nutrients, synthetic organic chemicals (e.g. benzene)

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126 Water Legislation Types and Sources of Pollution
Pollution of Streams and Lakes Ocean Pollution Groundwater Pollution Drinking Water Quality Waste Water Treatment Water Legislation

127 Legal Attempts to Control Water Pollution
Clean Water Act 1977, now a state-federal partnership The Porter-Cologne Water Quality Control Act 1987 Federal Water Pollution Control Act 1972 amended to create: Safe Drinking Water Act, 1974, amended 1996 London Dumping Convention (1975) is the international treaty regulating disposal of wastes generated by normal operation of vessels MARPOL 73/78 is implemented in the U.S. by the Act to Prevent Pollution from Ships, under the lead of the U.S. Coast Guard The Water Quality Act (State of California) :Under the Porter-Cologne Water Quality Control Act (Porter-Cologne), the State Water Resources Control Board (State Board) has the ultimate authority over State water rights and water quality policy. Porter-Cologne also establishes nine Regional Water Quality Control Boards (Regional Boards) to oversee water quality on a day-to-day basis at the local/regional level. Regional Boards engage in a number of water quality functions in their respective regions. One of the most important is preparing and periodically updating Basin Plans,(water quality control plans). Each Basin Plan establishes: 1) beneficial uses of water designated for each water body to be protected; 2) water quality standards, known as water quality objectives, for both surface water and groundwater; and 3) actions necessary to maintain these standards in order to control non-point and point sources of pollution to the State's waters. The Federal Act established the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into the waters of the United States. It gave EPA the authority to implement pollution control programs such as setting wastewater standards for industry. The Clean Water Act also continued requirements to set water quality standards for all contaminants in surface waters. The Act made it unlawful for any person to discharge any pollutant from a point source into navigable waters, unless a permit was obtained under its provisions. It also funded the construction of sewage treatment plants under the construction grants program and recognized the need for planning to address the critical problems posed by nonpoint source pollution. Safe drinking water act aims to ensure that drinking water is safe from the source to the tap: sets national standards for drinking water, sets enforceable maximum contaminant levels. This convention was established to control pollution of the sea by dumping of wastes which could create hazards to human health or to harm living resources and ocean life, to damage amenities, and to interfere with other legitimate uses of the sea. It also encourages regional agreements supplementary to the Convention.It contains three Annexes: dumping of matter listed in Annex I is prohibited; dumping of matter listed in Annex II is allowable only by special permit; dumping of matter listed in annex III is allowable only by general permit. It calls on Parties "to promote measures to prevent pollution by hydrocarbons, other matter transported other than for dumping, wastes generated during operation of ships etc., radioactive pollutants and matter originating from exploration of the sea bed."The Convention was adopted on 29 December 1972 in London, Mexico City, Moscow and Washington, D.C., and entered into force on 30 August 1975 161 countries are parties as of December regulates carrying of oil, noxious liquids in the hold of ships, hazardous substances, sewage, and garbage from ships, air emissions from ships. bss.sfsu.edu/ehines/geog600/ Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

128 Clean Water Act The Clean Water Act is a 1977 amendment to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 Set the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants in the US The law gave EPA the authority to set water quality standards for industry and for all contaminants in surface waters The CWA makes it unlawful for any person to discharge any pollutant from a point source into navigable waters unless a permit (NPDES) is obtained The amounts and types of pollutants than can be discharged or allowed to run in to waters from watersheds are regulated Environmental Science ENSC Pollution in the Bay-Delta

129 Safe Drinking Water Act
The Safe Drinking Water Act (1974) was established to protect the quality of drinking water in the U.S This law focuses on all waters actually or potentially designed for drinking use, whether from above ground or underground sources Environmental Science ENSC Pollution in the Bay-Delta


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