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Water Chapters 13 and 20 Living in the Environment, 11 th Edition, Miller Advanced Placement Environmental Science La Canada High School Dr. E.

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Presentation on theme: "Water Chapters 13 and 20 Living in the Environment, 11 th Edition, Miller Advanced Placement Environmental Science La Canada High School Dr. E."— Presentation transcript:

1 Water Chapters 13 and 20 Living in the Environment, 11 th Edition, Miller Advanced Placement Environmental Science La Canada High School Dr. E

2 Key H 2 0 Characteristics Water is the prime constituent of all living organisms. Water moves easily-from one physical state to another, and from one place to another. Water slowly absorbs and releases large quantities of energy. Water is a superior solvent. Michael D. Lee Ph.D. Geography and Environmental Studies (Source: Wright & Nebel 2002)

3 Importance of Water Properties Lack of access to clean water supplies can quickly lead to dehydration and death. Running water can quickly erode topsoil rendering farmland infertile and streams contaminated. Chemical spills, excess nutrients & acids dissolved in H 2 0 can lead to massive die offs. Michael D. Lee Ph.D. Geography and Environmental Studies

4 WaterWater –Supply, Renewal and Use –Too little Water –Dams and Reservoirs –Transferring water –Groundwater and Saltwater –Efficiency –Too Much Water Water Pollution

5 Available Water Total = 326 million cubic miles 97% of Earths water is in oceans 2.997% is locked up in ice caps and glaciers 0.003% is easily accessible –Soil moisture –Groundwater –Water vapor –Lakes –Streams

6 Water Supply & Use

7 SW%20Management.htm Water Cycle

8 Hydrologic Cycle Powered by solar energy and gravity Evaporation and precipitation Continuous recycling of water –Runoff –Infiltration –Evaporation –Temporary storage as snow and ice –Temporary storage in lakes –Temporary storage in plants (transpiration) and animals –Chemical reactions with rocks and minerals –Volcanism also causes melting of snow caps and mudflows as melted water mixes with ash –Source of additional water? volcanism (steam)

9 Surface Water Surface runoff flows into streams, lakes, wetlands and reservoirs A watershed or drainage basin –Region that drains into a streams, lakes, wetlands or reservoirs watershed.asp

10 Groundwater As precipitation infiltrates and percolates through voids in soil and rock –Pores, fractures, crevices, etc. Shallow rock has little moisture Zone of saturation is at a depth were ground is filled with water Top of this zone is water table –Falls in dry weather –Rises in wet weather

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12 Groundwater Movement Groundwater moves from recharge area through an aquifer and out a discharge area –well, spring, lake, geyser, artesian well, steam, ocean Normally moves downhill at only a meter per year Some aquifers get little recharge and were formed thousands of years ago Removal from these nonrenewable resources is called water mining

13 Use of Fresh Water United States 41% agriculture 38% power plant cooling 11% industry 10% public China 87% agriculture 7% industry 6% public

14 Water Use Globally People and Planet People and Planet People and Planet 70 per cent of all water withdrawn for human use on an annual basis is soaked up by agriculture (mostly in the form of irrigation) Industry accounts for 23 per cent Domestic use (household, drinking water, sanitation) accounts for about 7 per cent

15 Water Use People and Planet People and Planet People and Planet The average person needs a minimum of five litres (1.3 gallons) of water per day to survive in a moderate climate at an average activity level, according to UN figures. The minimum amount of water needed for drinking and cooking, bathing and sanitation is 50 litres (13 gallons).

16 Water Use - (minimum 13 gallons) People and Planet People and Planet People and Planet The average person in the United States uses between 250 to 300 litres of water (65-78 gallons) per day for drinking, cooking bathing, and watering their yard. The average person in the Netherlands uses 104 litres per day (27 gallons). The average person in the African nation of Gambia uses 4.5 litres per day (1.2 gallons of water).

17 Water Use - United States In 1990, about 408,000 million gallons (Mgal/d) of water were used each day Of that, about 339,000 Mgal/d was fresh water and about 69,400 Mgal/d was saline water California used the most water, about 46,800 Mgal/d, with most of that going towards irrigation The state with the second-highest water use was Texas, with about 25,200 Mgal/d, mostly for use in the power-production industries and for irrigation

18 Some conversions: 1 Mgal/d = cubic feet per second 1 Mgal/d = thousand gallons per minute 1 Mgal/d = 1,121 thousand acre-feet per year 1 million gallons = 3.07 acre feet

19 WaterWater –Supply, Renewal and Use –Too little Water –Dams and Reservoirs –Transferring water –Groundwater and Saltwater –Efficiency –Too Much Water Water Pollution

20 Too Little Water Causes –Dry climate –Drought - a period in which precipitation is much lower and evaporation is much higher –Desiccation - drying of soil because of such activities as deforestation and overgrazing –Water stress - low per capita availability of water caused by overpopulation

21 Precipitation Varies Greatly US cities vary in their precipitation from an average of less than 8 to 60 inches a year. Globally, the extreme is even greater – averages of less than 1 inch to more than 70 inches per year. However, this masks variations between years. Some locations may get ten times more, or less than 1/10 of their annual average from year to year. Meeting demands for water when precipitation is so highly varied creates many challenges.

22 Global Precipitation Patterns Wright and Nebel, Michael D. Lee Ph.D. Geography and Environmental Studies

23 net.net/graphs/Freshwate ravailability.jpg

24 In most areas of Nevada and California, potential transpiration and evaporation is in excess of precipitation, which causes a net moisture deficit

25 WaterWater –Supply, Renewal and Use –Too little Water –Dams and Reservoirs and –Transferring water –Groundwater and Saltwater –Efficiency –Too Much Water Water Pollution

26 Egyptians perfected the shadouf to draw water from canals and the river to the adjacent bank and into ditches. Nomadic herders and, later, sedentary civilizations developed chains of wells – qanats, karez, foggaras, falaj – to route water across miles of desert from distant aquifers. Michael D. Lee Ph.D. Geography and Environmental Studies

27 Slaters Mill in Rhode Island, one of the earliest American water powered industrial systems. Example of noria – water driven wheels lifting water into irrigation ditches or elevated aqueducts (This is in Vietnam) Artists impression of the Three Gorges Project, Yangtze River, China – worlds biggest hydropower project 19 m kW. Michael D. Lee Ph.D. Geography and Environmental Studies

28 Hoover Dam Aswan Dam, Egypt Fish Bypass System Chinese Dam Earthen Dam

29 Large Dams - Pros Collect and store water from rain and snow Produce electricity Irrigate land below the dam Control flooding Provide water to cities, towns and rural areas Provide recreational activities such as swimming, boating, fishing

30 Large Dams - Cons Enormous loss of water due to evaporation Mass of water can cause earthquakes Flooded land destroys forests or cropland and displaces people Danger of Dam collapse Downstream areas deprived of nutrient-rich soil, which will eventually clog the reservoir Migration and spawning of fish disrupted Expensive to build

31 Los Angeles Aqueduct (DWP) Los Angeles Aqueduct (DWP) Eastern Sierra Started in 1908 by William Mulholland appropriated water feeding Owens Valley

32 LA Aqueduct is

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34 Mono Lake In 1941, L.A. DWP started diverting Mono Basin streams to add to L.A. Aqueduct. The state and courts now mandate raising the level of the lake 17 feet. It will take about 20 years.

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38 Colorado River Aqueduct Established 1928 to bring water to L.A. and rest of Southern California First delivery in 1940; serves 15 million people Lawsuit from Arizona (1953) finally began to be implemented in amount will decrease and this amount will be replaced by State Water Project water. Five pumping stations Diversions for agriculture

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40 The State Water Project: The California Aqueduct Constructed beginning in the 1960s. About 1/2 for irrigation, about 1/2 for domestic use. Domestic use supply helps offset that lost to Arizona in 1985 court case. Includes the huge Oroville Dam on Feather River in Sierra foothills. Pumps at Tracy lift water, then it flows by gravity to the Tehachapi Mountains.

41 California Aqueduct

42 Dams and Global River Degradation Aswan Dam, Egypt Lake Nasser Shasta Dam, CA

43 The Geography of Large Dams Over 39,000 large dams by 1986

44 World Reservoir Inundation Area submerged –size California

45 Upstream of Dams - Negative Impact Environment –Loss of terrestrial/riparian habitat and species –Creation of artificial lacustrine (lakes) system –exotic species introductions –Reservoir/storage for contaminants Cultural / social –Loss of cultural resources –Displacement of families (villages, regions) –Water quality hazard Economic –Shift in land use / economy –Water loss via evaporation –Water loss via seepage Aesthetic –landscape inundated

46 Upstream Impact of Dams Built Aesthetics: Glen Canyon, Colorado River

47 WaterWater –Supply, Renewal and Use –Too little Water –Dams and Reservoirs –Transferring water –Groundwater and Saltwater –Efficiency –Too Much Water Water Pollution

48 Tapping Groundwater About half of the drinking water in the United States is pumped from aquifers Roughly 40% of the water in streams/river is from groundwater The number one removal of water from aquifers is for irrigation for farming

49 Groundwater Problems Aquifer depletion – more water is removed than is naturally refreshed Aquifer subsidence –land sinks due to withdrawal of groundwater (Mexico City) Intrusion of salt water into aquifers Contamination from multiple sources

50 Groundwater D epletion Aquifer Depletion –95% of water removed from Ogallala Aquifer is for irrigation and the removal rate is greater than the refreshing rate –Saudi Arabia, China, northern Africa, southern Europe, Middle East, Thailand, India

51 Aquifer Subsidence Mexico Citys aquifer has shrunk enough that land has dropped up to 7.5 m Well casing projecting from the ground (40 years)

52 Salt Water Intrusion One-third of the water supply for coastal areas of Greater Los Angeles comes from local ground-water sources. Saltwater has penetrated a part of the supply, and a significant part of the remaining supply is at risk. U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 030–02U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 030–02

53 Desalination Removal of salts from ocean water –distillation first land-based desalination plant was established in 1928 in the Netherlands Unit/oea59e/ch21.htm

54 Removal of salts from ocean water –reverse osmosis using high pressure The Santa Barbara facility began operation in March ects/Desal/Desal.htmDesalination

55 WaterWater –Supply, Renewal and Use –Too little Water –Dams and Reservoirs –Transferring water –Groundwater and Saltwater –Efficiency –Too Much Water Water Pollution

56 Reducing Water Waste Up 70% of water is lost through evaporation & leaks

57 Specific Uses for Recycled Water Subsurface drip irrigation –Safer Non-aerosolizing of water and pathogens –More prone to clogging Requires more maintenance –More efficient Less evaporative water loss Feeds roots of plants/grass directly Toilet flushing

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60 WaterWater –Supply, Renewal and Use –Too little Water –Dams and Reservoirs –Transferring water –Groundwater and Saltwater –Efficiency –Too Much Water Water Pollution

61 Flooding

62 Too Much Water: Floods Natural phenomena Floodplain Levee Flood wall Dam Reservoir Renew and replenish Aggravated by human activities

63 Water Law Riparian Rights (Sharing) –from English Common Law –applies to surface waters –owner of waterfront land to use amounts correlated with other riparian owners. –Works well in areas with water surplus Prior Appropriation (1st come, first served) –from Spanish law –no preference given to those adjoining water course –water rights based on use; earliest has rights –use protected as long as it is continuous and reasonable

64 Water Pollution Chapters 13 and 20 Living in the Environment, 11 th Edition, Miller Advanced Placement Environmental Science La Canada High School Dr. E

65 Water Quality Definitions Contaminants Pollutants Contaminants isis.csuhayward.edu/alss/Geography/ mlee/geog4350/4350c4f01.ppt

66 Water Pollution Any chemical, biological and physical change in water quality that has a harmful effect on living organisms or makes it unusable for agricultureAny chemical, biological and physical change in water quality that has a harmful effect on living organisms or makes it unusable for agriculture bss.sfsu.edu/ehines/geog600/ Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

67 Types and Sources of PollutionTypes and Sources of Pollution Pollution of Streams and Lakes Ocean Pollution Groundwater Pollution Drinking Water Quality Waste Water Treatment Water Legislation

68 Point sources (e.g., factories, sewage treatment plants, mines, oil wells, oil tankers) Nonpoint sources (e.g., acid deposition, substances picked up in runoff, seepage into groundwater) Agriculture is largest source of water pollution in the U.S. (64% of pollutants into streams and 57% of pollutants entering lakes) Sources of Pollution © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP

69 Types of Pollution Disease-causing Agents – pathogens Oxygen Demanding Agents – organic waste: manure Water-soluble Inorganic Chemicals – acids, toxic metals Inorganic Plant Nutrients – n itrogen and phosphorus Organic Chemicals – oil, pesticides, detergents Sediment or Suspended Material – erosion, soil Water-soluble Radioactive Isotopes – radon uranium Heat – electric and nuclear power plants Genetic Pollution

70 Waterborne Bacteria Escherichia coli Vibrio sp. Barbara E. Moore, Ph.D., Department of Biology, University of Texas at San Antonio Barbara E. Moore, Ph.D., Department of Biology, University of Texas at San Antonio Disease symptoms usually are explosive emissions from either end of the digestive tractDisease symptoms usually are explosive emissions from either end of the digestive tract

71 Waterborne Protozoans Giardia sp.* *P. Darben Barbara E. Moore, Ph.D., Department of Biology, University of Texas at San Antonio Disease symptoms are usually explosive emissions from either end of the digestive tract

72 Waterborne Human Viruses Hepatitis A virusHepatitis E virus Norwalk virus*Rotavirus* *F. Williams Barbara E. Moore, Ph.D., Department of Biology, University of Texas at San Antonio

73 Dracunculiasis Water and Sanitation – Critical Elements in Development - Mike Lee Hayward Water and Sanitation – Critical Elements in Development - Mike Lee Hayward

74 The Guinea Worm grows down the leg and its sex organs appear at the ankle or on the foot usually, bursting when it senses water, releasing ova. Water and Sanitation – Critical Elements in Development - Mike Lee Hayward

75 No vaccine for Guinea worm is available. People do not seem to build up any resistance and the disease can be reinfected over and over. No research is being conducted for any vaccine or cure. Worms are removed slowly each day by winding around a stick. Water and Sanitation – Critical Elements in Development - Mike Lee Hayward

76 Types and Sources of Pollution Disease-causing Agents - Pathogens Oxygen Demanding AgentsOxygen Demanding Agents Water-soluble Inorganic Chemicals Inorganic Plant Nutrients Organic Chemicals Sediment or Suspended Material Water-soluble Radioactive Isotopes Heat Genetic Pollution

77 Fish Die

78 BOD and Oxygen Sag Curve All streams have some capability to degrade organic waste. Problems occur when stream is overloaded with biochemical oxygen-demanding waste.

79 Types and Sources of Pollution Disease-causing Agents - Pathogens Oxygen Demanding Agents Water-soluble Inorganic ChemicalsWater-soluble Inorganic Chemicals Inorganic Plant Nutrients Organic Chemicals Sediment or Suspended Material Water-soluble Radioactive Isotopes Heat Genetic Pollution

80 Heavy Metals Metallic elements having a density greater than 5 g/cm 3Metallic elements having a density greater than 5 g/cm 3 Most are extremely toxicMost are extremely toxic Heavy Metals by Dr. Jena Hamra Heavy Metals by Dr. Jena Hamra

81 Acid Rain Broad term used to describe several ways that acids fall out of the atmosphereBroad term used to describe several ways that acids fall out of the atmosphere /sm_acid.jpg Dr. Harvey F. Illinois State University Dr. Harvey F. Illinois State University

82 Wet and Dry Acid Rain Wet deposition refers to acidic rain, fog, and snow.Wet deposition refers to acidic rain, fog, and snow. Dry deposition refers to acidic gases and particles.Dry deposition refers to acidic gases and particles.

83 Causes of Acid Rain Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) are the primary causes of acid rain.Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) are the primary causes of acid rain. In the US, about 2/3 of all SO 2 and 1/4 of all NO x comes from electric power generation that relies on burning fossil fuels like coal.In the US, about 2/3 of all SO 2 and 1/4 of all NO x comes from electric power generation that relies on burning fossil fuels like coal.

84 Buffering Capacity Acid rain primarily affects sensitive bodies of water, which are located in watersheds whose soils have a limited buffering capacityAcid rain primarily affects sensitive bodies of water, which are located in watersheds whose soils have a limited buffering capacity Generally high in limestone depositsGenerally high in limestone deposits

85 Effects on Wildlife Generally, the young of most species are more sensitive to environmental conditions than adultsGenerally, the young of most species are more sensitive to environmental conditions than adults At pH 5, most fish eggs cannot hatchAt pH 5, most fish eggs cannot hatch At lower pH levels, some adult fish dieAt lower pH levels, some adult fish die Some acid lakesSome acid lakes have no fish have no fish

86 Nutrients Acidic water dissolves the nutrients and helpful minerals in the soil and then washes them away before trees and other plants can use them to grow. Releases Al +3 which is toxic to fish

87 Types and Sources of Pollution Disease-causing Agents - Pathogens Oxygen Demanding Agents Water-soluble Inorganic Chemicals Inorganic Plant NutrientsInorganic Plant Nutrients Organic Chemicals Sediment or Suspended Material Water-soluble Radioactive Isotopes Heat Genetic Pollution

88 Selected Pollutants: Nutrients Phosphorus and nitrogen are the major concerns Sources: Human, animal (e.g., Hog Farms), and industrial waste Storm water Soil erosion Excessive use of fertilizers for crops, lawns, and home gardens

89 Eutrophication

90 Types and Sources of Pollution Disease-causing Agents - Pathogens Oxygen Demanding Agents Water-soluble Inorganic Chemicals Inorganic Plant Nutrients Organic ChemicalsOrganic Chemicals Sediment or Suspended Material Water-soluble Radioactive Isotopes Heat Genetic Pollution

91 concentrations increase at increasing levels in the food chain – PCBs, DDT, etc. Biological Magnification Biological Magnification Fig. 12–20 Water Resources and Water Pollution Water Resources and Water Pollution © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP Water Resources and Water Pollution by Paul RichWater Resources and Water Pollution by Paul Rich

92 Types and Sources of Pollution Disease-causing Agents - Pathogens Oxygen Demanding Agents Water-soluble Inorganic Chemicals Inorganic Plant Nutrients Organic Chemicals Sediment or Suspended MaterialSediment or Suspended Material Water-soluble Radioactive Isotopes Heat Genetic Pollution

93 Effects of Sediment Loading

94 Types and Sources of Pollution Disease-causing Agents - Pathogens Oxygen Demanding Agents Water-soluble Inorganic Chemicals Inorganic Plant Nutrients Organic Chemicals Sediment or Suspended Material Water-soluble Radioactive IsotopesWater-soluble Radioactive Isotopes Heat Genetic Pollution

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96 Types and Sources of Pollution Disease-causing Agents - Pathogens Oxygen Demanding Agents Water-soluble Inorganic Chemicals Inorganic Plant Nutrients Organic Chemicals Sediment or Suspended Material Water-soluble Radioactive Isotopes HeatHeat Genetic Pollution

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98 Types and Sources of Pollution Disease-causing Agents - Pathogens Oxygen Demanding Agents Water-soluble Inorganic Chemicals Inorganic Plant Nutrients Organic Chemicals Sediment or Suspended Material Water-soluble Radioactive Isotopes Heat Genetic Pollution – Invasive SpeciesGenetic Pollution – Invasive Species

99 ZEBRA MUSSEL DISTRIBUTION

100 Types and Sources of Pollution Pollution of Streams and LakesPollution of Streams and Lakes Ocean Pollution Groundwater Pollution Drinking Water Quality Waste Water Treatment Water Legislation

101 flowing water can recover rapidly by dilution and decay Pollution of Streams and Lakes Water Resources and Water Pollution Water Resources and Water Pollution © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP Water Resources and Water Pollution by Paul RichWater Resources and Water Pollution by Paul Rich

102 Accelerated results with human input of nutrients to a lake Eutrophication Water Resources and Water Pollution Water Resources and Water Pollution © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP Water Resources and Water Pollution by Paul RichWater Resources and Water Pollution by Paul Rich

103 Types and Sources of Pollution Pollution of Streams and Lakes Ocean PollutionOcean Pollution Groundwater Pollution Drinking Water Quality Waste Water Treatment Water Legislation

104 Ocean Pollution: Petroleum Oil spills can be caused by:Oil spills can be caused by: –Tanker accidents –Intentional dumping –Drilling/ pumping operations bss.sfsu.edu/ehines/geog600/ Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

105 Ocean Pollution: Petroleum Petroleum is biodegradablePetroleum is biodegradable Many pollution experts consider oil to be among the least damaging ocean pollutantsMany pollution experts consider oil to be among the least damaging ocean pollutants Data from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill shows the recovery of key organismsData from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill shows the recovery of key organisms bss.sfsu.edu/ehines/geog600/ Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

106 Ocean Pollution: Petroleum Various processes act to break up and degrade oil in the ocean environment Various processes act to break up and degrade oil in the ocean environment bss.sfsu.edu/ehines/geog600/ Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

107 March 24, 1989, tanker in Prince William Sound, Alaska, worst oil spill in U.S. waters Coated 1,600 of shoreline, killed wildlife, and caused serious contamination Exxon spent $2.2 billion on direct cleanup + $1 billion fines and damages; another $5 billion being appealed Case Study: Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Water Resources and Water Pollution Water Resources and Water Pollution © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP Water Resources and Water Pollution by Paul RichWater Resources and Water Pollution by Paul Rich

108 bss.sfsu.edu/ehines/geog600/ Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

109 lls466.gif&imgrefurl=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/ stm&h=494&w=466&sz=21&tbnid=xBnM3fQZWoqn VM:&tbnh=84&tbnw=79&zoom=1&usg=__t6mq8hpGq6yVtY5Q8cz3m71vzfw=&docid=A8Xjm-zFkO- ddM&sa=X&ei=uvwHUZzyB8TJiwLdm4CADQ&ved=0CEUQ9QEwAw&dur=588

110 Ocean Pollution: Sewage Sludge Sewage sludge is the semisolid material that remains after sewage treatmentSewage sludge is the semisolid material that remains after sewage treatment Much sewage sludge was dumped offshore until laws restricted sewage dumpingMuch sewage sludge was dumped offshore until laws restricted sewage dumping bss.sfsu.edu/ehines/geog600/ Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

111 Mercury and Minamata Disease Mercury has many industrial uses but is extremely toxicMercury has many industrial uses but is extremely toxic A chemical plant released large quantities of mercury into Minamata Bay, JapanA chemical plant released large quantities of mercury into Minamata Bay, Japan bss.sfsu.edu/ehines/geog600/ Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

112 Ocean Pollution: Non-Point Source bss.sfsu.edu/ehines/geog600/ Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

113 Plastic in the Ocean Environment bss.sfsu.edu/ehines/geog600/ Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

114 Types and Sources of Pollution Pollution of Streams and Lakes Ocean Pollution Groundwater PollutionGroundwater Pollution Drinking Water Quality Waste Water Treatment Water Legislation

115 bss.sfsu.edu/ehines/geog600/ Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt 75% of 175,000 known waste disposal sites in US may be producing hazardous subsurface plumes (contaminated regions of the subsurface)

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117 Types and Sources of Pollution Pollution of Streams and Lakes Ocean Pollution Groundwater Pollution Drinking Water QualityDrinking Water Quality Waste Water Treatment Water Legislation

118 Municipal Water Purification Plant

119 Coagulation Rachel Casiday, Greg Noelken, and Regina Frey, Washington University (http://wunmr.wustl.edu/EduDev/LabTutorials/Water/PublicWaterSupply/PublicWaterSupply.html)http://wunmr.wustl.edu/EduDev/LabTutorials/Water/PublicWaterSupply/PublicWaterSupply.html isis.csuhayward.edu/alss/Geography/ mlee/geog4350/4350c4f01.ppt

120 Sedimentation Rachel Casiday, Greg Noelken, and Regina Frey, Washington University (http://wunmr.wustl.edu/EduDev/LabTutorials/Water/PublicWaterSupply/PublicWaterSupply.html)http://wunmr.wustl.edu/EduDev/LabTutorials/Water/PublicWaterSupply/PublicWaterSupply.html isis.csuhayward.edu/alss/Geography/ mlee/geog4350/4350c4f01.ppt

121 Filtration Rachel Casiday, Greg Noelken, and Regina Frey, Washington University (http://wunmr.wustl.edu/EduDev/LabTutorials/Water/PublicWaterSupply/PublicWaterSupply.html)http://wunmr.wustl.edu/EduDev/LabTutorials/Water/PublicWaterSupply/PublicWaterSupply.html isis.csuhayward.edu/alss/Geography/ mlee/geog4350/4350c4f01.ppt

122 Adsorption Rachel Casiday, Greg Noelken, and Regina Frey, Washington University (http://wunmr.wustl.edu/EduDev/LabTutorials/Water/PublicWaterSupply/PublicWaterSupply.html)http://wunmr.wustl.edu/EduDev/LabTutorials/Water/PublicWaterSupply/PublicWaterSupply.html isis.csuhayward.edu/alss/Geography/ mlee/geog4350/4350c4f01.ppt

123 Types and Sources of Pollution Pollution of Streams and Lakes Ocean Pollution Groundwater Pollution Drinking Water Quality Waste Water TreatmentWaste Water Treatment Water Legislation

124 Septic Tanks Approx. 22 million systems in operation ( 30% of US population)Approx. 22 million systems in operation ( 30% of US population) Suitability determined by soil type, depth to water table, depth to bedrock and topographySuitability determined by soil type, depth to water table, depth to bedrock and topography Commonly fail due to poor soil drainageCommonly fail due to poor soil drainage Potential contaminants: bacteria, heavy metals, nutrients, synthetic organic chemicals (e.g. benzene)Potential contaminants: bacteria, heavy metals, nutrients, synthetic organic chemicals (e.g. benzene)

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126 Types and Sources of Pollution Pollution of Streams and Lakes Ocean Pollution Groundwater Pollution Drinking Water Quality Waste Water Treatment Water LegislationWater Legislation

127 Legal Attempts to Control Water Pollution 1.Clean Water Act 1977, now a state-federal partnership 2.The Porter-Cologne Water Quality Control Act Federal Water Pollution Control Act 1972 amended to create: 4.Safe Drinking Water Act, 1974, amended London Dumping Convention (1975) is the international treaty regulating disposal of wastes generated by normal operation of vessels 6.MARPOL 73/78 is implemented in the U.S. by the Act to Prevent Pollution from Ships, under the lead of the U.S. Coast Guard bss.sfsu.edu/ehines/geog600/ Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

128 Clean Water Act The Clean Water Act is a 1977 amendment to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972The Clean Water Act is a 1977 amendment to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 –Set the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants in the US The law gave EPA the authority to set water quality standards for industry and for all contaminants in surface watersThe law gave EPA the authority to set water quality standards for industry and for all contaminants in surface waters The CWA makes it unlawful for any person to discharge any pollutant from a point source into navigable waters unless a permit (NPDES) is obtainedThe CWA makes it unlawful for any person to discharge any pollutant from a point source into navigable waters unless a permit (NPDES) is obtained The amounts and types of pollutants than can be discharged or allowed to run in to waters from watersheds are regulatedThe amounts and types of pollutants than can be discharged or allowed to run in to waters from watersheds are regulated Environmental Science ENSC Pollution in the Bay-Delta Environmental Science ENSC Pollution in the Bay-Delta

129 Safe Drinking Water Act The Safe Drinking Water Act (1974) was established to protect the quality of drinking water in the U.SThe Safe Drinking Water Act (1974) was established to protect the quality of drinking water in the U.S This law focuses on all waters actually or potentially designed for drinking use, whether from above ground or underground sourcesThis law focuses on all waters actually or potentially designed for drinking use, whether from above ground or underground sources Environmental Science ENSC Pollution in the Bay-Delta Environmental Science ENSC Pollution in the Bay-Delta


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