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Water Resources An Environmental Science Series. The Water Molecule Hydrogen Bonds.

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Presentation on theme: "Water Resources An Environmental Science Series. The Water Molecule Hydrogen Bonds."— Presentation transcript:

1 Water Resources An Environmental Science Series

2 The Water Molecule Hydrogen Bonds

3 Energy Involved in the Phase Changes of Water

4 Water: a staple for life

5 Where do we get water?

6 Water Balance Lenthic – standing water (lakes) Lenthic – standing water (lakes) Lotic – running water (streams) Lotic – running water (streams) Incoming sources: 1) Precipitation 2) Surface influents 3) Groundwater seepage 4) Groundwater springs Losses: 1) Outlets (drainage) 2) Seepage into groundwater (infiltration) 3) Evaporation 4) Evapotranspiration (macrophytes)

7 Water in the atmosphere Water vapor can be between 0 and 4 % Water vapor can be between 0 and 4 % It is considered a Greenhouse Gas It is considered a Greenhouse Gas It is responsible for condensation to form clouds and precipitation It is responsible for condensation to form clouds and precipitation

8 Sources of Water Aquifers both confined and unconfined are important underground reservoirs Aquifers both confined and unconfined are important underground reservoirsconfined Surface water sources including rivers, streams, lakes and reservoirs Surface water sources including rivers, streams, lakes and reservoirs Surface Desalination is also another way to get drinking water Desalination is also another way to get drinking water Desalination

9 University of Michigan

10 U.S. water consumption as per 1995 statistics

11 Water, Water Everywhere The oceans constitute over 71% of the surface of the earth. The oceans constitute over 71% of the surface of the earth. Only 3% of the worlds water supply is freshwater (text says 2.6%). Only 3% of the worlds water supply is freshwater (text says 2.6%). Two-thirds of this freshwater supply is tied up in glacial ice. Two-thirds of this freshwater supply is tied up in glacial ice. Most of the water is too polluted to drink and must undergo a form of filtration. Most of the water is too polluted to drink and must undergo a form of filtration.

12 Water usage! The average toilet uses 5 to 7 gallons of water per flush. The average toilet uses 5 to 7 gallons of water per flush. A shower can use 25 to 50 gallons of water (5 gallons per minute). A shower can use 25 to 50 gallons of water (5 gallons per minute). The average bath takes about 36 gallons of water. The average bath takes about 36 gallons of water. It takes about 1 gallon of water to process a quarter pound of hamburger. It takes about 1 gallon of water to process a quarter pound of hamburger. Ten gallons of water are needed to refine one gallon of gasoline. Ten gallons of water are needed to refine one gallon of gasoline. Humans require about 2 1/2 quarts of water a day. Humans require about 2 1/2 quarts of water a day.

13 Groundwater Concept Map by Purdue University, IN

14 Methods of Desalination Reverse Osmosis Reverse Osmosis Reverse Osmosis Reverse Osmosis Distillation Distillation Evaporation Evaporation There are some major desalination processing plants. In fact, the Outerbanks, NC and Cape May use this technology.

15 Water without the salt Desalination Reverse Osmosis Desalination courtesy of USAID (Kahn, 1986.)

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17 Hoover Dam Information Location The Hoover Dam is located in the South Western United States on the border of Nevada and Arizona. The dam is 30 miles southeast of Las Vegas. Interesting Facts Two lane road allows traffic to travel from Nevada to Arizona. For security reasons, certain types of vehicles (like heavy trucks) are not allowed to cross the dam. The Hoover Dam Bypass bridge is currently being built.

18 Irrigation Agriculture accounts for 80 percent of the Nation's water use (USDA) Agriculture accounts for 80 percent of the Nation's water use (USDA) Irrigation is critical to agriculture in the United States: nearly half of the value of all crops sold comes from the 16 percent of harvested cropland that is irrigated. Irrigation is critical to agriculture in the United States: nearly half of the value of all crops sold comes from the 16 percent of harvested cropland that is irrigated.

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20 Cranberry Bogs take much water for flooding and diversion of stream flows Massachusetts Bogs use 41 – 44 billion of gallons of water per year!

21 Water Pollution Types and Treatment

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23 We can classify major sources that lead to water pollution: synthetic agricultural chemicals heavy metals hazardous wastes excess organic matter sediment infectious organisms air pollution thermal pollution soil pollution

24 Bioavailability of Metals According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency metals of major interest that have greatest potential for human exposure and health risk include: Al, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Sb Other metals that may cause less of a health threat are: Ag, Ba, Co, Mn, Mo, Na, Tl, V, and Zn These metals can be dispersed in soil, water and air. Metals in soil and sediment, those suspended in the water column, and those found in groundwater are of greatest concern according to USGS Publication 2191.

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27 Biological Factors – Nutrient Cycling There are biotic processes including nutrient cycling with phosphorus and nitrogen… There are biotic processes including nutrient cycling with phosphorus and nitrogen… Nitrates come from cycling, runoff, and the atmosphere Nitrates come from cycling, runoff, and the atmosphere Nitrates Phosphates are put into a system through runoff, cycling or translocation from another source (bird excretion), but not from the atmosphere Phosphates are put into a system through runoff, cycling or translocation from another source (bird excretion), but not from the atmosphere Phosphates

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29 Florida Everglades: A highly altered ecosystem Florida Bay is 2072 Km 2

30 Water Filtration Water Purification Technologies Distillation Distillation Distillation Ion Exchange Ion Exchange Ion Exchange Ion Exchange Carbon Adsorption Carbon Adsorption Carbon Adsorption Carbon Adsorption Filtration Filtration Filtration Ultrafiltration Ultrafiltration Ultrafiltration Reverse Osmosis Reverse Osmosis Reverse Osmosis Reverse Osmosis Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation

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34 Confined & Unconfined Aquifers Confined & Unconfined Aquifers

35 Bynum Reservoir with the Rocky Mountain Front in the distance


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