3Structure of a Water Molecule Water is polar.A polar molecule is a molecule that has an electrical charge.Water is made of:2 Hydrogen Atoms and 1 Oxygen atom.The chemical formula for water is: H2OHydrogen has a positive (+) charge and Oxygen has a negative (-) charge.
44 Key Properties of Water Capillary ActionSurface TensionUniversal SolventSpecific Heat
5Capillary ActionCapillary action is the combined force of attraction among water molecules and with the molecules of surrounding materials.Examples of Capillary Action of Water:Liquid rising inside a strawPaper towel absorbing waterWet jeansPlant roots absorbing waterSponge
6Surface Tension Examples of the surface tension of water: Surface tension is the tightness across the surface of water that is caused by the polar molecules pulling on one anotherExamples of the surface tension of water:Raindrops forming beads on surfaceWater striderPaperclip Floating on WaterDrops of Water on a PennySkipping RocksMeniscusBelly Flops
7Jesus Lizard My real name is the “Green Basilisk Lizard “.... But not like the one from Harry Potter!!!
10Universal SolventSolution: A mixture that forms when one substance dissolves another.Solvent: substance that does the dissolving.Solute: substance that gets dissolved.Water is the universal solvent because it dissolves so many substances because of its high polarity.Water can dissolve substances such as salt and sugar but cannot dissolve oil.- Polar Dissolves Polar.
12Specific HeatWater requires a lot of heat (gain or loss) to change its temperature due to the strong attraction among water molecules.Specific heat is the amount of heat needed to increase the temperature of a substance by 10CExample of specific heat:- Water temperature vs. sand temperature at the beach during the day.
13Why does water have a high specific heat? Water’s high specific heat is due to the strong attraction among water molecules.The molecules are stuck together and it takes a lot of energy to break the strong bonds of the water molecules.
14Changing State Water exists in 3 forms: solid liquid gas solid liquid
15Molecule Movement Molecules move the slowest in a solid. Solid-molecules are close togetherMolecules move the fastest in a gas.Gas-molecules move freely; they are spread apart
16Phase Changes Melting-water changes from a solid to a liquid Example: Ice melts into waterFreezing-water changes from a liquid to a solidExample: Water freezes into iceMeltingSolidLiquidFreezing
17Phase ChangesEvaporation- process by which molecules at the surface of a liquid absorb enough energy to change to the gaseous stateExample: boiling water, hair air-drying, wet clothes drying on a clothesline outside, puddle drying upCondensation-process by which a gas changes to a liquidExample: water droplets on the outside of a glassfogging up a windowEvaporationGasLiquidCondensation