Presentation on theme: "WATER POLLUTION IN TIMIS COUNTY A.M. BALINT and A.P. NECULAE West University of Timisoara, Romania,"— Presentation transcript:
WATER POLLUTION IN TIMIS COUNTY A.M. BALINT and A.P. NECULAE West University of Timisoara, Romania, Vrnjacka Banja Oct.2oo7
Outlines of the presentation a brief inventory of the water resources and water consumption in Romania an evaluation of the water quality in Timis county (neighbour of Serbia) evaluation concerning rivers, groundwater, fountains and drinking water in Timisoara identification of the main causes of pollution and the critical zones recommendations to improve the present situation Vrnjacka Banja Oct.2oo7
ROMANIA Fig. 1. Romania. Geographical map Vrnjacka Banja Oct.2oo7
Romania is situated in SE Central Europe, north of the Balkan Peninsula, on the Lower Danube and bordering on the Black Sea. It has an area of 238,391 km2 (91,843 miles2), 3,149.9 km of boundaries and a population of 22,526,096 inhabitants (in 1998). Romanias water resources are made up of the surface waters – inner rivers, natural and anthrop lakes, the Danube – and in a smaller measure, 10% respectively, the groundwater. Potentially and technically usable water resources are presented in table 1. Vrnjacka Banja Oct.2oo7
Table 1. Water source Characteristic indicator Total Thousand m3 Vrnjacka Banja Oct.2oo7
As reported to the countrys current population it means : - the specific usable resource in natural regime, of about 2660 m3/inhabitant/year, considering also the Danubes contribution; - the theoretic specific resource, of about 1770 m3/inhabitant/year, considering only the contribution of the inland rivers, placing our country, from this point of view, in the category of the countries with relatively small water resources in comparison with the other countries resources. Vrnjacka Banja Oct.2oo7
The water samplings decreased from 20.4 billion m3 in 1990 to 5.29 billion m3 in the 2006 due to: economic activity reduction, water consumption reduction in the technological processes, reduction of losses, enforcement of the economic gear in the water management. For 2006, the water resources utilization degree (need/sampling report) is presented in table 2. The water sampling was 67.0% of the total demand of water due to the water over-estimations needs, particularly in industry and agriculture, as well as to the economic mechanism applied in the water management Vrnjacka Banja Oct.2oo7
Table 2. Vrnjacka Banja Oct.2oo7
Water resources and water quality measurements in Timis county The Timis county is situated in the west of Romania, in the historical region Banat, with the county seat at Timişoara.BanatTimişoara With a total area of 8,697 km² (3,6% of Romania) it is the largest county in Romania. In 2006, it had a population of 685,901 inhabitants2006 Vrnjacka Banja Oct.2oo7
Fig. 3 Timis county. Geographical map Vrnjacka Banja Oct.2oo7
Synthetic presentations of: water resources, water samplings distribution, global quality in 2006 water consumption evolution between 2003 and 2006 are given in tables 3-5, and figure 4, respectively. Fig. 4. Water sampling evolution Vrnjacka Banja Oct.2oo7
The main critical zone from surface waters pollution point of view is a length of 34 km of Bega river, outside Timisoara in the border direction. The diminishing of the water quality (II class to IV class) is due to waste water conducted in Bega, only mechanically purged (a new station for purifying the water is under construction). For the groundwater, the most important pollutants reported were: organic suspensions, ammonium, phosphates and nitrides. During 2006, accidentally, even 10 to 100 times bigger values then admitted were reported in Timis and Bega basins. The main polluters were identified in the water managing companies of the most important cities of the county (Timisoara, Lugoj, Deta) and S.C. Smithfield (pork elevating company). The influence of the agricultural activity is not very important Vrnjacka Banja Oct. 2oo7
TIMISOARA The urbanization plan of Timisoara – having a plane surface of 3500 ha, like Bruxelles, but a population only of , i.e. 10 times less at that time – was made at the beginning of the XX-the century. So, the project was made estimating citizens. The Bega channel was rearranged, highly navigated, constructed on it one of the first hydro-power plants, called Turbines (1910). Later, appearing high water consuming new industries, (e.g. textiles), big monumental buildings with tens of apartments, avenues etc. and a new water supply system as well as new canalization imposed. There have been proposed three solutions concerning drinking water supply, namely: to use underground water existing at 20 and 80 m deep aquifers all around the town; to use Bega water – despite its unsatisfactory quality (even in present!); or to transport drinking water from the river Mures through pipes tens of kilometres long. Vrnjacka Banja Oct.2oo7
In 1914 was inaugurated the first water supply plant using underground water; in 1959 the second (Bega water), then a third one – no drinking water supply – and in 1981 the fourth plant, Aquatim (Bega water). In 1915 were assured 50 l/day drinking water for each citizen and the consumption now is more than 250 l/day. In 1940 the water supplying network in Timisoara was 127 km long; in 1960 of 158 km; in 1975 practically the double, 318 km, and now more than 500 km. During the last three years we have analysed the quality of drinking water in our town. The results of some of our measurements concerning the water from Bega, Aquatim, Balcescu drilled fountain and from a spring in S-E of Timisoara in comparison with the reference values are presented in the figures 6 to 17. Vrnjacka Banja Oct.2oo7
Fig. 6. pH values
Fig. 7. O 2 values (in mg/l).
Fig. 8. Suspensions values (in mg/l).
Fig. 9. Conductivity values (in μS/cl).
Fig. 10. NO 2 values (in mg/l).
Fig. 11. NO 3 values (in mg/l).
Fig. 12. NH 4 values (in mg/l).
Fig. 13. Chlorides values (in mg/l).
Fig. 14. SO 4 values (in mg/l).
Fig. 15. PO 4 values (in mg/l).
Fig. 16. Fe values (in mg/l).
Fig. 17. Mn+ values (in mg/l).
Conclusions The main problems with the quality of drinking water in Timisoara are: high concentration of Fe existing in groundwater over 0.4 mg/l (admitted 0.2 mg/l) high concentration of Mn 0.2 mg/l (admitted 0.05 mg/l ) NH4 (admitted 1 mg/l) phenols (admitted mg/l) to eliminate the existing silicon oxides (SiO2) turbidity of the water after rains Vrnjacka Banja Oct. 2oo7
MEASURES TO IMPROVE In order to improve the water quality, a long term investments plan (up to 2018) is under development. It focuses on the localities with more then 2000 inhabitants, and consists mainly in: changing the infrastructure used in collecting and purifying the water finding new sources of water Vrnjacka Banja Oct. 2oo7