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WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS Vitamins B and C Functions Effects of deficiency Sources Properties RDA.

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Presentation on theme: "WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS Vitamins B and C Functions Effects of deficiency Sources Properties RDA."— Presentation transcript:

1 WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS Vitamins B and C Functions Effects of deficiency Sources Properties RDA

2 M.A.Calvey/Vitamins 20062 VITAMINS VITAMIN means vital for life VITAMINS are *Micronutrients which are necessary for everyday healthy functioning of the body * Nutrients required in very small amounts - mg or µg

3 MACalvey/Teachnet/Vitamins 20063 VITAMINS - Two main categories Water soluble B C Fat Soluble A D E K

4 MACalvey/Teachnet/Vitamins 20064 Water soluble Cannot be stored in body - regular supply needed Excess is excreted in urine - no danger of toxic levels Unstable to heat and light, leach into cooking liquids Fat Soluble Can be stored in body - regular supply not needed Can accumulate to toxic levels if large amounts ingested Fairly stable at normal cooking temperatures

5 MACalvey/Teachnet/Vitamins 20065 Vitamin B 1 - Thiamine Functions Essential for release of energy from carbohydrates Necessary for appetite and good health Needed for normal functioning of nervous system Deficiency Fatigue, depression, irritability Beri-beri - disease of nervous system Common in countries where polished rice is staple food

6 MACalvey/Teachnet/Vitamins 20066 Vitamin B 1 - Thiamine Sources Meat and offal Oatmeal, breakfast cereals Wheatgerm Fortified white flour Milk Eggs Vegetables

7 MACalvey/Teachnet/Vitamins 20067 Vitamin B 1 - Thiamine Properties Water soluble Destroyed by high temperatures Destroyed by alkalis Lost by milling flour, leaching into cooking liquids and in thawing frozen food RDA 1mg per day - Requirement increases with energy expenditure

8 MACalvey/Teachnet/Vitamins 20068 Vitamin B 2 -Riboflavin Functions Metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats Growth, repair, development of body tissues - healthy skin, eyes and tongue The principal growth promoting factor in the vitamin B complex Deficiency Loss of appetite Swollen tongue, cracked lips, eye infection, dermatitis

9 MACalvey/Teachnet/Vitamins 20069 Vitamin B 2 -Riboflavin Sources Offal Milk Cheese Eggs Yeast extracts Green Vegetables

10 MACalvey/Teachnet/Vitamins 200610 Vitamin B 2 -Riboflavin Properties Water soluble Unstable at high temperatures Destroyed by alkalis Light sensitive RDA 1 - 1.5 mg per day

11 MACalvey/Teachnet/Vitamins 200611 Vitamin B -Niacin (Nicotinic acid) Functions Metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats Needed for normal functioning of nervous system Deficiency Fatigue, depression, irritability Beri-beri - disease of nervous system Common in countries where polished rice is staple food

12 MACalvey/Teachnet/Vitamins 200612 Vitamin B -Niacin (Nicotinic acid) Sources Meat, Offal Yeast extracts Yeast Bran, wheatgerm, flour Some pulses, dried fruit

13 MACalvey/Teachnet/Vitamins 200613 Properties Water soluble Stable to heat Fairly stable to acids/alkalis 80 -90% loss in milling *RDA 15 - 20mg per day Vitamin B -Niacin (Nicotinic acid) *Related to protein intake

14 MACalvey/Teachnet/Vitamins 200614 Vitamin B 6 -Pyridoxine Functions Protein metabolism Involved in formation of haemoglobin, hormones and structural proteins Healthy development of nervous system Deficiency Tiredness and Fatigue, irritability Premenstrual tension Infants may suffer convulsions if there is deficiency

15 MACalvey/Teachnet/Vitamins 200615 Vitamin B 6 -Pyridoxine Sources Meat Offal Eggs Yeast extracts Fish Cereals

16 MACalvey/Teachnet/Vitamins 200616 Properties Water soluble Reasonably heat stable Sensitive to high temperatures, oxygen, milling and processing RDA 2mg per day Vitamin B 6 -Pyridoxine

17 MACalvey/Teachnet/Vitamins 200617 Vitamin B 12 - (Cyano) Cobalamin Functions Red blood cell formation Nervous system - maintains myelin sheath around nerves Helps treat pernicious anaemia Deficiency Pernicious anaemia Nerve degeneration

18 MACalvey/Teachnet/Vitamins 200618 Vitamin B 12 - (Cyano) Cobalamin Sources Meat, Offal Fish Cheese No B 12 in plant foods - Vegans, vegetarians risk of deficiency

19 MACalvey/Teachnet/Vitamins 200619 Properties Water soluble Heat stable up to 100°C Affected by strong acids/alkalis Affected by light RDA 3-4 µg per day Vitamin B 12 - (Cyano) Cobalamin

20 MACalvey/Teachnet/Vitamins 200620 Vitamin B -Folic Acid Functions Red blood cell formation Essential for synthesis of DNA and RNA Development of brain, spinal cord and skeleton in foetus Reduces risk of neural tube defects e.g. spina bifida May play role preventing heart attacks, strokes and cancer Deficiency Fatigue in mild cases Anaemia in severe cases Neural tube defects Important to take folic acid prior to conception and vital during first 3 months pregnancy

21 MACalvey/Teachnet/Vitamins 200621 Vitamin B -Folic Acid Sources Offal Fortified cereals Green leafy vegetables Potatoes bread Milk Wheatgerm

22 MACalvey/Teachnet/Vitamins 200622 Properties Water soluble Unaffected by acids Sensitive to light and oxidation RDA 300 µg per day More during pregnancy Vitamin B -Folic Acid

23 MACalvey/Teachnet/Vitamins 200623 Vitamin C -Ascorbic Acid Functions Formation of connective tissue, collagen Critical to immune system Helps absorption of iron Prevents scurvy Promotes healing of wounds and healthy blood vessels Acts as antioxidant, protects HDL cholesterol Deficiency Weakening of connective tissue Susceptibility to infection Incomplete iron absorption Delayed healing of wounds

24 MACalvey/Teachnet/Vitamins 200624 Vitamin C -Ascorbic Acid Sources Rosehips, blackcurrants, green peppers, kiwi, citrus fruits, strawberries, spinach, cabbage, broccolli

25 MACalvey/Teachnet/Vitamins 200625 Properties Water soluble Destroyed by alkalis, dry or moist heat and enzymes Sensitive to light and oxygen Acts as an antioxidant RDA 30-60 mg per day Vitamin C -Ascorbic Acid Least stable of all vitamins


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