Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Integrated Water Resources Management and the Manufactured Scarcity of Water in Africa By Simphiwe Nojiyeza.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Integrated Water Resources Management and the Manufactured Scarcity of Water in Africa By Simphiwe Nojiyeza."— Presentation transcript:

1 Integrated Water Resources Management and the Manufactured Scarcity of Water in Africa By Simphiwe Nojiyeza

2 What is IWRM Definition of IWRM Definition of IWRM IWRM has been defined by the Global Water Partnership (GWP) as: a process that promotes the coordinated management and development of water, earth, and related resources in order to maximize the social and economic benefits that will result in an equitable manner, without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems (GWP, 2000, de Moran and Ballestero, 2003:5, Biswas, 2008:7, Sanavanan, et. al., 2008:5, Mukhtarov, 2009:1, Lloyd, et. al, 2006:13). IWRM has been defined by the Global Water Partnership (GWP) as: a process that promotes the coordinated management and development of water, earth, and related resources in order to maximize the social and economic benefits that will result in an equitable manner, without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems (GWP, 2000, de Moran and Ballestero, 2003:5, Biswas, 2008:7, Sanavanan, et. al., 2008:5, Mukhtarov, 2009:1, Lloyd, et. al, 2006:13).

3 Characteristics of IWRM Decision making in participatory manner Decision making in participatory manner A systematic process that look at the hydrological cycle as a whole i.e. social, political, health, pollution, balancing interests of various users A systematic process that look at the hydrological cycle as a whole i.e. social, political, health, pollution, balancing interests of various users Reforming water institutions, decentralisation, river basin as a unit of analysis, devolution of powers, deconcentration Reforming water institutions, decentralisation, river basin as a unit of analysis, devolution of powers, deconcentration

4 Principles of IWRM (Dublin Principles) Freshwater is finite and vulnerable resource, essential to sustain life, development and environment Freshwater is finite and vulnerable resource, essential to sustain life, development and environment Water development and management should be based on a participatory approach involving users, planners and policy makers at all levels. Water development and management should be based on a participatory approach involving users, planners and policy makers at all levels. Woman play a central part in the provision, management and safeguarding of water Woman play a central part in the provision, management and safeguarding of water Water has an economic value in all its competing uses and should be recognised as an economic good Water has an economic value in all its competing uses and should be recognised as an economic good

5 Impacts of IWRM implementation Competition amongst various users, pollution Competition amongst various users, pollution The need for reliability and buffers The need for reliability and buffers Attention to social dimensions Attention to social dimensions Reliable and sustained financing Reliable and sustained financing Water security, efficient use, improved waste management, gender equity Water security, efficient use, improved waste management, gender equity

6 Barriers to the implementation of IWRM Willingness to change Willingness to change Lack of tools and systems for integration Lack of tools and systems for integration Domination by water administration experts Domination by water administration experts Lack of quantitative knowledge on water resources Lack of quantitative knowledge on water resources Sustainability, operation and maintenance Sustainability, operation and maintenance No blueprints, imposition by donors, technical other than social focus No blueprints, imposition by donors, technical other than social focus

7 Manufactured scarcity and African case Studies

8 Water Resources in Accra, Ghana and Balaka, Tcheu, Mangochi (Malawi) Ghana is well endowed with water resources. The Volta River system basin, consisting of the Oti, Daka, Pru, Sene and Afram rivers as well as the White and Black Volta rivers, covers 70% of the country area. Ghana is well endowed with water resources. The Volta River system basin, consisting of the Oti, Daka, Pru, Sene and Afram rivers as well as the White and Black Volta rivers, covers 70% of the country area. Another 22% of Ghana is covered by the southwestern river system watershed comprising the Bia, Tano, Ankobra and Pra rivers. The coastal river system watershed, comprising the Ochi- Nawuka, Ochi Amissah, Ayensu, Densu and Tordzi rivers, covers the remaining 8% of the country. Another 22% of Ghana is covered by the southwestern river system watershed comprising the Bia, Tano, Ankobra and Pra rivers. The coastal river system watershed, comprising the Ochi- Nawuka, Ochi Amissah, Ayensu, Densu and Tordzi rivers, covers the remaining 8% of the country.

9 Accra Water Resources Status Groundwater with a mean yield of 3.9 cubic metres a day depending on whether it is Dahomeyan, Togo series to the total recharge of cubic km per year Groundwater with a mean yield of 3.9 cubic metres a day depending on whether it is Dahomeyan, Togo series to the total recharge of cubic km per year Annual rainfall of 756 mm, surface water with a drainage of cubic km squared in Densu Basin, Weija Dam, Akosombo Dam, Songo-Mokwe Catchment, Sakumo 2 catchment, Volta river/ Lake are some of water resources (Birner, et. al, 2011:54). Annual rainfall of 756 mm, surface water with a drainage of cubic km squared in Densu Basin, Weija Dam, Akosombo Dam, Songo-Mokwe Catchment, Sakumo 2 catchment, Volta river/ Lake are some of water resources (Birner, et. al, 2011:54).

10 Malawi water resources Malawi is endowed with a variety of natural resources which include expanses of water systems (MIWD, 2005:1, Mkandawire, et. al, 2011:7) Malawi is generally considered to be relatively rich in water resources, which are stored in the form of lakes, rivers, and aquifers (Ngongola, 1999:8, Ferguson and Mulwafu, 2004:3, FAO, 2007, Mkandawire, et. al, 2011:8). Malawi is endowed with a variety of natural resources which include expanses of water systems (MIWD, 2005:1, Mkandawire, et. al, 2011:7) Malawi is generally considered to be relatively rich in water resources, which are stored in the form of lakes, rivers, and aquifers (Ngongola, 1999:8, Ferguson and Mulwafu, 2004:3, FAO, 2007, Mkandawire, et. al, 2011:8).

11 Malawi Water Resources abundance Lake Malawi is the third largest freshwater lake in Africa and the eleventh largest in the world, has a total surface area of 28,760 km 2 Lake Malawi is the third largest freshwater lake in Africa and the eleventh largest in the world, has a total surface area of 28,760 km 2 Other lakes Chilwa, Malombe and Chiuta Other lakes Chilwa, Malombe and Chiuta Water resources storage in the form of dams, Precambrian and quaternary aquifers, shallow wells and boreholes, Songwe, Shire and Ruo are part of 17 Water Resources area and 78 water resources units (Mkandawire et. al, 2011) Water resources storage in the form of dams, Precambrian and quaternary aquifers, shallow wells and boreholes, Songwe, Shire and Ruo are part of 17 Water Resources area and 78 water resources units (Mkandawire et. al, 2011) The water systems cover 21% of the country The water systems cover 21% of the country

12 Water supply status The main source of water supply is boreholes, lack of regulation and compliance with drilling standards The main source of water supply is boreholes, lack of regulation and compliance with drilling standards There is one Water purification plant in the research area (Balaka town), water borne toilets in Balaka, Mangochi and Ncheu served with VIP and Traditional Latrines There is one Water purification plant in the research area (Balaka town), water borne toilets in Balaka, Mangochi and Ncheu served with VIP and Traditional Latrines Sanitation facilities are unimproved and VIP pit latrines, storm water and drainage non existent. Water quality in Lake Malawi compromised due to latrine effluent (DOIWD) Sanitation facilities are unimproved and VIP pit latrines, storm water and drainage non existent. Water quality in Lake Malawi compromised due to latrine effluent (DOIWD) 5 waste water treatment plants (Performance at the average of 80%, lack or drainage system, Kumasi VIP latrines, flush (3 pressure systems) toilets, septic tanks are main features in Accra (EPA, 2011). 5 waste water treatment plants (Performance at the average of 80%, lack or drainage system, Kumasi VIP latrines, flush (3 pressure systems) toilets, septic tanks are main features in Accra (EPA, 2011). Effluents discharged into rivers, lagoons, causing diseases Effluents discharged into rivers, lagoons, causing diseases

13 Research questions The broad objective of this thesis is to examine water and sanitation governance, new institutional economics and environmental economics regarding the implementation of IWRM. The focus on water governance means that we are interested in collective action with respect to water and sanitation issues. Water and sanitation governance is linked to institutional mechanisms, property rights (private property vs. public property) and whether provision is public or private, decentralization or centralization and the role of market mechanisms (Kuks, 2004:13,Wunsch, 2001, Indranil, 2010, Franks, 2004, Batterbury and Fernando,2006, Castro 2007, Oxhorn, Tulehin and Selee,2004). The broad objective of this thesis is to examine water and sanitation governance, new institutional economics and environmental economics regarding the implementation of IWRM. The focus on water governance means that we are interested in collective action with respect to water and sanitation issues. Water and sanitation governance is linked to institutional mechanisms, property rights (private property vs. public property) and whether provision is public or private, decentralization or centralization and the role of market mechanisms (Kuks, 2004:13,Wunsch, 2001, Indranil, 2010, Franks, 2004, Batterbury and Fernando,2006, Castro 2007, Oxhorn, Tulehin and Selee,2004).

14 New Institutional Economics The focus on new institutional economics means that we are interested in transaction costs, institutional evolution, constitutional choice, collective action, information costs, law and economics of contracts, institutional transaction costs and how the theory of institutions could be utilised to analyse water governance and institutional frameworks ( Richter, 2003, Saleth, 2003, North, 1990, Miller, 2003, Saleth and Dinar, 2003, Klein, 1999, Williamson, 1999, Williamson 1995, Furubotn and Richter, Feige, 1990, Fiani, 2004, Streeck and Thelen, 2006, Selznick, 1996). The focus on new institutional economics means that we are interested in transaction costs, institutional evolution, constitutional choice, collective action, information costs, law and economics of contracts, institutional transaction costs and how the theory of institutions could be utilised to analyse water governance and institutional frameworks ( Richter, 2003, Saleth, 2003, North, 1990, Miller, 2003, Saleth and Dinar, 2003, Klein, 1999, Williamson, 1999, Williamson 1995, Furubotn and Richter, Feige, 1990, Fiani, 2004, Streeck and Thelen, 2006, Selznick, 1996).

15 Environmental economics The focus on environmental economics is based on eco efficiency, environmental performance, sustainability, physical scarcity and economic scarcity and externalities as either benefits or losses associated with a water governance model and an institutional framework (Massarutto, 2008, Asafu-Adjaye, 2000, Schaltegger and Synnestvedt, 2002). The focus on environmental economics is based on eco efficiency, environmental performance, sustainability, physical scarcity and economic scarcity and externalities as either benefits or losses associated with a water governance model and an institutional framework (Massarutto, 2008, Asafu-Adjaye, 2000, Schaltegger and Synnestvedt, 2002).

16 Sub- Questions The main research question is whether the implementation of IWRM reduces or perpetuates water and sanitation poverty by recognizing water as an economic good and promoting decentralization governance models. The main research question is whether the implementation of IWRM reduces or perpetuates water and sanitation poverty by recognizing water as an economic good and promoting decentralization governance models. What is the main institutional shift in water and sanitation governance that can be perceived in Africa as a result of the introduction of IWRM? What is the main institutional shift in water and sanitation governance that can be perceived in Africa as a result of the introduction of IWRM? How can we elaborate the elements of a water and sanitation governance structure in terms of institutional mechanisms, property rights, service provision (public or private), centralization or decentralization and market mechanisms? How can we elaborate the elements of a water and sanitation governance structure in terms of institutional mechanisms, property rights, service provision (public or private), centralization or decentralization and market mechanisms? How can these water governance instruments be explained in terms of institutional conditions under which they operate? How can these water governance instruments be explained in terms of institutional conditions under which they operate?

17 Other Sub Questions What transaction costs, institutional evolution, constitutional choice, collective action, information costs, law and economics of contracts and institutional transaction costs could be associated with the introduction of IWRM in AfDB supported water and sanitation projects? What transaction costs, institutional evolution, constitutional choice, collective action, information costs, law and economics of contracts and institutional transaction costs could be associated with the introduction of IWRM in AfDB supported water and sanitation projects? What eco efficiency, environmental performance, physical scarcity and economic scarcity trends, sustainability and externalities, could be associated with the introduction of IWRM in Africa and elsewhere? What eco efficiency, environmental performance, physical scarcity and economic scarcity trends, sustainability and externalities, could be associated with the introduction of IWRM in Africa and elsewhere?

18 Key Preliminary Findings Water and Sanitation Governance Water and Sanitation Governance In both case studies there are both formal (Meso) and informal (Micro). District, Local and Sub councils, Ministries such as Food and agriculture, Public Works and Housing, Health, Fisheries, Community Water and Sanitation Agency, Environmental Protection Agency, Volta River basin, Water Resources Commission, Ghana Water Company Limited are Formal in Ghana- roles defined in various acts and policies In both case studies there are both formal (Meso) and informal (Micro). District, Local and Sub councils, Ministries such as Food and agriculture, Public Works and Housing, Health, Fisheries, Community Water and Sanitation Agency, Environmental Protection Agency, Volta River basin, Water Resources Commission, Ghana Water Company Limited are Formal in Ghana- roles defined in various acts and policies Tindanas (Spiritual leaders), Traditional Leaders (National, Local and Regional Houses) Water and sanitation committees, Water User Associations are informal- roles are not written but play meaningful roles in community water management, irrigation land allocation and demand management Tindanas (Spiritual leaders), Traditional Leaders (National, Local and Regional Houses) Water and sanitation committees, Water User Associations are informal- roles are not written but play meaningful roles in community water management, irrigation land allocation and demand management

19 Meso and Micro Institutions in Malawi Ministries for Irrigation and Water Development, Agriculture, Natural Resources, Health, Meteorological Services, National Water Resources Authority, 5 Water Utilities, District Assemblies, Mpira Water Authority, are formal water institutions established in accordance with Water Resources Act of 1969, Water policy of 2005, Sanitation Policy of 2007, Water Works Act of Ministries for Irrigation and Water Development, Agriculture, Natural Resources, Health, Meteorological Services, National Water Resources Authority, 5 Water Utilities, District Assemblies, Mpira Water Authority, are formal water institutions established in accordance with Water Resources Act of 1969, Water policy of 2005, Sanitation Policy of 2007, Water Works Act of Traditional Leaders, Irrigation boards, tap and sanitation committees are informal (non statutory), but responsible for tariffs setting, operation and maintenance of boreholes, shallow wells, irrigation scheme control etc. Traditional Leaders, Irrigation boards, tap and sanitation committees are informal (non statutory), but responsible for tariffs setting, operation and maintenance of boreholes, shallow wells, irrigation scheme control etc. Village Level Operation and Maintenance (VLOM) Teams are also informal although their training is done by MOIWD Village Level Operation and Maintenance (VLOM) Teams are also informal although their training is done by MOIWD

20 Veblenian Dichotomy In both countries the implementation of IWRM tends to be techno-scientific, dominated by hydrologists, water engineers and socio economic, cultural aspects are ignored in CMAs, Irrigation boards, WUAs, WATSAN and this lead to Veblenian Dichotomy (Nabli and Nugent, 1989, Miller, 2003). In both countries the implementation of IWRM tends to be techno-scientific, dominated by hydrologists, water engineers and socio economic, cultural aspects are ignored in CMAs, Irrigation boards, WUAs, WATSAN and this lead to Veblenian Dichotomy (Nabli and Nugent, 1989, Miller, 2003). Collective Action in Accra with the establishment of Coalition Against Water privatisation hosted by ISODEC, CONIWAS and MOLE conferences and citizen action and assemblies, Malawi Economic Justice Network, Action Aid, WES-NGOs resisted private sector participation in the water sector, campaigned for food security Collective Action in Accra with the establishment of Coalition Against Water privatisation hosted by ISODEC, CONIWAS and MOLE conferences and citizen action and assemblies, Malawi Economic Justice Network, Action Aid, WES-NGOs resisted private sector participation in the water sector, campaigned for food security

21 Principles of water and sanitation governance Malawi recently completed a very open, transparent, participative, accountable, effective, coherent, efficient, communicative, equitable, integrative…. IWRM process which involved government, private sector, CSOs, academia (Mkandawire, et. al, 2011)… the challenges revolves around implementation Malawi recently completed a very open, transparent, participative, accountable, effective, coherent, efficient, communicative, equitable, integrative…. IWRM process which involved government, private sector, CSOs, academia (Mkandawire, et. al, 2011)… the challenges revolves around implementation The establishment of Water user associations, WATSAN Committees, representation of CSOS in the Water Resources Commission is commendable, but the structures are not working and collection of 5% capital costs of boreholes, small dams and operation and maintenance and pay as you use is criticized as undermining the very principles of IWRM (Laube, 2007) The establishment of Water user associations, WATSAN Committees, representation of CSOS in the Water Resources Commission is commendable, but the structures are not working and collection of 5% capital costs of boreholes, small dams and operation and maintenance and pay as you use is criticized as undermining the very principles of IWRM (Laube, 2007)

22 Institutional Mechanisms The formal rules of the game such as Water resources Commission Act of Ghana, Water Works Act of 1995 (Malawi), the availability of institutions such as Environmental Protection Agency (Ghana), Water Resources Board (Malawi) could not prevent sedimentation of dams, over use of wetlands, effluent discharging in rivers and lakes causing diseconomies / externalities The formal rules of the game such as Water resources Commission Act of Ghana, Water Works Act of 1995 (Malawi), the availability of institutions such as Environmental Protection Agency (Ghana), Water Resources Board (Malawi) could not prevent sedimentation of dams, over use of wetlands, effluent discharging in rivers and lakes causing diseconomies / externalities Price determinism vs institutionalisms- increasing tariffs to benefit the poor dominates Accra Urban Water Management and Vision 2030 strategy, enforcing payments and cut offs dominates the thinking in Southern Water Board that disconnects households in Balaka, and Rural parts of Lilongwe Price determinism vs institutionalisms- increasing tariffs to benefit the poor dominates Accra Urban Water Management and Vision 2030 strategy, enforcing payments and cut offs dominates the thinking in Southern Water Board that disconnects households in Balaka, and Rural parts of Lilongwe Lowering the demand for water, water rationing (Ghana) Lowering the demand for water, water rationing (Ghana)

23 Property Rights In both countries Water is a public property owned by Heads of states- but irrigation schemes are constructed by farmers and managed by Water User Associations In both countries Water is a public property owned by Heads of states- but irrigation schemes are constructed by farmers and managed by Water User Associations Households that are not paying in Accra are not allowed to cultivate during dry seasons Households that are not paying in Accra are not allowed to cultivate during dry seasons Water schemes in Accra are utilities, vendors, community managed, private providers- the price is determined by who render the service Water schemes in Accra are utilities, vendors, community managed, private providers- the price is determined by who render the service No regulation to protect fish species and water quality- private property elements- government aloof, decentralised everything to users- self regulation No regulation to protect fish species and water quality- private property elements- government aloof, decentralised everything to users- self regulation

24 Public and Private Provision Ghana Water Company limited responsible for urban water, Community Water and sanitation Agency is responsible for rural and small town provision Ghana Water Company limited responsible for urban water, Community Water and sanitation Agency is responsible for rural and small town provision In Greater Accra, GWCL is assisted by Aqua Vitens Rand Limited through a 5 years management contract In Greater Accra, GWCL is assisted by Aqua Vitens Rand Limited through a 5 years management contract Other providers are private kiosks, vendors, community managed schemes with different tariff systems- GWCL is the cheapest but inaccessible to people who rent property, informal dwellers and other poor Other providers are private kiosks, vendors, community managed schemes with different tariff systems- GWCL is the cheapest but inaccessible to people who rent property, informal dwellers and other poor 5 commercial water boards serve water in Urban Malawi, NGO funded schemes, community management in boreholes, shallow wells, private irrigation schemes 5 commercial water boards serve water in Urban Malawi, NGO funded schemes, community management in boreholes, shallow wells, private irrigation schemes Malawi Growth and Development Strategy- PRSP Malawi Growth and Development Strategy- PRSP

25 Decentralisation and Centralisation Ghana Water Company ltd., District Assemblies, WUAs, WATSAN, CWSA, are decentralised institutions that serve water and sanitation. Ghana Water Company ltd., District Assemblies, WUAs, WATSAN, CWSA, are decentralised institutions that serve water and sanitation. Private providers such as vendors, kiosks, community management schemes using demand led – Price elasticity models are also a form of decentralisation Private providers such as vendors, kiosks, community management schemes using demand led – Price elasticity models are also a form of decentralisation In Malawi commercialised and state water boards, MOIWD serve water in rural areas- proposed CMAs, NGOs, private sector, assemblies are institutions established as a result of decentralisation Act of 1998, recommended by Donors, but MOIWD does most of the work. In Malawi commercialised and state water boards, MOIWD serve water in rural areas- proposed CMAs, NGOs, private sector, assemblies are institutions established as a result of decentralisation Act of 1998, recommended by Donors, but MOIWD does most of the work. Decentralised institutions lacks revenue to discharge their responsibilities Decentralised institutions lacks revenue to discharge their responsibilities

26 The Role of Market Mechanisms Distribution channels – reticulation in Accra is done by GWCL, AVRL, Vendors, CWSA, Community Management Schemes, Water User Associations, NGOs Distribution channels – reticulation in Accra is done by GWCL, AVRL, Vendors, CWSA, Community Management Schemes, Water User Associations, NGOs Bulk Water Supply is expected to be sold to WUAs, WATSAN Bulk Water Supply is expected to be sold to WUAs, WATSAN Reticulation in Malawi is done by Regional water Boards, NGOs, MIWD Reticulation in Malawi is done by Regional water Boards, NGOs, MIWD Access / consumption- 500 metres (Accra), 200 metres (Balaka) average 40 Kilolitres p /h/month (12 People) Access / consumption- 500 metres (Accra), 200 metres (Balaka) average 40 Kilolitres p /h/month (12 People) Willingness to pay dominates thinking in both countries, no cross subsidisation in the pipeline Willingness to pay dominates thinking in both countries, no cross subsidisation in the pipeline

27 Transaction and Information Costs Construction of water reservoirs – (by 2003) Cd1.3 Billion, rehabilitation costs- Cd.885 million, community contribution of 5% Construction of water reservoirs – (by 2003) Cd1.3 Billion, rehabilitation costs- Cd.885 million, community contribution of 5% Transaction costs- administrative costs of planning and supervising dam construction, capacity building of WUAs, negotiation of land rights and land registration- very high transaction costs Transaction costs- administrative costs of planning and supervising dam construction, capacity building of WUAs, negotiation of land rights and land registration- very high transaction costs Environmental Impact Assessment cost- Information cost – not always enforced in irrigation Environmental Impact Assessment cost- Information cost – not always enforced in irrigation Cost benefit analysis- 10 years use before breakeven point is reached- ROA and ROI is very low Cost benefit analysis- 10 years use before breakeven point is reached- ROA and ROI is very low

28 Institutional Evolution Institutions such as VLOM, Tap and Borehole committees evolved to advance demand management and shift from supply led Institutions such as VLOM, Tap and Borehole committees evolved to advance demand management and shift from supply led Even institutions such as WUAs, WATSAN evolved to recover costs of construction, collect costs of operation and maintenance, transaction and information costs. Even institutions such as WUAs, WATSAN evolved to recover costs of construction, collect costs of operation and maintenance, transaction and information costs. These are institutions of super exploitation of the poor and vulnerable These are institutions of super exploitation of the poor and vulnerable CMAs evolved to support river basin approach to IWRM CMAs evolved to support river basin approach to IWRM

29 Constitutional Choice and Law of Contracts The Constitution of Mpira Water Authority and Volta River Basin are examples of constitutional choices supporting institutional arrangements The Constitution of Mpira Water Authority and Volta River Basin are examples of constitutional choices supporting institutional arrangements EPA, Water Resources Board and Water Resources Commission enforces water rights, abstraction rights- Water Management contract – GWCL- AVRL (5year), not easy to opt out EPA, Water Resources Board and Water Resources Commission enforces water rights, abstraction rights- Water Management contract – GWCL- AVRL (5year), not easy to opt out Water Resources Act of 1969 elaborated on custodianship of water resources, water withdrawal, non revenue, Water Works Act explain the role of Commercial and regional Water Boards- implementation not clear Water Resources Act of 1969 elaborated on custodianship of water resources, water withdrawal, non revenue, Water Works Act explain the role of Commercial and regional Water Boards- implementation not clear Law of Contract protect transacting parties e.g. water cut off if farmers are not contributing 5% before cultivation Law of Contract protect transacting parties e.g. water cut off if farmers are not contributing 5% before cultivation

30 Eco Efficiency and Sustainability Discharging effluents from the 5 waste water treatment works in Accra violated the right to health and for future generations to live in a healthy environment Discharging effluents from the 5 waste water treatment works in Accra violated the right to health and for future generations to live in a healthy environment Such pollution result in degradation of the ecosystem, killing of the fish (Aquaculture) and pollution of rivers, sedimentation, salinisation of the lagoons, upstream- downstream divide Such pollution result in degradation of the ecosystem, killing of the fish (Aquaculture) and pollution of rivers, sedimentation, salinisation of the lagoons, upstream- downstream divide

31 Environmental Performance Willingness to pay for environmental friendly products pose a challenge in fertilizer used in agriculture affecting quality of water Willingness to pay for environmental friendly products pose a challenge in fertilizer used in agriculture affecting quality of water Lack of optimum environmental performance through establishing environmental cost accounting, ecological control systems Lack of optimum environmental performance through establishing environmental cost accounting, ecological control systems Lack of enforcement of environmental laws and principles of polluter pays Lack of enforcement of environmental laws and principles of polluter pays

32 Externalities In all case studies market instruments were used, e.g. pollution tax, levies and subsidies imposed in order to internalise externalities In all case studies market instruments were used, e.g. pollution tax, levies and subsidies imposed in order to internalise externalities Social Costs of charging both the polluter and the victim is very prevalent Social Costs of charging both the polluter and the victim is very prevalent Soft loans, tax allowances were given to industries to reduce pollution, market emission permits in a bid process Soft loans, tax allowances were given to industries to reduce pollution, market emission permits in a bid process There was lack of pollution reduction standards and enforcement mechanisms There was lack of pollution reduction standards and enforcement mechanisms


Download ppt "Integrated Water Resources Management and the Manufactured Scarcity of Water in Africa By Simphiwe Nojiyeza."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google