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1 University of Washington Ballast Water Research Update Russ Herwig, Jeff Cordell, Dave Lawrence School of Aquatic and Fishery Science, UW Washington.

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Presentation on theme: "1 University of Washington Ballast Water Research Update Russ Herwig, Jeff Cordell, Dave Lawrence School of Aquatic and Fishery Science, UW Washington."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 University of Washington Ballast Water Research Update Russ Herwig, Jeff Cordell, Dave Lawrence School of Aquatic and Fishery Science, UW Washington Sea Grant December 6, 2007

2 2 Jeff Cordell Principal Research Scientist Zooplankton Dave Lawrence Research Scientist Phytoplankton The current team

3 3 Team, continued Nissa Ferm SMA Graduate Student zooplankton Olga Kalata Research Scientist zooplankton

4 4 Major Projects and Collaborations State of Washington Ballast Sampling Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Allen Pleus, Pam Meacham, Keith Streick, Gary Gertsen Sodium Hypochlorite Ballast Water Treatment Studies Severn Trent De Nora Rudy Matousek Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) - Surrogate Species Project Old Dominion University Fred Dobbs Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Don Anderson Marshall University Andrew Rogerson

5 5 Presentation Outline Preliminary Comments Different types of ships Famous introductions Ballast water exchange State of Washington Ballast Water Sampling Necessity for ballast water treatment Inoculation and propagule pressure Ballast Water Treatment Development and Experiments Proposed and existing discharge standards Technologies on the table Scaling up treatment tests Shipboard tests Concluding Remarks

6 6 Cougar Ace, Gulf of Alaska, July 2006

7 7 Comment 1 Know your vessel types and voyage patterns.

8 8 Russ Herwig

9 9

10 10 Russ Herwig

11 11 Other vessel types Container ships Tankers and Tanker Barges Bryan Nielsen

12 12 Port of Seattle YearVessel Calls , , , , Vessel TypeNumber Container814 Cruise196 Grain109 Barge182

13 13 Comment 2 Not all invasive species are created equal.

14 14

15 15

16 16 Its not just zebra and quagga mussels.

17 17 Native to: Japan, China, Korea Pseudodiaptomus inopinus Copepod first appeared in Columbia River, 1990 Found as monoculture in many other west coast rivers Displaced native copepods Important in diet of crabs and mysid shrimp Replaced in the Columbia River by two new invasive copepod species Jeff Cordell

18 18 Pseudodiaptomus forbesi Native to: Japan, China, Korea First recorded in San Francisco Estuary, 1987 Appears to have displaced previously introduced P. inopinus in the Columbia River, which is no longer abundant Recorded in Columbia River Estuary, 2002 Jeff Cordell

19 19

20 20 May and August 2005

21 21 Bonneville John Day McNary Ice Harbor Lower Monumental Lower Granite Little Goose Reservoir

22 22 Washington Non-Indigenous Marine/Estuarine Species Introduced by Ballast Water The biggies Carcinus maenus Crab, European green Eriocheir sinensis Crab, mitten Styela clava Tunicate, club (solitary) Ciona savignyi Tunicate, transparent (solitary) Molgula manhattensis Tunicate (solitary) Botrylloides violaceus Tunicate, chain (colonial) Botryllus schlosseri Tunicate, golden star (colonial) Didemnum sp. Tunicate (colonial) Diadumene lineate Anemone, orange-stripe Petricolaria pholadiformis Angelwing, false Zoobotryon verticillatum Bryozoan, spaghetti Neotrapezium liratum Clam, Japanese Potamocorbula amurensis Clam, Asian Gemma gemma Clam, Atlantic gem Mercenaria mercenaria Clam, Northern quahog Mnemiopsis leidyi Comb jelly, Leidy s Pseudodiaptomus inopinus Copepod Rhithropanopeus harrisii Crab, Harris mud Sabella spallanzanii Fan worm, Mediterranean Tridentiger trigonocephalus Goby, chameleon goby Orthione griffensis Isopod, Griffens (parasitic) Maeotias inexspectata Jellyfish, Black Sea Phyllorhiza punctata Jellyfish, spotted Batallaria attramentaria Mudsnail, Asian Geukensia demissa Mussel, Atlantic ribbed Perna spp. Mussel, New Zealand green Musculista senhousia Mussel, Japanese Exopalaemon modestus Prawn, Siberian Crepidula fornicata Snail, Atlantic slipper Clathria prolifera Sponge, red beard Busycotypus canaliculatus Whelk, channeled Nuttallia obscurata Clam, purple varnish Washington State Aquatic Nuisance Species Watch List (Invasive Species Council, August 2007) The others

23 23 What to do? Ballast water exchange. Ship exchanges the water in its ballast tanks 50 to 200 nautical miles from coast Empty-refill method Flow through method 2 to 3 times volume of water is flushed through ballast tank

24 24 State of Washington Ballast Sampling Sampling initiated 6 years ago by University of Washington Later, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began sampling; preserved zooplankton samples provided to UW 2 ship inspectors - Puget Sound and Columbia River Sampling: 3 vertical plankton tows per sampled ballast tank 73 µm mesh net Zooplankton identified to lowest taxonomic level possible Examined ballast samples from 246 ships, Accepted for publication, Aquatic Conservation UW developing MS Access database Quicker analysis of data Less errors in data entry Today, preliminary sample analysis, 172 ships

25 25

26 26

27 27 Ballast water zooplankton samples per month 2006 (n=76) and 2007 (n=96)

28 28 Number of boardings by ship type ( )

29 29 Number of boardings by source country ( )

30 30 % and abundance of NI + Coastal Organisms ( ) (n=133, others in process)

31 31 % and abundance of NI + Coastal Organisms (2006 and 2007) - CA as BW source (n=45)

32 32 All ships sampled Estimated # of Oithona davisae discharged per ship Geometric mean1.47E+05 Mean1.35E+07 Standard Error8.33E+06 Median1.99E+05 Standard Deviation6.40E+07 Minimum0 Maximum4.38E+08 Count59 frequency of occurrence (2006 and 2007 samples)47.4% Ships with CA as BW source Estimated # of Oithona davisae discharged per ship Geometric Mean1.37E+05 Mean2.66E+07 Standard Error1.67E+07 Median3.11E+05 Standard Deviation9.01E+07 Minimum0 Maximum4.38E+08 Count29 frequency of occurrence (2006 and 2007 samples)73.3% Oithona davisae Most commonly discharged non-indigenous zooplankton from sampled vessels ( data)

33 33 Conclusions from Puget Sound Ship Sampling (Cordell et. al in press) Despite Washington State regulations requiring oceanic exchange (OE), ships had high densities and/or percentages of NIS and/or coastal species. Densities of both NIS and coastal taxa, and percentages of NIS were consistently and significantly higher from domestic trips; lower in samples from transpacific trips. Domestic trips dominated by tankers carrying ballast water from California. International trips dominated by container ships and bulk carriers with ballast from Japan, China, and South Korea.

34 34 Comment 3 Proposed discharged standard will challenge technologies and testing protocols.

35 35 Discharge Standards Size of organisms International Maritime Organization (IMO) WashingtonCaliforniaCanadaU.S.S.1578 > 50 µm< 10 m -3 Kill or remove 95% zooplankton No detectable living organisms < 10 m -3 < 0.1 m to 50 µm< 10 mL -1 Kill or remove 95% phytoplankton < mL -1 < 10 mL -1 < 1 mL -1

36 36 Public Health Microorganisms Type of organism International Maritime Organization (IMO) WashingtonCaliforniaCanadaU.S.S.1578 Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae 1 CFU 100 mL -1, 1 CFU g -1 wet zooplankton < 1 CFU 100 mL -1 ; <1 CFU g -1 zoological sample E. coli 250 CFU 100 mL CFU 100 mL CFU 100 mL -1 <126 CFU 100 mL -1 Intestinal enterococci 100 CFU 100 mL CFU 100 mL CFU 100 mL -1 < 33 CFU 100 mL -1

37 37 Treatment Technologies Chemical biocides Ozone Sodium hypochlorite Chlorine dioxide PERACLEAN® Ocean (peroxyacetic acid) SeaKleen® (menadione, vitamin K 3 ) Advanced oxidation methods Size separation Filtration Cyclonic separation Physical methods Ultraviolet light Deoxygenation Electrolysis Heat Combinations of treatment Red = UW work

38 38 Scale Up Process

39 39 Comment 4 Dont scale-up a screw-up. Comment 5 Do your homework before you install a treatment system on a ship.

40 40 Upcoming Shipboard Tests

41 41 Severn Trent De Nora BalPure Treatment System onboard the SeaRiver American Pride STDN electrolytic sodium hypochlorite generator Neutralization step before discharge American Pride - tanker, petroleum product Voyage: Port Everglades, FL (Miami) to Beaumont, TX U.S. Coast Guard STEP IMO - compatible tests (G8) 3 replicate 1.1 m 3 samples collected during each 1/3 of ballast uplift 3 replicate 1.1 m 3 samples collected during each 1/3 of ballast discharge Samples collected from control and treatment ballast tanks during voyage 3 biological tests in 6 months February, May, August 2008

42 42 Concluding Comments Ballast water exchange, as currently practiced, is releasing large numbers of non-indigenous and/or coastal organisms in Puget Sound. Many potential treatment technologies being considered. Limitations and positive attributes of each technology need to be evaluated. Different technologies may be applicable to different vessel classes. Many treatment technologies appear better than ballast water exchange (e.g., concentration of discharged organisms) Scientists and engineers must work together in not only finding environmental problems, but also in providing solutions.

43 43 Funding Acknowledgements National Sea Grant Program U.S. Fish and Wildlife Washington Sea Grant United States Geological Survey (USGS) Industry BP Oil Transportation Severn Trent De Nora MARENCO Technology Group

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