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Water Resources This picture shows the size of a sphere that would contain all of Earth's freshwater in comparison to the size of the Earth. The blue sphere.

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Presentation on theme: "Water Resources This picture shows the size of a sphere that would contain all of Earth's freshwater in comparison to the size of the Earth. The blue sphere."— Presentation transcript:

1 Water Resources This picture shows the size of a sphere that would contain all of Earth's freshwater in comparison to the size of the Earth. The blue sphere sitting on the United States, reaching from about Salt Lake City, Utah to Topeka, Kansas, has a diameter of about 860 miles, with a volume of about 332,500,000 cubic miles. The sphere includes all the water in the ice caps, lakes and rivers as well as groundwater, atmospheric water, and even the water in you, your dog, and your tomato plant.

2 The Hydrosphere Includes all of the water on or near the Earths surface (oceans, lakes, rivers, polar icecaps, groundwater, & clouds) Includes all of the water on or near the Earths surface (oceans, lakes, rivers, polar icecaps, groundwater, & clouds)

3 The water cycle is the continuous movement of water into the air, onto the land, and then back to water sources. The water cycle is the continuous movement of water into the air, onto the land, and then back to water sources.

4 The Water Cycle Water is renewable because it is circulated in the water cycle Water is renewable because it is circulated in the water cycle Evaporation – the change of state from a liquid to a gas (liquid water to water vapor) Evaporation – the change of state from a liquid to a gas (liquid water to water vapor) Condensation – the change of state from a gas to a liquid (water vapor to liquid water) Condensation – the change of state from a gas to a liquid (water vapor to liquid water) Precipitation – any form of water that falls to Earths surface from clouds (rain, snow, etc.) Precipitation – any form of water that falls to Earths surface from clouds (rain, snow, etc.) Runoff – excess water that flows off of the surface Runoff – excess water that flows off of the surface

5 Global Water Distribution

6 Icecaps and glaciers (77%) 1.In what form is most of Earths water? 2.Where is most of the freshwater found? Saltwater (97%)

7 Earths Oceans All of Earths oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian,& Arctic Oceans) are connected. All of Earths oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian,& Arctic Oceans) are connected. Oceans cover over 70% of Earths surface. Oceans cover over 70% of Earths surface.

8 Surface Ocean Currents Common surface ocean currents show the flow of the sea In 1993, thousands of rubber duckies washed up on Alaskan beaches. Oceanographers determined that a ship carrying the toys lost a container during a storm near Hawaii in The ducks were used to map ocean currents.

9 The Ocean A Global Temperature Regulator The main function of the world ocean is to: The main function of the world ocean is to: Absorb & store energy from the sun Absorb & store energy from the sunHow? Water absorbs and releases heat slower than land does. Water absorbs and releases heat slower than land does. **Without the ocean, the temperature of Earths atmosphere would be too extreme for life **Without the ocean, the temperature of Earths atmosphere would be too extreme for life

10 Surface Water Surface water is fresh water on Earths land surface. Surface water is fresh water on Earths land surface. Throughout history, people have built cities, towns, and farms near reliable sources of surface water b/c it provides drinking water, water for agriculture, food (fish, shellfish), power for industry, & a means for transportation. Throughout history, people have built cities, towns, and farms near reliable sources of surface water b/c it provides drinking water, water for agriculture, food (fish, shellfish), power for industry, & a means for transportation. Think About It ~ Can you think of a city that is built near a surface water source?

11 River Systems Rain & melting snow on mountains, hills, etc. Flows downhill forming tributaries (streams) Streams combine and form rivers Rivers drain into oceans Rivers drain into oceans

12 Watersheds A watershed is the area of land that is drained by a river. A watershed is the area of land that is drained by a river. Pollution in the watershed can pollute the river. Pollution in the watershed can pollute the river.

13 Our Local Watershed

14 Groundwater Rain and melted snow sinks into the ground forming groundwater. Rain and melted snow sinks into the ground forming groundwater. Less than 1% of all Earths water is groundwater Less than 1% of all Earths water is groundwater Groundwater gives people drinking water and supplies water for many agricultural & industrial needs Groundwater gives people drinking water and supplies water for many agricultural & industrial needs

15 Groundwater Most water that is available for human use is found underground. Most water that is available for human use is found underground. Water percolates through the soil & down into the rocks beneath. Water percolates through the soil & down into the rocks beneath. The water table is where the rocks and soil are saturated with water The water table is where the rocks and soil are saturated with water In deserts, the water table may be hundreds of meters beneath the surface, but may be flowing on the surface in wet regions. In deserts, the water table may be hundreds of meters beneath the surface, but may be flowing on the surface in wet regions.

16 Groundwater Continued… Aquifers are underground formations that contain groundwater. Aquifers are underground formations that contain groundwater. A recharge zone is an area of the surface from which water percolates down into an aquifer. Pollutants in a recharge zone may enter an aquifer. A recharge zone is an area of the surface from which water percolates down into an aquifer. Pollutants in a recharge zone may enter an aquifer.

17 Rocks with Holes? Porosity is the percentage of the total volume of a rock that has pores (holes). Porosity is the percentage of the total volume of a rock that has pores (holes). Water in aquifers is stored in the pore spaces and flows from one pore space to another. Water in aquifers is stored in the pore spaces and flows from one pore space to another. Permeability is the ability of rock or soil to allow water to flow – water can seep through Permeability is the ability of rock or soil to allow water to flow – water can seep through

18 Think – Pair - Share 1. Which of the following parts of soil is most permeable? 2. Which of the following parts of soil is least permeable? A. Sand B. Gravel C. Clay

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20 Groundwater Interlude… Groundwater Video… Groundwater Video…

21 Global Water Use 1. What is the most popular use of water worldwide? 2. Which part of the world uses the most water for industry? 3. Which part of the world uses the most water for residences?

22 Residential Water Use A person in the USA uses about 300 L (80 gal) of water everyday. People of developing countries use much less per day (~ 40L). A person in the USA uses about 300 L (80 gal) of water everyday. People of developing countries use much less per day (~ 40L). ~ Why do you think this is the case?

23 Residential Water Use Water Treatment – to make it potable (safe to drink), removes poisonous elements and pathogens (organisms that cause illness). Water Treatment – to make it potable (safe to drink), removes poisonous elements and pathogens (organisms that cause illness).

24 Water Conservation Residential How can we use less water? How can we use less water? Take shorter showers, turn off water when brushing teeth, shaving, washing dishes, etc. Take shorter showers, turn off water when brushing teeth, shaving, washing dishes, etc. Install low-flow technologies in toilets, shower heads, and faucets. Install low-flow technologies in toilets, shower heads, and faucets. Only run full dishwashers and washing machines. Only run full dishwashers and washing machines. Water the lawn less. Water the lawn less.

25 Industrial Water Use Industry accounts for 19% of water used in the world. Industry accounts for 19% of water used in the world. Water is used to manufacture goods, dispose of waste, and generate power. Water is used to manufacture goods, dispose of waste, and generate power. It takes 1000L of water to produce 1kg of aluminum (500,000L to manufacture a car). It takes 1000L of water to produce 1kg of aluminum (500,000L to manufacture a car). Power-plant cooling systems usually pump water from a surface water source, carry the water through pipes in a cooling tower, then pump it back to the water source. It returns to the source warmer than it was before. Power-plant cooling systems usually pump water from a surface water source, carry the water through pipes in a cooling tower, then pump it back to the water source. It returns to the source warmer than it was before.

26 Water Conservation Industry Develop water conservation plans Develop water conservation plans Recycle of cooling water Recycle of cooling water Recycle wastewater Recycle wastewater Monetary rewards to businesses that conserves water Monetary rewards to businesses that conserves water

27 Agricultural Water Use *It takes nearly 300L of water to produce one ear of corn! Plants require lots of water to grow… when an area doesnt get adequate rainfall, they use irrigation methods to water the crops.

28 Water Conservation Agricultural Drip irrigation systems deliver small amounts of water directly to plant roots by using perforated tubing, reducing evaporation and runoff. Drip irrigation systems deliver small amounts of water directly to plant roots by using perforated tubing, reducing evaporation and runoff.

29 How Much Water Is Used? 1 slice of bread = 10 gallons1 orange = 13 gallons 1 lb. of chicken meat = 500 gallons1 sheet of paper = 3 gallons 1 cup of coffee = 35 gallons1 lb. of potatoes = 100 gallons 1 lb. of corn = 110 gallons1 cotton shirt = 700 gallons 1 egg = 400 gallons1 lb. steel = 30 gallons Hamburger (1/3 lbs.) = 4000 – gallons 1 lb. wheat = gallons

30 How Do I Get Water if I Dont Live Near Water? 1) Water Diversion Project – rivers can be diverted into canals that direct and carry water great distances. 2) Dams & Reservoirs – dams hold water from a river back & reservoirs are the lakes that form behind the dam. - Reservoirs can be used for drinking water, irrigation, recreation, industry - Dams can generate electricity - BIG PROBLEMS if a dam fails! 3) Desalination – removes salt from salt water. Is very expensive and is not available for areas far from oceans.

31 Water Use Summed Up Residential UseIndustrial UseAgricultural Use Water is used for: Water can be conserved by:


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