Presentation on theme: "Water Resources This picture shows the size of a sphere that would contain all of Earth's freshwater in comparison to the size of the Earth. The blue sphere."— Presentation transcript:
1Water ResourcesThis picture shows the size of a sphere that would contain all of Earth's freshwater in comparison to the size of the Earth. The blue sphere sitting on the United States, reaching from about Salt Lake City, Utah to Topeka, Kansas, has a diameter of about 860 miles, with a volume of about 332,500,000 cubic miles. The sphere includes all the water in the ice caps, lakes and rivers as well as groundwater, atmospheric water, and even the water in you, your dog, and your tomato plant.
2The HydrosphereIncludes all of the water on or near the Earth’s surface (oceans, lakes, rivers, polar icecaps, groundwater, & clouds)
3The water cycle is the continuous movement of water into the air, onto the land, and then back to water sources.
4The Water CycleWater is renewable because it is circulated in the water cycleEvaporation – the change of state from a liquid to a gas (liquid water to water vapor)Condensation – the change of state from a gas to a liquid (water vapor to liquid water)Precipitation – any form of water that falls to Earth’s surface from clouds (rain, snow, etc.)Runoff – excess water that flows off of the surface
6Global Water Distribution In what form is most of Earth’s water?Saltwater (97%)Where is most of the freshwater found?Icecaps and glaciers (77%)
7Earth’s OceansAll of Earth’s oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian,& Arctic Oceans) are connected.Oceans cover over 70% of Earth’s surface.
8Surface Ocean Currents Common surface ocean currents show the flow of the seaIn 1993, thousands of rubber duckies washed up on Alaskan beaches. Oceanographers determined that a ship carrying the toys lost a container during a storm near Hawaii in The ducks were used to map ocean currents.
9The Ocean A Global Temperature Regulator The main function of the world ocean is to:Absorb & store energy from the sunHow?Water absorbs and releases heat slower than land does.**Without the ocean, the temperature of Earth’s atmosphere would be too extreme for life
10Surface Water Surface water is fresh water on Earth’s land surface. Throughout history, people have built cities, towns, and farms near reliable sources of surface water b/c it provides drinking water, water for agriculture, food (fish, shellfish), power for industry, & a means for transportation.Think About It ~ Can you think of a city that is built near a surface water source?
11River Systems Rain & melting snow on mountains, hills, etc. Flows downhill forming tributaries (streams)Streams combine and form riversRivers drain into oceans
12Watersheds A watershed is the area of land that is drained by a river. Pollution in the watershed can pollute the river.
14GroundwaterRain and melted snow sinks into the ground forming groundwater.Less than 1% of all Earth’s water is groundwaterGroundwater gives people drinking water and supplies water for many agricultural & industrial needs
15GroundwaterMost water that is available for human use is found underground.Water percolates through the soil & down into the rocks beneath.The water table is where the rocks and soil are saturated with waterIn deserts, the water table may be hundreds of meters beneath the surface, but may be flowing on the surface in wet regions.
16Groundwater Continued… Aquifers are underground formations that contain groundwater.A recharge zone is an area of the surface from which water percolates down into an aquifer. Pollutants in a recharge zone may enter an aquifer.
17Rocks with Holes?Porosity is the percentage of the total volume of a rock that has pores (holes).Water in aquifers is stored in the pore spaces and flows from one pore space to another.Permeability is the ability of rock or soil to allow water to flow – water can seep through
18Think – Pair - ShareWhich of the following parts of soil is most permeable?Which of the following parts of soil is least permeable?SandGravelClay
21Global Water Use What is the most popular use of water worldwide? Which part of the world uses the most water for industry?Which part of the world uses the most water for residences?
22Residential Water UseA person in the USA uses about 300 L (80 gal) of water everyday. People of developing countries use much less per day (~ 40L).~ Why do you think this is the case?
23Residential Water UseWater Treatment – to make it potable (safe to drink), removes poisonous elements and pathogens (organisms that cause illness).
24Water Conservation Residential How can we use less water?Take shorter showers, turn off water when brushing teeth, shaving, washing dishes, etc.Install low-flow technologies in toilets, shower heads, and faucets.Only run full dishwashers and washing machines.Water the lawn less.
25Industrial Water UseIndustry accounts for 19% of water used in the world.Water is used to manufacture goods, dispose of waste, and generate power.It takes 1000L of water to produce 1kg of aluminum (500,000L to manufacture a car).Power-plant cooling systems usually pump water from a surface water source, carry the water through pipes in a cooling tower, then pump it back to the water source. It returns to the source warmer than it was before.
26Water Conservation Industry Develop water conservation plansRecycle of cooling waterRecycle wastewaterMonetary rewards to businesses that conserves water
27Agricultural Water Use *It takes nearly 300L of water to produce one ear of corn!Plants require lots of water to grow… when an area doesn’t get adequate rainfall, they use irrigation methods to water the crops.
28Water Conservation Agricultural Drip irrigation systems deliver small amounts of water directly to plant roots by using perforated tubing, reducing evaporation and runoff.
29How Much Water Is Used? 1 slice of bread = 10 gallons 1 orange = 13 gallons1 lb. of chicken meat = 500 gallons1 sheet of paper = 3 gallons1 cup of coffee = 35 gallons1 lb. of potatoes = 100 gallons1 lb. of corn = 110 gallons1 cotton shirt = 700 gallons1 egg = 400 gallons1 lb. steel = 30 gallonsHamburger (1/3 lbs.) = 4000 – gallons1 lb. wheat = gallons
30How Do I Get Water if I Don’t Live Near Water? Water Diversion Project – rivers can be diverted into canals that direct and carry water great distances.Dams & Reservoirs – dams hold water from a river back & reservoirs are the lakes that form behind the dam.- Reservoirs can be used for drinking water, irrigation, recreation, industryDams can generate electricity - BIG PROBLEMS if a dam fails!3) Desalination – removes salt from salt water. Is very expensive and is not available for areas far from oceans.
31Water Use Summed Up Residential Use Industrial Use Agricultural Use Water is used for:Water can be conserved by: