Presentation on theme: "Water Quality and Ecological Restoration"— Presentation transcript:
1 Water Quality and Ecological Restoration Bomchul KimDepartment of Environmental ScienceKangwon National University
2 ContentsWater quality issues in KoreaTurbidity in streams and reservoirsWater quality survey project in HaeanControl measures to improve water quality
3 Change of water quality issues in Korea Before 1970sNo pollution problemsNo concern about environmental conservationIn 1980sHigh BOD from sewageFish farms installed in many reservoirsIn 1990sSewage treatment systems establishedActive operations of fish farms within reservoirsEutrophication problems emergedAlgal toxins were reported
4 Current issues in 2000sTurbidity and siltation – major ecological hazardTMDL of BOD and TP for water quality managementPhosphorus removal from sewageBiological assessment – new paradigmAutomatic monitoring – high frequency monitoring
5 Turbid water of the Soyang River on flood days that flows into Lake Soyang (July 15, 2006) Increased rainstorm intensity- Due to global warming ?
6 Two hot spots of turbid water discharge HaeanLake SoyangJawoon
12 Turbidity problem in reservoirs Turbid water lasts 3 months after summer monsoon in the Han River.Reservoirs are filled with turbid water after monsoon.Large dams prolongs the duration of turbid water in downstream.Destroys aquatic ecosystems.SAV is reduced.Fisheries is reduced.
13 Water blooms in Lake Soyang after turbid storm runoff <Wet years><Dry years>cyanobacteria
14 Phosphorus loading into Lake Soyang ▲ increasing trend
15 Land use vs. water quality Comparison of clean streams and turbid streams - case study of two couple sites (in 2006)BongsanDaeki
16 A turbid stream (Jawoon) and a clean stream (Kyebang) In 2007
17 A turbid stream (Daeki) and a clean stream (Bongsan) Result : change and reduction of fish and benthos community
18 Water quality survey project in the Haean basin Purpose : to evaluate effectiveness of soil erosion control and diffuse pollution controlTo assess water quality improvement in subbasins w/wo erosion control measuresTo assess efficiencies of each erosion control methodTo quantify specific export of nonpoint source pollutionPeriod : six years from 2009
19 Site of investigation Chungryounggolan Seonghwang Wolsan Kunjigol DoonjunggolNaedong
20 Land use in subbasins (km2) WatershedTotalPaddyUplandForestetc.Naedong4.630.521.742.370.00Doonjunggol1.010.150.420.44Kunjigol6.970.491.315.140.02Seonghwang6.510.321.694.50Chunryounggolan3.560.591.321.65Wolsan6.690.291.195.18Mandae59.995.9415.6138.360.09
21 Water level measurement Str. NaedongStr. DoonjunggolStr. KunjigolStr. SeonhwangStr. ChungryunggolStr. WolsanStr. MandeWater level scales were installed.Two automatic water level meter (sonic distance meter type) and two automatic water samplers will be installed in next year.
24 Specific export coefficient (kg/ha/event) WatershedBODSSTNTPKunjigol1.073,6240.940.76Wolsan0.697730.460.29EMCs (mg/L)WatershedBODSSTNTPKunjigol2.77,8502.201.69Wolsan1.82,1801.260.81
25 Effect of suspended sediment on fish ReferencesMinimum(mg·L-1)ModerateSerious<2525~80>80EIFAC, 196426~80Alabaster, 1972, NAS and NAE, 1973, Alabaster and Lloyd, 198026~100>100Newport and Moyer, 1974<3030~85>83Wilber, 1969, 1983<10 --Hill, 19741~100DFO, 198310~100Mills et al. 1985>25 (<10 d/yr),>80 (< 5 d/yr)>25 (11~30 d/yr),>80 (5~10 d/yr)>25 (> 31 d/yr),>80 (> 11 d/yr)No fish is living in the Haean basin
26 Table 3. The export loadings(kg․yr-1․km-2) in each watershed. Land useBODTNTPReferenceEPA, USAMixed agricultural-1,650113Reckhow et al.(1980)forested28623.6urban997191USA and Europeforest100~6300.7~88Loehr et al.(1989)Rural cropland2,100~7,9606~290Wisconsin, USAagricultural66926.2Clesceri et al.(1986)40717.6Eastern, USA.3005~10Rast and Lee (1978)50050Mandaeagricultural - forest2,3871,65144820034,9896,7948592004Jawoonagricultural -forest1,0873,28425820058631512006The amounts of TP exported from these two basins were considerably high,compared to other many studies
27 Control measures of turbid water Sociological strategyEnvironmental managementAgricultural practice
31 Food vs. Water Disturbed land → poor water quality Conserved ecosystem → good water qualityCan we choose only one?The goal of Korea.;even with intensive agriculture → good water qualityIs it possible?