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Water Quality and Ecological Restoration Bomchul Kim Department of Environmental Science Kangwon National University.

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Presentation on theme: "Water Quality and Ecological Restoration Bomchul Kim Department of Environmental Science Kangwon National University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Water Quality and Ecological Restoration Bomchul Kim Department of Environmental Science Kangwon National University

2 Contents 1.Water quality issues in Korea 2.Turbidity in streams and reservoirs 3.Water quality survey project in Haean 4.Control measures to improve water quality

3 Change of water quality issues in Korea Before 1970s –No pollution problems –No concern about environmental conservation In 1980s –High BOD from sewage –Fish farms installed in many reservoirs In 1990s –Sewage treatment systems established –Active operations of fish farms within reservoirs –Eutrophication problems emerged –Algal toxins were reported

4 Current issues in 2000s 1.Turbidity and siltation – major ecological hazard 2.TMDL of BOD and TP for water quality management Phosphorus removal from sewage 3.Biological assessment – new paradigm 4.Automatic monitoring – high frequency monitoring

5 Turbid water of the Soyang River on flood days that flows into Lake Soyang (July 15, 2006) Increased rainstorm intensity - Due to global warming ?

6 Two hot spots of turbid water discharge Haean Jawoon Lake Soyang

7 Soil disturbance in Haean (2007. Mar.8)

8 Making flatter fields for better cultivation – a cause of erosion in Haean Original slope Made flatter Made steeper

9 Tilling in Haean basin and the turbidity in Lake Soyang Turbidity

10 Movement of turbid interflow in Lake Soyang (result of simulation by CE-QUAL-W2, 1996)

11 Turbidity increase in Lake Soyang

12 Turbidity problem in reservoirs Turbid water lasts 3 months after summer monsoon in the Han River. Reservoirs are filled with turbid water after monsoon. Large dams prolongs the duration of turbid water in downstream. Destroys aquatic ecosystems. SAV is reduced. Fisheries is reduced.

13 Water blooms in Lake Soyang after turbid storm runoff cyanobacteria

14 increasing trend Phosphorus loading into Lake Soyang

15 Bongsan Daeki Land use vs. water quality Comparison of clean streams and turbid streams - case study of two couple sites (in 2006)

16 A turbid stream (Jawoon) and a clean stream (Kyebang) In 2007

17 A turbid stream (Daeki) and a clean stream (Bongsan) Result : change and reduction of fish and benthos community

18 Water quality survey project in the Haean basin Purpose : to evaluate effectiveness of soil erosion control and diffuse pollution control –To assess water quality improvement in subbasins w/wo erosion control measures –To assess efficiencies of each erosion control method –To quantify specific export of nonpoint source pollution Period : six years from 2009

19 Site of investigation Wolsan Seonghwang Kunjigol Naedong Doonjunggol Chungryounggolan

20 Land use in subbasins (km 2 ) WatershedTotalPaddyUplandForestetc. Naedong4.630.521.742.370.00 Doonjunggol1.010.150.420.440.00 Kunjigol6.970.491.315.140.02 Seonghwang6.510.321.694.500.00 Chunryounggolan3.560.591.321.650.00 Wolsan6.690. Mandae59.995.9415.6138.360.09

21 Water level measurement Water level scales were installed. Two automatic water level meter (sonic distance meter type) and two automatic water samplers will be installed in next year. Str. NaedongStr. DoonjunggolStr. Kunjigol Str. SeonhwangStr. ChungryunggolStr. Wolsan Str. Mande

22 Rainfall in 2009

23 KunjigolWolsan Pollutograph in rain events

24 Specific export coefficient (kg/ha/event) WatershedBODSSTNTP Kunjigol2.7 7,8502.201.69 Wolsan1.8 2,1801.260.81 WatershedBODSSTNTP Kunjigol1.07 3,6240.940.76 Wolsan0.69 7730.460.29 EMCs (mg/L)

25 Effect of suspended sediment on fish References Minimum (mg·L -1 ) Moderate (mg·L -1 ) Serious (mg·L -1 ) <2525~80>80EIFAC, 1964 <2526~80>80 Alabaster, 1972, NAS and NAE, 1973, Alabaster and Lloyd, 1980 <2526~100>100 Newport and Moyer, 1974 <3030~85>83Wilber, 1969, 1983 <10 --Hill, 1974 01~100>100DFO, 1983 <1010~100>100 Mills et al. 1985 >25 (<10 d/yr), >80 (< 5 d/yr) >25 (11~30 d/yr), >80 (5~10 d/yr) >25 (> 31 d/yr), >80 (> 11 d/yr) No fish is living in the Haean basin

26 WatershedLand useBODTNTPReference EPA, USA Mixed agricultural-1,650113 Reckhow et al.(1980) forested-28623.6 urban-997191 USA and Europe forest-100~6300.7~88 Loehr et al.(1989) Rural cropland-2,100~7,9606~290 Wisconsin, USA agricultural-66926.2 Clesceri et al.(1986) forest-40717.6 Eastern, USA. forest-3005~10 Rast and Lee (1978) agricultural-50050 Mandaeagricultural - forest 2,3871,6514482003 4,9896,7948592004 Jawoonagricultural -forest 1,0873,2842582005 863-1512006 The amounts of TP exported from these two basins were considerably high, compared to other many studies Table 3. The export loadings(kg yr -1 km -2 ) in each watershed.

27 Control measures of turbid water Sociological strategy Environmental management Agricultural practice

28 Struggling to control erosion in Haean

29 sometimes …… in vain

30 To protect steep slope

31 Food vs. Water Disturbed land poor water quality Conserved ecosystem good water quality Can we choose only one? The goal of Korea. ;even with intensive agriculture good water quality Is it possible?

32 Thank you

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