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Sun wind water earth life living legends for design (AR1U010 Territory (design), AR0112 Civil engineering (calculations)) Taeke M. de Jong.

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Presentation on theme: "Sun wind water earth life living legends for design (AR1U010 Territory (design), AR0112 Civil engineering (calculations)) Taeke M. de Jong."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sun wind water earth life living legends for design (AR1U010 Territory (design), AR0112 Civil engineering (calculations)) Taeke M. de Jong Drs. M.J. Moens C.M. Steenbergen

2 Publish on your website: AR1U010 how you could take water, networks, traffic and civil works into account in your earlier, actual and future work. AR0112 calculation and observations of streams in any location and your design, check your observations As soon as you are ready with all subjects (Sun, Wind, Water, Earth, Life, Living, Traffic, Legends), send a message referring your web adress, student number and code AR1U010 or


4 Total amount of water on Earth

5 Yearly gobal evaporation, precipitation and runoff

6 Global distribution of precipitation

7 European distribution of precipitation

8 Precipitation minus evaporation in The Netherlands

9 European river system

10 Soil types and average annual runoff

11 Simulating runoff

12 Distinguishing orders

13 Theoretical orders of urban traffic infrastructure

14 Orders of dry and wet connections in a lattice

15 Opening up feather and tree like

16 Wats efficient?

17 Forms of deposit

18 Meandering and twining

19 Twining at R=100km, meandering at R=30km

20 Deltas

21 Q by measurement The velocity v of water can be measured on different vertical lines h with mutual distance b in a cross section of a river. You can multiply v x b x h and summon the outcomes in cross section A to get Q = (v*b*h).

22 Data from profile height hwitdh bvelocity v

23 Drainage subdivision

24 Q on different water heights

25 Q(height) Normal representationLogarithmic representation

26 Hydrolic radius Cross length (Natte omtrek) by Pythagoras: Surface wet cross section: A P H Hydrolic radius:

27 Method Chézy The average velocity of water v = Q/A in m/sec is dependent on this hydrolic radius R, the roughness C it meets, and the slope of the river as drop of waterline s, in short v(C,R,s). According to Chézy v(C,R,s)=C Rs m/sec, and Q = Av = AC Rs m 3 /sec. Calculating C is the problem.

28 Method Strickler-Manning Instead of v=C Rs, Strickler-Manning used

29 Method Stevens Instead of v=C Rs Stevens used v=c R considering Chézys C s as a constant c to be calculated from local measurements. So, Q = Av = cA R m 3 /sec When we measure H and Q several times (H 1, H 2 …H k and Q 1, Q 2 … Q k ), we can show different values of A(H) R(H) resulting from earlier calculation as a straight line in the graph below. Surface wet cross section: Hydrolic radius:

30 Reading Q from H by Stevens When we read today on our inspection walk a new water level H1 on the sounding rod of the profile concerned we can interpolate H1 between earlier measurements of H and read horizontally an estimated Q1 between the earlier corresponding values of Q to read Q from graph.

31 Hydrographs River with continuous base discharge River with periodical base discharge

32 Using drainage data Duration lineDataset with peak discharges

33 Peak discharges The peak discharge Q T exceeded once in average T years (return period) is called T-years discharge. The probability P of extreme values is called extreme value distribution. The complementary probability P = 1 P discharge Q will exceed an observation (Q>X) is 1/T and the reverse P = 1 – P = 1 – 1/T. So, the reduced variable y = -ln(-ln(1 – 1/T)). Now we put in a graph: and

34 Constructing Gumble I paper T(y) and P(y)LogaritmicallyGumbel I paper

35 Gumble I paper

36 Level and discharge regulators

37 Regulation principles

38 Retention in Rhine basin

39 Reservoirs

40 Storage When surface A varies with height h storage S is not proportional to height. By measuring surfaces on different heights A(h) you get an area-elevation curve. The storage on any height S(h) (capacity curve) is the sum of these layers or integral

41 Capacity calculation You can simulate the working of a reservoir (operation study) showing the cumulative sum of input minus output (inclusive evaporation and leakage). The graph is divided in intervals running from a peak to the next higher peak to start with the first peak. For every interval the difference between the first peak and its lowest level determines the required storage capacity of that interval. The highest value obtained this way is the required reservoir capacity.

42 Cumulative Rippl diagram

43 Avoiding floodings by reservoirs To estimate the risk a reservoir can not store runoff long enough you need to know probability distributions of daily discharge.

44 Water management and hygiene

45 Strategies

46 Lowlands with spots of recognisable water management

47 Water managemant tasks in lowlands 05 Urban hydrology06 Sewerage 07 Re-use of water 08 High tide management 09 Water management10 Biological management 11 Wetlands 12 Water quality management 13 Bottom clearance14 Law and organisation15 Groundwater management16 Natural purification 01 Water structuring02 Saving water 03 Water supply and purificatien 04 Waste water management

48 Water management map

49 Overlay of observation points

50 Overlay of water supply

51 Need of drainage and flood control Flooding of a canal in DelftDeep canal in Utrecht

52 Wet and dry functions

53 Area of lowlands with drainage and flood control problems

54 Levels in lowland

55 Pumping stations in The Netherlands

56 Drainage by one to three pumping stations

57 A row of windmills (molengang)

58 One way sluice

59 The belt (boezem) system of Delfland

60 Rising outside water levels and dropping ground levels

61 Polders

62 Distance between trenches The necessary distance L between smallest ditches or drain pipes is determined by precipation q [m/24h], the maximally accepted height h [m] of ground water above drainage basis between drains and by soil characteristics. Soil is characterised by its permeability k [m/24h]. A simple formula is L=2 (2Kh/q).

63 Soil permeability

64 Hooghoudt formula A simple formula is L=2 (2Kh/q). If we accept h=0.4m and several times per year precipitation is 0.008m/24h, supposing k=25m/24h the distance L between ditches is 100m. However, the permeability differs per soil layer. To calculate such differences more precise we need the Hooghoudt formula desribed by Ankum (2003).

65 Plot division in polders

66 Closed sluices UitwateringssluisInlaatsluis Ontlastsluis Keersluis

67 Open sluices Uitwateringssluis IrrigatiesluisOntlastsluis Inlaatsluis

68 Sluices Ontlastsluis Spuisluis Inundatiesluis Damsluis

69 Weirs SchotbalkstuwSchotbalkstuw met wegklapbare aanslagstijl NaaldstuwAutomatische klepstuw DakstuwDubbele Stoneyschuif Wielschuif rechtstreeks ondersteund door jukken Wielschuif via losse stijlen ondersteund door jukken

70 Locks SchutsluisDubbelkerende schutsluis

71 Locks SchutsluisDubbelkerende schutsluis

72 Locks SchutsluisDubbelkerende schutsluis

73 Tweelingsluis SchachtsluisDriewegsluis Sluis met verbrede kolkBajonetsluis Locks Gekoppelde sluis

74 Entrance and exit constructions

75 Coastal protection

76 Delta project constructions

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