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Water statistics, accounts and indicators Jeremy Webb African Climate Policy Centre (ACPC), UNECA Part of the ClimDev-Africa Programme United Nations Economic.

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Presentation on theme: "Water statistics, accounts and indicators Jeremy Webb African Climate Policy Centre (ACPC), UNECA Part of the ClimDev-Africa Programme United Nations Economic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Water statistics, accounts and indicators Jeremy Webb African Climate Policy Centre (ACPC), UNECA Part of the ClimDev-Africa Programme United Nations Economic Commission for Africa

2 Introduction Water defined Water defined Water and climate change Water and climate change Organising water statistics, accounts and indicators Organising water statistics, accounts and indicators International Recommendations for Water StatisticsInternational Recommendations for Water Statistics System of Environmental and Economic Accounts for Water (SEEA-W)System of Environmental and Economic Accounts for Water (SEEA-W) ECA, UNSD, UNEP Water indicatorsECA, UNSD, UNEP Water indicators The African Climate Policy Centre and the ClimDev-Africa Programme The African Climate Policy Centre and the ClimDev-Africa Programme Summary and conclusions Summary and conclusions

3 Why is water important A human can only live a few days at maximum without water A human can only live a few days at maximum without water Water is needed for sanitary purposes Water is needed for sanitary purposes Plants and animals need water to grow and survive Plants and animals need water to grow and survive Many industries need water for industrial processes Many industries need water for industrial processes

4 Water definition Water is a colourless, tasteless and odourless chemical substance composed of one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms with the chemical formula H 2 O. Water is a colourless, tasteless and odourless chemical substance composed of one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms with the chemical formula H 2 O. In most cases water contains other dissolved chemicals that affect the colour, taste, odour, acidity and conductivity of water. In most cases water contains other dissolved chemicals that affect the colour, taste, odour, acidity and conductivity of water. In water statistics, water refers to water and any dissolved, suspended or other chemicals or materials carried in the water (e.g. water includes saltwater and polluted water). In water statistics, water refers to water and any dissolved, suspended or other chemicals or materials carried in the water (e.g. water includes saltwater and polluted water).

5 Water Water has a number of special properties that make it essential for life, sanitation, and many industrial processes. Water has a number of special properties that make it essential for life, sanitation, and many industrial processes. Water is a super solvent as it can dissolve many other chemicals for example salt, sugar and even stone. Water is a super solvent as it can dissolve many other chemicals for example salt, sugar and even stone. Because of this property water is essential for life on earth as all organisms use water to transport chemicals within their bodies. Because of this property water is essential for life on earth as all organisms use water to transport chemicals within their bodies. Water is also used in many industrial processes to dissolve, transport or remove soluble chemicals, and in households water is used for hygiene and sanitation as it can dissolve and remove waste and germs. Water is also used in many industrial processes to dissolve, transport or remove soluble chemicals, and in households water is used for hygiene and sanitation as it can dissolve and remove waste and germs. Water has a high specific heat capacity which means water is able to absorb a lot more heat than most other chemicals. Water has a high specific heat capacity which means water is able to absorb a lot more heat than most other chemicals. Water also has a high thermal conductivity meaning it can absorb and release heat very quickly, making water suitable for use as a coolant. Water also has a high thermal conductivity meaning it can absorb and release heat very quickly, making water suitable for use as a coolant.

6 Water The abundance of water in the environment (mainly as salt water in seas and oceans) coupled with its high specific heat capacity and high thermal conductivity means water is an essential component for the regulation of energy and climate on earth. The abundance of water in the environment (mainly as salt water in seas and oceans) coupled with its high specific heat capacity and high thermal conductivity means water is an essential component for the regulation of energy and climate on earth. Waters high specific heat capacity also makes water highly suitable for transporting energy for example by steam. Waters high specific heat capacity also makes water highly suitable for transporting energy for example by steam. Water has a high surface tension allowing it to move into soils, roots, and through very small blood vessels in animals. Water has a high surface tension allowing it to move into soils, roots, and through very small blood vessels in animals. Water has many other physical and chemical properties. Information on these properties is available from the internet and other sources Water has many other physical and chemical properties. Information on these properties is available from the internet and other sources

7 Freshwater vs saltwater The distinction between freshwater and saltwater is an important consideration in water statistics. The distinction between freshwater and saltwater is an important consideration in water statistics. The International Glossary of Hydrology defines freshwater as naturally occurring water having a low concentration of salts, or generally accepted as suitable for abstraction and treatment to produce potable water. (ISO/6107). The International Glossary of Hydrology defines freshwater as naturally occurring water having a low concentration of salts, or generally accepted as suitable for abstraction and treatment to produce potable water. (ISO/6107). However, an international standard for the definition of fresh water in terms of the salt content (e.g. in parts per million, grams per litre or electrolytic conductivity) is not available although there is a considerable body of practice (e.g. engineering, agricultural and other practices). However, an international standard for the definition of fresh water in terms of the salt content (e.g. in parts per million, grams per litre or electrolytic conductivity) is not available although there is a considerable body of practice (e.g. engineering, agricultural and other practices). Different countries have different definitions regarding salinity. Different countries have different definitions regarding salinity. For example the definition of freshwater in the USA and Canada is water with a concentration of salt of less than 1,000 parts per million, while in Australia it is water with a salt concentration of less than 500 parts per million UNESCO-IHE, Freshwater http://www.cig.ensmp.fr/~hubert/glu/HINDEN.HTMFor example the definition of freshwater in the USA and Canada is water with a concentration of salt of less than 1,000 parts per million, while in Australia it is water with a salt concentration of less than 500 parts per million UNESCO-IHE, Freshwater http://www.cig.ensmp.fr/~hubert/glu/HINDEN.HTM http://www.cig.ensmp.fr/~hubert/glu/HINDEN.HTM

8 Source: Maartin de Wit and Jacek Stankiewicz www.scienceexpress.org/2March2006/Page1/10.1126/science1119929 African climate change water scenarios: there is a lot of uncertainty Small changes in temperature will see average river flows and water availability increase by 10-40% in some regions, while in others there will be a decrease of 10-30% Changes in surface water supply across Africa with Predicted Climate Change Will there be increases or decreases in available water? Potential ET Actual ET Runoff 10 models show likely decrease of runoff while 7 shows like increase of runoff Example: Blue Nile GCM downscaling Precipitation There is a need to monitor water resources along with water availability, access and use across Africa

9 The SEEA and supporting suite of publications Data Data Quality Assessment Frameworks Metadata and documentation (e.g. SDMX) ISIC, CPC, Asset Classification, Class. of Environmental Activities, Class. of Physical Flows etc Input frameworks Cross functional frameworks SEEA e.g. IRWS Other water statistics Compilation Material SEEA-W Energy balances e.g. IRES Compilation Material SEEA-E Output frameworks Systems frameworks Intermediate frameworks

10 Water statistics and accounts SEEA-W SEEA-W The SEEA-W was developed by UNSD and the Water Subgroup of the London Group on Environmental AccountsThe SEEA-W was developed by UNSD and the Water Subgroup of the London Group on Environmental Accounts The SEEA-W was adopted as an Interim International Statistical Standard at the 38 th Session of the UN Statistical Commission, 2007The SEEA-W was adopted as an Interim International Statistical Standard at the 38 th Session of the UN Statistical Commission, 2007 IRWS IRWS The IRWS was developed by an Expert Group on Water StatisticsThe IRWS was developed by an Expert Group on Water Statistics Part 1 of the IRWS was adopted as international recommendations at the 41 st Session of the UN Statistical Commission, 2010Part 1 of the IRWS was adopted as international recommendations at the 41 st Session of the UN Statistical Commission, 2010 Part 2 of the IRWS was endorsed as supplementary guidance at the same Statistical CommissionPart 2 of the IRWS was endorsed as supplementary guidance at the same Statistical Commission

11 Water statistics and accounts: recommendations and standards International Recommendations for Water Statistics (IRWS) International Recommendations for Water Statistics (IRWS) Classifies water data items (i.e. water variables)Classifies water data items (i.e. water variables) Shows the link between these data items and:Shows the link between these data items and: the standard tables of the SEEA-W the standard tables of the SEEA-W international water indicators international water indicators System of Environmental and Economic Accounts for Water (SEEA-W) System of Environmental and Economic Accounts for Water (SEEA-W) Provides a framework for organising water statisticsProvides a framework for organising water statistics Uses a systems approach and classifies data in terms of stocks and flowsUses a systems approach and classifies data in terms of stocks and flows

12 Water Accounts

13 Linking flows with stocks Opening stocks Closing stocks + stocks - stocks Human activities + Returns Flows Natural processes + Precipitation + Inflows Human activities - Abstraction Natural processes - Evapotranspiration - Outflows

14 Physical water assets: Standard Table XII physical units EA.131 Surface water EA.132 Groundwater EA.133 Soil waterTotal EA.1311 Reservoirs EA.1312 Lakes EA.1313 Rivers EA.1314 Snow, Ice and Glaciers Opening Stocks Increases in stocks Returns from the economy Precipitation Inflows from upstream territories from other resources in t territory Decreases in stocks Abstraction of which Sustainable use Evaporation/Actual evapotranspiration Outflows to downstream territories to the sea to other resources in the territory Other changes in volume Closing Stocks Evaporation Transpiration Precipitation (dew, mist, rain, sleet, hail, snow) Groundwater (aquifers) Surface water (rivers, lakes, glaciers) Sea/ocean Infiltratio n Evaporation Soilwater

15 Basic concepts and definitions Economic activity/ Households Use From the environment (abstraction) From another economic unit Supply To the environment (returns) To another economic unit Evapotranspiration Consumption Consumption

16 Physical water use: Standard Table I Physical units Industries (by ISIC categories) Households Rest of theworld Total 1-3 5- 33, 41- 43353637 38, 39, 45- 99 Tot al From the environm ent U1 - Total abstraction (=a.1+a.2= b.1+b.2): a.1- Abstraction for own use a.2- Abstraction for distribution b.1- From water resources: Surface water Groundwater Soil water b.2- From other sources Collection of precipitation Abstraction from the sea Within the economy U2 - Use of water received from other economic units U=U1+U2 - Total use of water Includes green water Agriculture Services Water supply Energy Mining and manufacture Sewerage

17 Physical water supply: Standard Table II Physical units Industries (by ISIC categories) Ho use hol ds Res t of the worl d Tot al 1-3 5- 33, 41- 43353637 38, 39, 45- 99 Tot al Within the economy S1 - Supply of water to other economic units of which: Reused water Wastewater to sewerage To the environm ent S2 - Total returns (= d.1+d.2) d.1- To water resources Surface water Groundwater Soil water d.2- To other sources (e.g. Sea water) S - Total supply of water (= S1+S2) Consumption (U - S)

18 Hybrid water use: Standard Table VI Physical and monetary units Intermediate consumption of industries (by ISIC categories)Actual final consumption Capital formatio n Ex por ts Tot al use s at pur cha ser s pric e 1-3 5- 33, 41- 43 35 3637 38, 39, 45- 99 Total industry Households Gover nment Tot al of which: Hydro Final cons ump tion expe nditu res Soci al trans fers in kind from Gove rnme nt and NPIS HsTotal Total intermediate consumption and use (monetary units) of which: Natural water (CPC 1800) Sewerage services (CPC 941) Total value added (monetary units) Total use of water (physical units) U1 - Total Abstraction of which: a.1- Abstraction for own use U2 - Use of water received from other economic units

19 SEEAW The system defines what should be accounted for The system defines what should be accounted for By using the SEEAW: By using the SEEAW: Any gaps are obviousAny gaps are obvious Water data is integrated with economic dataWater data is integrated with economic data Water data can by used with economic data and employment data for:Water data can by used with economic data and employment data for: integrated water management purposes integrated water management purposes policy analysis policy analysis policy monitoring policy monitoring other other

20 Individual environment statistics or indicators Often developed to address individual issues or questions Often developed to address individual issues or questions Often not easy to relate to other issues Often not easy to relate to other issues Often not able to be integrated with economic statistics Often not able to be integrated with economic statistics Difficult to be sure all relevant information is included Difficult to be sure all relevant information is included

21 Environmental Accounts Help to make sense of the entire picture Help to make sense of the entire picture

22 Water statistics, accounts and audiences Amount of data e.g. data regarding water resources, water supply and sanitation, or economic activities and water Information pyramid Increasing aggregation of information e.g. Decision makers, and the general public, managers analysts and researchers e.g. Managers, analysts and researchers e.g. Researchers and others conducting detailed analytical research Audiences Macro data Micro data Water statistics e.g. basic aggregates at the data item level, time series Water accounts Other statistical compilations Water indicators

23 Indicators Indicators are: used to synthesise and present complex information used to synthesise and present complex information a means of summarizing, simplifying and communicating information to: a means of summarizing, simplifying and communicating information to: decision makers, decision makers, policy analysts, policy analysts, researchers, researchers, the business community the business community the general public. the general public. used to make comparisons, e.g.: used to make comparisons, e.g.: over timeover time between areas - countries, river basins or provincesbetween areas - countries, river basins or provinces between industriesbetween industries used to identify and monitor factors that lead to the better management e.g. of water resources used to identify and monitor factors that lead to the better management e.g. of water resources

24 Indicators Water resources, availability, access etc Data collection Data capture and compilation Data products e.g. water indicators, tables, balances and accounts Action or inaction Indicators Statistics and other information Indicators flag problems Other more detailed water statistics are required to analyze and understand the problem

25 Water accessibility Proportion of population using an improved drinking water source [MDG] MDG/ CSD/NEPAD/Other % of population connected to public water supply NEPAD/Other Source: the core list of environment indicators – ECA, UNSD, UNEP following ECOWAS

26 Water quantity Proportion of total water resources used [MDG] MDG/ CSD/NEPAD/Other Ratio of external renewable water resources to total renewable water resources Other Total annual renewable water resources per capita NEPAD/Other Change in surface water dischargeNEPAD Annual groundwater rechargeNEPAD/Other Source: the core list of environment indicators – ECA, UNSD, UNEP following ECOWAS

27 Water quality (pollution) Emissions of organic water pollutants (BOD) total/per worker NEPAD/Other Biochemical oxygen demand in water bodies [CSD]CSD/NEPAD/Other Chemical oxygen demand in water bodiesOther Average annual concentration of total phosphorus in lakes and rivers NEPAD/Other Average annual concentration of total dissolved solids/sediment flux in lakes and rivers NEPAD/Other Average annual concentration of total nitrogen in lakes and rivers NEPAD/Other Average annual concentration of dissolved oxygen in lakes and rivers NEPAD/Other Presence of faecal coliforms in freshwater [CSD]CSD/Other Source: the core list of environment indicators – ECA, UNSD, UNEP following ECOWAS

28 Water usage Total annual water use per capitaNEPAD/Other % of (change in amount/volume) freshwater used for domestic use, irrigation, industry NEPAD/Other Water use intensity by economic activity [CSD] CSD/Other Source: the core list of environment indicators – ECA, UNSD, UNEP following ECOWAS

29 Water borne diseases (bilharzias, river blindness, sleeping sickness, etc) Incidence of water borne diseases NEPAD/Other Source: the core list of environment indicators – ECA, UNSD, UNEP following ECOWAS

30 Water management issues Developed national & river basin IWRM plans NEPAD Wastewater treatment [CSD]CSD/Other % of population connected to wastewater collecting system Other Volume of treated wastewater for domestic use Other Amount/volume of disposal of wastewater into wetlands NEPAD % of treated waste water produced from wetlands NEPAD Source: the core list of environment indicators – ECA, UNSD, UNEP following ECOWAS

31 Water availability Urban water supply from damsNEPAD Abstraction from boreholes for domestic use in rural/urban settings (per capita yield) NEPAD Source: the core list of environment indicators – ECA, UNSD, UNEP following ECOWAS

32 African Climate Policy Centre Our goal: Making development more sustainable and managing associated climate risks, for the benefit of the majority of Africans Making development more sustainable and managing associated climate risks, for the benefit of the majority of Africans What we do: Undertake activities that inform decision making at various levels on how do achieve this Undertake activities that inform decision making at various levels on how do achieve this The African Climate Policy Centre (ACPC) is: Based at UNECA in Addis Ababa Based at UNECA in Addis Ababa Part of the Climate for Development of Africa programme (ClimDev-Africa) Part of the Climate for Development of Africa programme (ClimDev-Africa)

33 ClimDev-Africa Programme Meetings of the Chief Executives of the AUC, ECA and AfDB Programme Steering Committee (PSC) (AUC, UNECA, AfDB and others) Programme Steering Committee (PSC) (AUC, UNECA, AfDB and others) African Climate Policy Centre (ACPC) African Climate Policy Centre (ACPC) ClimDev- Africa Special Fund (CDSF) ClimDev- Africa Special Fund (CDSF) Regional / sub-regional level RECs/SROs, Regional/Sub-Regional Climate Institutions, RBOs, Research Institutions Regional / sub-regional level RECs/SROs, Regional/Sub-Regional Climate Institutions, RBOs, Research Institutions Technical Advisory Panel National level NMHSs, Sectoral Actors (public sector, private sector, civil society) National level NMHSs, Sectoral Actors (public sector, private sector, civil society) Climate Change and Desertification Unit (CCDU) Stakeholder forums e.g. Climate Change and Dev. Conf. & other forums/platforms Stakeholder forums e.g. Climate Change and Dev. Conf. & other forums/platforms

34 Work programme The ACPC has three broad areas of activity: 1. Knowledge generation, sharing and networking 2. Advocacy and consensus building 3. Advisory services and technical cooperation

35 Knowledge generation… The ACPC is addressing: African challenges and opportunities for climate finance, including: African challenges and opportunities for climate finance, including: Fast Start FinanceFast Start Finance The Green Climate FundThe Green Climate Fund Long Term FinancingLong Term Financing Mitigation in the context of Africa, including: Mitigation in the context of Africa, including: the development of national or sub-regional strategies on low carbon economythe development of national or sub-regional strategies on low carbon economy Adaptation, including: Adaptation, including: the implementation of AMCEN sub-regional and national adaptation strategiesthe implementation of AMCEN sub-regional and national adaptation strategies the creation of an adaptation and vulnerability knowledge base,the creation of an adaptation and vulnerability knowledge base, an assessment of the economics of climate adaptation in Africa (AdaptCost)an assessment of the economics of climate adaptation in Africa (AdaptCost) Technology transfer, including: Technology transfer, including: a technology transfer needs assessment that maps out models of technology transfer for Africaa technology transfer needs assessment that maps out models of technology transfer for Africa Its website, including: Its website, including: the development of a knowledge management platform to:the development of a knowledge management platform to: support climate policy discussions support climate policy discussions act as a hub for climate change and policy communities act as a hub for climate change and policy communities

36 Advocacy… The ACPC will: Hold a Climate Change and Development Conference to: Hold a Climate Change and Development Conference to: enhance awareness on climate change in Africaenhance awareness on climate change in Africa Prepare for, and participate in, the Conference of Parties to the Convention on Climate Change 17 (COP17) with the aim of ensuring: Prepare for, and participate in, the Conference of Parties to the Convention on Climate Change 17 (COP17) with the aim of ensuring: Africa's key concerns in climate change are brought to the foreAfrica's key concerns in climate change are brought to the fore Develop a communications strategy to ensure: Develop a communications strategy to ensure: Climate and development information is targeted and makes it to all relevant audiencesClimate and development information is targeted and makes it to all relevant audiences

37 Capacity mobilisation… The ACPC will: Evaluate and enhance climate information systems across Africa, such as: Evaluate and enhance climate information systems across Africa, such as: hydrological and meteorological data and information systemshydrological and meteorological data and information systems Strengthen Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) systems across Africa Strengthen Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) systems across Africa Establish a fellowship programme Establish a fellowship programme

38 Summary For water indicators, accounts and statistics, there are international statistical standards, recommendations and guidance available For water indicators, accounts and statistics, there are international statistical standards, recommendations and guidance available The SEEA-W applies a systems approach to organising water statistics including monetary dataThe SEEA-W applies a systems approach to organising water statistics including monetary data The IRWS provides:The IRWS provides: a list of data items with codes and definitions a list of data items with codes and definitions formulas for calculation water indicators formulas for calculation water indicators the link to the SEEA-W standard tables and the data items the link to the SEEA-W standard tables and the data items ECOWAS along with NEPAD, the ACS, UNSD and UNEP have proposed a set of water indicators ECOWAS along with NEPAD, the ACS, UNSD and UNEP have proposed a set of water indicators Indicators flag issues, more detailed data and information are required to analyse and understand these issues Indicators flag issues, more detailed data and information are required to analyse and understand these issues Improvements in basic data coupled with the IRWS, SEEA-W and indicator frameworks afford the opportunity to better understand and monitor water Improvements in basic data coupled with the IRWS, SEEA-W and indicator frameworks afford the opportunity to better understand and monitor water

39 Thank you Contact: Contact: Jeremy WebbJeremy Webb jwebb@uneca.org jwebb@uneca.org jwebb@uneca.org UNSD UNSD Environmental AccountingEnvironmental Accounting seea@un.org seea@un.org seea@un.org Environment StatisticsEnvironment Statistics envstats@un.org envstats@un.org envstats@un.org For more information on water statistics, accounts and indicators please see: For more information on water statistics, accounts and indicators please see: The IRWSThe IRWS http://unstats.un.org/unsd/envaccounting/irws/ http://unstats.un.org/unsd/envaccounting/irws/ http://unstats.un.org/unsd/envaccounting/irws/ http://unstats.un.org/unsd/statcom/doc10/BG-WaterStats.pdf http://unstats.un.org/unsd/statcom/doc10/BG-WaterStats.pdf http://unstats.un.org/unsd/statcom/doc10/BG-WaterStats.pdf The SEEA-WThe SEEA-W http://unstats.un.org/unsd/envaccounting/seeaw.asp http://unstats.un.org/unsd/envaccounting/seeaw.asp http://unstats.un.org/unsd/envaccounting/seeaw.asp


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