Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi. adalah sebuah proses yang dilaksanakan dalam upaya mewujudkan sesuatu secara rasional. ilmu pengetahuan yang ditransformasikan.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Pengantar Teknologi Informasi. adalah sebuah proses yang dilaksanakan dalam upaya mewujudkan sesuatu secara rasional. ilmu pengetahuan yang ditransformasikan."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi

2 adalah sebuah proses yang dilaksanakan dalam upaya mewujudkan sesuatu secara rasional. ilmu pengetahuan yang ditransformasikan ke dalam produk, proses, jasa, dan struktur organisasi. PENGERTIAN TEKNOLOGI

3 adalah fakta atau apapun yang dapat digunakan sebagai input dalam menghasilkan informasi. PENGERTIAN DATA Sebagai bahan mentah, data merupakan input yang setelah diolah berubah bentuknya menjadi output yang disebut informasi. PENGERTIAN INFORMASI

4 HAL PENTING YANG HARUS DI PERHATIKAN DARI INFORMASI Informasi merupakan hasil pengolahan data Memberikan makna Berguna atau bermanfaat. CIRI INFORMASI YANG BERKUALITAS 1.Akurat, artinya informasi mencerminkan keadaan yang sebenarnya. 2.Tepat Waktu, artinya informasi harus tersedia/ada pada saat informasi diperlukan 3.Relevan artinya informasi yang diberikan harus sesuai dengan yang dibutuhkan. 4.Lengkap artinya informasi harus diberikan secara lengkap.

5 Infotech Information technology (infotech):infotech Komputers – suatu mesin yang menkonversi data ke informasi Komunikasi – suatu electromagnetic devices and systems sebagai alat komunikasi yang menghubungkan suatu jarak

6 1.Supercomputers 2.Mainframes 3.Workstations 4.Microcomputers 5.Microcontrollers Jenis-jenis Komputer

7 1.Supercomputers 2.Mainframes 3.Workstations 4.Microcomputers 5.Microcontrollers IBM z900

8 1.Supercomputers 2.Mainframes 3.Workstations 4.Microcomputers 5.Microcontrollers Workstation – Sun Ultra450

9 1.Supercomputers 2.Mainframes 3.Workstations 4.Microcomputers 5.Microcontrollers

10 1.Supercomputers 2.Mainframes 3.Workstations 4.Microcomputers 5.Microcontrollers

11 Servers Server - a central computer that holds collections of data & programs for clients Clients - PCs, workstations, & other devices Server + Clients linked together form a client/server network

12 The purpose of a computer is to process data into information. Data The raw facts and figures that are processed into information Information Data that has been summarized or otherwise manipulated for use in decision making Hardware All the machinery and equipment in a computer system Software All the instructions that tell the computer how to perform a task Computers consist of hardware and software.

13 C P U CPU (Central Processing Unit) merupakan tempat instruksi-instruksi program. CPU terdiri dari: Control Unit Arithmetic and Logic Unit Register Array Processor Main Memory RAM ROM

14

15

16 Array Processor atau co-processor

17 Main Memory Karena CPU hanya bisa menyimpan data & instruksi di register ukuran kecil jadi tidak bisa menyimpan semua informasi yang dibutuhkan secara keseluruhan. Untuk mengatasinya alat pemroses dilengkapi dengan simpanan yang kapasitasnya lebih besar, yaitu main storage atau internal memory atau internal storage atau primary storage atau temporary storage atau immediate access storage. Main memori terdiri dari RAM dan ROM.

18 Struktur Penyimpanan Program komputer harus berada di memori utama (biasanya RAM) untuk dapat dijalankan. Memori utama adalah satu-satunya tempat penyimpanan yang dapat diakses secara langsung oleh prosesor. Idealnya program dan data secara keseluruhan dapat disimpan dalam memori utama secara permanen. Namun hal ini tidak mungkin dilakukan karena: Ukuran memori utama relatif kecil untuk dapat menyimpan data dan program secara keseluruhan. Memori utama bersifat volatile, tidak bisa menyimpan secara permanen, apabila komputer dimatikan maka data yang tersimpan di memori utama akan hilang.

19 RAM Termasuk dalam bagian Main Memori, RAM (Random Access Memory) adalah memori yang dapat diisi dan diambil isinya oleh programmer/ end user. Semua data dan program dari input akan disimpan dulu di RAM. Struktur RAM: 1.Input storage, untuk menampung input 2.Program storage, menyimpan semua instruksi program yang diproses 3.Working storage, menyimpan data yang akan diolah 4.Output storage, menampung hasil akhir dari pengolahan data ke output.

20 Contoh berbagai bentuk chip RAM (Ramdom Access Memory) umumnya pada Komputer micro atau PC. Saat ini telah banyak beredar RAM dengan kapasitas 512Mb – 8 Gb keatas.

21 RAM yang disisipkan pada slot Mainboard komputer PC / Komputer Micro

22 ROM ROM (Read Only Memory) adalah data yang terdiri dari program-program pokok yang hanya bisa dibaca saja, berbeda dengan RAM, pada ROM data sudah diisi dari pabrik pembuatnya berupa sistem operasi (Operating system-OS) yang diperlukan untuk menjalankan komputer seperti program untuk menampilkan karakter di layar (screen) monitor, pengisian tombol kunci di keyboard untuk keperluan kontrol tertentu dan bootstrap program.

23 All computers follow the same five basic operations. 1. Input 2. Processing 3. Storage 4. Output 5. Communications Keyboard Mouse

24 Input & Output Input hardware - devices that translate data into a form the computer can process

25 Input Hardware Keyboard - a device that converts letters, numbers, and other characters into electrical signals that can be read by the computers processor Braille keyboard

26 Keyboards Traditional computer keyboards Specialty keyboards and terminals Dumb terminals Intelligent terminals Internet terminals Dumb terminal

27 Keyboards Specialty keyboards and terminals: Dumb terminal: Airline reservations Intelligent terminal: Automatic teller machine (ATM) Point-of-sale (POS) terminal Internet terminal: Set-top box PDA Point-of-sale (POS) terminal

28 Pointing Devices Pointing devices - control the position of the cursor or pointer on the screen Mouse Trackball Pointing stick Touchpad Mouse for a right-handed user

29 Pointing Devices The mouse and its variants: Mouse Trackball Pointing stick Touchpad Ergonomic trackball

30 Pointing Devices The mouse and its variants: Mouse Trackball Pointing stick Touchpad Pointing stick

31 Pointing Devices The mouse and its variants: Mouse Trackball Pointing stick Touchpad

32 Pointing Devices Touch screens

33 Pointing Devices Pen input: Pen-based computer system - allows users to enter handwriting and marks onto a computer screen by means of a penlike stylus rather than by typing on a keyboard Pen-based computer

34 Pointing Devices Pen input: Light pen - a light-sensitive penlike device that uses a wired connection to a computer terminal Light pen

35 Pointing Devices Pen input: Digitizer - converts drawings and photos to digital data using a mouselike device called a puck Digitizing tablet

36 Scanning and Reading Devices Source data-entry devices – create machine-readable data Scanners - use light-sensing equipment to translate images of text, drawings, photos, and the like into digital form

37 Scanning and Reading Devices Bar-code readers: Bar codes - photoelectric scanners that translate the symbols in the bar code into digital code

38 1. Input 2. Processing 3. Storage 4. Output 5. Communications Processor chip Motherboard Case or system cabinet All computers follow the same four basic operations.

39 1. Input 2. Processing 3. Storage 4. Output 5. Communications Primary storage (memory) - RAM Computer circuitry that temporarily holds data waiting to be processed Secondary storage (storage) - ROM The area in the computer where data or information is held permanently

40 All computers follow the same four basic operations. 1. Input 2. Processing 3. Storage 4. Output 5. Communications

41 Secondary Storage Floppy disk - a removable flat piece of mylar plastic packaged in a 3.5-inch plastic case Floppy Disks

42 Floppy-Disk Cartridges Zip disks – 100, 250, or 750 megabytes 3.5-inch floppy disks – 1.44 megabytes Zip disk Floppy disk

43 Hard Disks Hard disks - thin but rigid metal, glass, or ceramic platters covered with a substance that allows data to be held in the form of magnetized spots

44 Hard Disks Head crash - An event that happens when the surface of the read/write head or particles on its surface come into contact with the surface of the hard-disk platter, causing the loss of some or all of the data on the disk.

45 Hard Disks Nonremovable hard disks - housed in a microcomputer system unit and used to store nearly all programs and most data files

46 Hard Disks Removable hard disks - one or two platters enclosed along with read/write heads in a hard plastic case, which is inserted into a microcomputers cartridge drive Bits on disk - dark stripes are 0 bits and bright stripes are 1 bits

47 Harddisk Space Typical drive sizes Marketing Computer 80 GB GiB 100 GB GiB 120 GB GiB 140 GB GiB 160 GB GiB 200 GB GiB 250 GB GiB 300 GB GiB 320 GB GiB 350 GB GiB 400 GB GiB

48 Harddisk Space Besaran yang di pakai oleh produsen harddisk berbeda dengan besaran yang di pakai oleh sistem komputer. Satuan Komputer Produsen Kilo Bytes Mega Bytes 1024 * * 1000 Giga Bytes 1024 * 1024 * * 1000 * 1000 Tera Bytes 1024 * 1024 * 1024 * * 1000 * 1000 * 1000

49 Harddisk Space Sebagai contoh harddisk 80 Gb yang tertera pada label : Perhitungan produsen : 80*1000*1000*1000 = bytes Sedangkan kapasitas sebenarnya yang di hitung oleh komputer adalah: ,00 / ,00 Kilo Bytes ,00 / ,95 Mega Bytes ,95 / ,51 Giga Bytes Jadi besarnya kapasitas Harddisk 80 Gb adalah : 74,51 Gb

50 Optical Disks: CDs & DVDs Optical disk - a removable disk on which data is written and read through the use of laser beams

51 Optical Disks: CDs & DVDs CD-ROM - read only. For pre-recorded text, graphics, and sound CD-R - for recording on once CD-RW - for rewriting many times

52 Optical Disks: CDs & DVDs DVD-ROM - for reading only DVD-R - for recording on once For rewriting many times: DVD-RW DVD-RAM DVD+RW

53 Magnetic Disk Magnetic Disk berperan sebagai secondary storage pada sistem komputer modern. Magnetic Disk disusun dari piringan-piringan seperti CD. Kedua permukaan piringan diselimuti oleh bahan-bahan magnetik. Permukaan dari piringan dibagi-bagi menjadi track yang memutar, yang kemudian dibagi lagi menjadi beberapa sektor. Magnetic disk ini merupakan memori sekunder yang menyimpanan data secara non-volatile (bersifat tetap/permanen) contoh: Hard disk Drive, Floppy Disk Drive (HDD dan FDD), Magnetic Tape, dll. Media ini biasanya daya tampungnya cukup besar dengan harga yang relatif murah. Portability-nya juga relatif lebih tinggi.

54 Magnetic Disk

55 NameCapacityLayersSidesComments DVD Gb 11 Read from one side only DVD Gb 21 Read from one side only DVD Gb 12 Read from both sides DVD-18* Gb 22 4 layers, read from both sides DVD-R 4.7/9.4 Gb 1 1 or 2 Recordable DVD DVD-RAM 2.6/5.2 Gb 1 1 or 2 Rewritable DVD DVD-RW 4.7 Gb 1 1 or 2 Re-Recordable DVD Format DVD

56 Magnetic Tape Magnetic tape - thin plastic tape coated with a substance that can be magnetized (for 1s) or left non-magnetized (for 0s) Tape cartridges - modules resembling audio cassettes that contain tape in rectangular, plastic housings Magnetic tape Tape cartridge

57 Smart Cards Smart card - looks like a credit card but contains a microprocessor embedded in the card Optical card - plastic, laser-recordable, wallet- type card used with an optical-card reader Smart card

58 Flash Memory Cards Flash memory card - circuitry on credit-card-size PC card that can be inserted into slots connecting to the motherboard on notebook computers

59 All computers follow the same four basic operations. 1. Input 2. Processing 3. Storage 4. Output 5. Communications SpeakersMonitor

60 All computers follow the same four basic operations. 1. Input 2. Processing 3. Storage 4. Output 5. Communications Printer

61 All computers follow the same four basic operations. 1. Input 2. Processing 3. Storage 4. Output 5. Communications

62 Put all the hardware together and…

63 Output Hardware Softcopy - data that is shown on a display screen or is in audio or voice form Hardcopy - printed output Hard copy Soft copy

64 Traditional Softcopy Output: Display Screens Display screens - output devices that show programming instructions and data as they are being input and information after it is processed

65 Traditional Softcopy Output: Display Screens Pixel (picture element) - the smallest unit on the screen that can be turned on and off or made different shades

66 Traditional Softcopy Output: Display Screens Factors affecting screen clarity: Dot pitch (dp) - the amount of space between the centers of adjacent pixels; the closer the dots, the crisper the image Resolution Color depth Refresh rate

67 Traditional Softcopy Output: Display Screens Factors affecting screen clarity: Dot pitch Resolution - the image sharpness of a display screen; the more pixels there are per square inch, the finer the level of detail Color depth Refresh rate

68 Traditional Softcopy Output: Display Screens Factors affecting screen clarity: Dot pitch Resolution Color depth - the amount of information, expressed in bits, that is stored in a dot Refresh rate

69 Traditional Softcopy Output: Display Screens Factors affecting screen clarity: Dot pitch Resolution Color depth Refresh rate - the number of times per second that the pixels are recharged so that their glow remains bright

70 Traditional Softcopy Output: Display Screens Two types of monitors: CRT - a vacuum tube used as a display screen in a computer or video display terminal Flat-panel display

71 Traditional Softcopy Output: Display Screens Two types of monitors: CRT Flat-panel display - made up of two plates of glass separated by a layer of a substance in which light is manipulated

72 Traditional Softcopy Output: Display Screens Color & resolution standards for monitors:

73 Widescreen Format (16:10) Display DPI Resolution Diagonal2560x x x x x800 (inches) (WQXGA) (WUXGA) (WSXGA+) (WXGA+) (WXGA) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x110 98x x x x x100 89x x x x104 89x89 79x x x113 99x99 85x85 76x x x103 90x90 77x77 69x x126 94x94 83x82 71x71 63x x112 84x84 73x73 63x63 56x x101 76x75 66x66 57x57 50x50

74 Diagonal 1600x x x x768 (inches) (UXGA) (SXGA+) (XGA) x x x x x x x114 91x x x x107 85x x x103 94x94 75x x105 92x92 84x84 67x x100 87x88 80x80 64x64 Standard Format (4:3) Display DPI Resolution

75 Diagonal 1280x1024 (inches) (SXGA) x x x x x x82 SXGA (5:4) Display DPI Resolution

76 Traditional Hardcopy Output: Printers Printer - an output device that prints characters, symbols, and perhaps graphics on paper or another hardcopy medium Dpi - a measure of the number of rows and columns of dots that are printed in a square inch

77 Traditional Hardcopy Output: Printers Impact printer - forms characters or images by striking a mechanism such as a print hammer or wheel against an inked ribbon, leaving an image on paper Non-impact printer - forms characters and images without direct physical contact between the printing mechanism and paper

78 Traditional Hardcopy Output: Printers Nonimpact printers: Laser printer - creates images on a drum which are treated with a magnetically charged toner, and then transferred from drum to paper Replacing a laser toner cartridge

79 Traditional Hardcopy Output: Printers Nonimpact printers: Ink-jet printers - spray small, electrically charged droplets of ink from four nozzles through holes in a matrix at high speed Thermal printers - use colored waxes and heat to produce images by burning dots onto special paper Ink-jet printer

80 Traditional Hardcopy Output: Printers Plotter - a specialized output device designed to produce high- quality graphics in a variety of colors

81 Traditional Hardcopy Output: Printers Multifunction printer - output device that combines several capabilities, such as printing, scanning, copying, and faxing

82 Input Technology & Quality of Life: Health & Ergonomics Health Matters: RSIs Eyestrain & headaches Back & neck pains Electromagnetic fields Noise Carpal tunnel syndrome


Download ppt "Pengantar Teknologi Informasi. adalah sebuah proses yang dilaksanakan dalam upaya mewujudkan sesuatu secara rasional. ilmu pengetahuan yang ditransformasikan."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google