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Swift Water. Swiftwater One of the most dynamic and dangerous areas of Special Operations Difficult to train for the real thing Our goal Knowledge Skills.

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Presentation on theme: "Swift Water. Swiftwater One of the most dynamic and dangerous areas of Special Operations Difficult to train for the real thing Our goal Knowledge Skills."— Presentation transcript:

1 Swift Water

2 Swiftwater One of the most dynamic and dangerous areas of Special Operations Difficult to train for the real thing Our goal Knowledge Skills Come home safe

3 We Will Do Our Best to Save Savable Lives Remember We Did Not Put That Person at Risk We Owe It to Ourselves and Our Families to Come Home Safe Rescue Philosophy

4 Self Rescue First 1 Self Rescue First 2 Teammate Second 3 Victim Third Rule Of Three

5 Hydrology

6 Friend or…

7 Or FOE !!!

8 Hydrology WATER MOVING DOWN A GRADIENT RESPONDS TO THE CONFIGURATION OF THE STREAM CHANNEL IN PREDICTABLE WAYS

9 Swift Water Rivers Creeks Washes Flood Control Channels

10 Slow water Most Canals

11 Still Water Lakes Ponds Retention Basins

12 Characteristics of Swiftwater Powerful Relentless Predictable

13 Powerful Water Weights 62 Pounds Per Cubic Foot That Mass Obeys the Laws of Physics Moving Water Has Tremendous Energy 62

14 Relentless Unlike the Surf, the Force of Swift Water Does Not Let up We Have Very Little Control Over the River If You Are Trapped or Pinned You Have a Very Poor Chance of Survival

15 Predictable A Knowledgeable Rescuer Will Be Able to Read the River and Predict With Certainty Where Both Safety and Danger Lie

16 FORCE = mass X VELOCITY SQUARED!!!

17 FORCE ~ VELOCITY VELOCITY POUNDSPOUNDS FT/S M.P.H ON LEGSON BODY 5ft/S=3.4 M.P.H ft/S=6.8 M.P.H ft/S=13.6 M.P.H Rule of thumb: Stay out of current over your knees

18 100 FT MEASURE THE TIME IT TAKES AN OBJECT TO FLOAT 100 FT Note: with a 10mph current an object will travel one mile in six minutes Determine Velocity

19 Velocity influenced By… Gradient (steepness) Friction Volume (CFS) Channel Configuration bends constrictions obstructions

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23 Bank Erosion

24 FT/SEC D X W X V=CFS 2500 CFS Volume - CFS

25 Flash Flood

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29 River Terminology Our reference point will always be facing down river River Left or River Right Up River or Down River R L

30 Laminar Flow SLOWEST FASTEST

31 Helical Flow

32 River Features Down Stream V Eddy Eddy Line Hydraulic Up Stream V Standing Waves Bends

33 AKA The Tongue usually indicates the main channel, deepest water

34 Eddy – a horizontal Reversal of current

35 Eddy's

36 Eddy Line

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38 Hydraulic – a vertical reversal of water

39 Hydraulic

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42 Up Stream V Usually indicates the presence of an obstruction

43 Standing Waves

44 How Standing waves are formed

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46 Hazards Low Head Dams Strainers Trees & Logs Fences Vehicles Bends Undercut Rocks Foot Entrapment Stationary Objects Panicked Swimmer Hypothermia Debris / Loads

47 Low Head Dams

48 Escape Route

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50 The Most Dangerous Hazard on the River Anything That Water Flows Through but a Person Wont Avoid It or Climb Over It or You Will Drown Strainers

51 Climb over Strainers

52 Foot Entrapment

53 Undercut Rocks

54 Stationary Objects

55 Bridge abutments Unlike natural rocks, which usually cause an upstream pillow, bridge abutments offer little hydraulic cushion, making pinning more likely

56 Flood Debris

57 Loads Top Loads – things that float Suspended load – heavy objects that cant float but move with the current; more dangerous because they cant be seen Bottom Loads – stationary and non- stationary objects on bottom; can cause foot entrapment

58 Vehicle Behavior

59 Hypothermia Temperature Useful Work Unconscious 40 degrees7.5 minutes 30 minutes 50 degrees15 minutes 60 minutes 60 degrees30 minutes 120 minutes Rescuer With No Thermal Protection

60 Panicking Victim Several rescuers die every year because they did not recognize the signs of panic and made contact with the victim, only to be overpowered by the panicky victim. Never allow a victim that is in a state of panic make contact with you.

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62 Arizona Watersheds

63 Pre-Planning RECOGNIZE Hazards Take steps to PREVENT PREPARE for Rescue

64 Personal Equipment PFD Personal Flotation Device Helmet, Water Rescue River Shoes Whistle Knife Thermal Protection Strobe or chemical light

65 Vehicle Swept Off Roadway Vehicle In A Canal Person In The Water Person Stranded On Mid-stream Object Typical Scenarios

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67 What stupid people see

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69 What evil lurks in the dark

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72 Rescue Objectives Locate Contact Assess Stabilize Prepare for extrication Extricate Transport to medical facility

73 REACHREACH THROWTHROW ROWROW GOGO HELOHELO Low Risk To High Risk Effecting a Rescue

74 Reach Extending an Object From the Shore to a Person in the Water Paddle Ladder Pike Pole Inflated Fire Hose Do Not Get Pulled in

75 Reach

76 Fire Hose Pendulum

77 Throw ROPE – pendulum belay stabilization line snag line Floatation – PFD rescue ring inflated fire hose

78 Throw Bag Approximately 50 Foot Effective Range Victim Must Be Physically and Mentally Capable of Grabbing and Hanging Onto Line Line Must Land at or up River From the Victim

79 Pendulum Belay

80 2 ND Person Assists swimmer to shore

81 Receiver Position

82 Proper Ferry Angle

83 Stabilization Line Allows victim to maintain head above water

84 Snag Line A line which is used to pull victim free from entrapment

85 Stabilization/Snag Line Requires quick deployment and people on both sides of river

86 Row Boat Options – raft Boat Techniques/operations – Row or paddle Highline 2 or 4 point tether

87 Row (boat operations) Boats Provide a Safe Platform for Rescuers to Go to the Victim Can Be Controlled From Shore With Tether Lines Can Be Used to Access Hazard Areas of the River Can be used to search waterways

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90 GO WARNING – HIGH RISK ! Tension diagonal crossing (zip-line) Rescue TFD – live bait rescue V - lower Shallow water crossing Strong swimmer/contact rescue Caution: Rescuers can be swept away

91 Tethered Swimmer

92 Shallow Water Crossing

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94 Crossing to Vehicle

95 Tension Diagonal Crossing

96 Helicopter Fast Access to Difficult to Reach Locations High Potential for Significant Life Loss Highest risk options

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98 Rescue Organization Centralized command Assign divisions and groups Develop a plan Have a back-up plan No free lancing

99 Divisions/Groups Extrication (Technical Rescue) Upstream Downstream River Right & Left Resource Treatment Transportation

100 Signals


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