Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Swift Water.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Swift Water."— Presentation transcript:

1 Swift Water

2 Swiftwater One of the most dynamic and dangerous areas of Special Operations Difficult to train for the real thing Our goal Knowledge Skills Come home safe

3 Rescue Philosophy We Will Do Our Best to Save Savable Lives
Remember We Did Not Put That Person at Risk We Owe It to Ourselves and Our Families to Come Home Safe

4 Rule Of Three 1 Self Rescue First 2 Teammate Second 3 Victim Third

5 Hydrology North Fork of American River, Calif.

6 Friend or… Upper Salt River, Ariz.

7 Or FOE !!!


9 Swift Water Rivers Creeks Washes Flood Control Channels

10 Slow water Most Canals Hazards – Poor visibility, Cold water, Gates and drops

11 Still Water Lakes Ponds Retention Basins
Hazards – poor visibility, cold water

12 Characteristics of Swiftwater
Powerful Relentless Predictable

13 Powerful Water Weights 62 Pounds Per Cubic Foot
That Mass Obeys the Laws of Physics Moving Water Has Tremendous Energy 62

14 Relentless Unlike the Surf, the Force of Swift Water Does Not Let up
We Have Very Little Control Over the River If You Are Trapped or Pinned You Have a Very Poor Chance of Survival

15 Predictable A Knowledgeable Rescuer Will Be Able to Read the River and Predict With Certainty Where Both Safety and Danger Lie


17 FORCE ~ VELOCITY Rule of thumb: Stay out of current over your knees
VELOCITY POUNDS POUNDS FT/S M.P.H ON LEGS ON BODY 5ft/S=3.4 M.P.H 10ft/S=6.8 M.P.H 20ft/S=13.6 M.P.H Rule of thumb: Stay out of current over your knees

18 Determine Velocity 100 FT MEASURE THE TIME IT TAKES AN OBJECT TO FLOAT 100 FT Note: with a 10mph current an object will travel one mile in six minutes This can help you predict the distance a victim has traveled from point of entry.

19 Velocity influenced By…
Gradient (steepness) Friction Volume (CFS) Channel Configuration bends constrictions obstructions




23 Bank Erosion

24 Volume - CFS DXWXV=CFS 5 FT/SEC 5 100 2500 CFS

25 Flash Flood


27 Dam being destroyed by flood waters

28 Hermit Rapid – note muddy water, product of flood on Little Colorado River upstream

29 River Terminology Our reference point will always be facing down river
River Left or River Right Up River or Down River R L


31 Helical Flow

32 River Features Down Stream V Eddy Eddy Line Hydraulic Up Stream V
Standing Waves Bends

33 AKA “The Tongue” usually indicates the main channel, deepest water

34 Eddy – a horizontal Reversal of current

35 Eddy's

36 Eddy Line


38 Hydraulic – a vertical reversal of water

39 Hydraulic



42 Up Stream V Usually indicates the presence of an obstruction

43 Standing Waves

44 How Standing waves are formed

45 Large, wide standing wave on Colorado River near Grand Junction
Large, wide standing wave on Colorado River near Grand Junction. Known as Big Sur by boaters

46 Hazards Low Head Dams Strainers Bends Undercut Rocks Foot Entrapment
Trees & Logs Fences Vehicles Bends Undercut Rocks Foot Entrapment Stationary Objects Panicked Swimmer Hypothermia Debris / Loads

47 Low Head Dams

48 Escape Route

49 Picnic at Apache Falls near Hwy 60, Upper Salt River, Ariz
Picnic at Apache Falls near Hwy 60, Upper Salt River, Ariz. (Danger Kids playing on rock near river Wide hydraulic)

50 Strainers The Most Dangerous Hazard on the River
Anything That Water Flows Through but a Person Wont Avoid It or Climb Over It or You Will Drown

51 Climb over Strainers

52 Foot Entrapment

53 Undercut Rocks

54 Stationary Objects

55 Bridge abutments Unlike natural rocks, which usually cause an upstream pillow, bridge abutments offer little hydraulic cushion, making pinning more likely

56 Flood Debris

57 Loads Top Loads – things that float
Suspended load – heavy objects that can’t float but move with the current; more dangerous because they can’t be seen Bottom Loads – stationary and non-stationary objects on bottom; can cause foot entrapment

58 Vehicle Behavior Comment: Cars on paved surface tend to move, more likely to roll. Gravel surface tends to scour gravel around tires causing vehicle to settle in.

59 Hypothermia Rescuer With No Thermal Protection
Temperature Useful Work Unconscious 40 degrees 7.5 minutes 30 minutes 50 degrees 15 minutes 60 minutes 60 degrees 30 minutes 120 minutes

60 Panicking Victim Several rescuers die every year because they did not recognize the signs of panic and made contact with the victim, only to be overpowered by the panicky victim. Never allow a victim that is in a state of panic make contact with you.

61 Upper Salt River, Ariz.

62 Arizona Watersheds !3 drainages

63 Pre-Planning RECOGNIZE Hazards Take steps to PREVENT
PREPARE for Rescue

64 Personal Equipment PFD Personal Flotation Device Helmet, Water Rescue
River Shoes Whistle Knife Thermal Protection Strobe or chemical light

65 Typical Scenarios Vehicle Swept Off Roadway Vehicle In A Canal
Person In The Water Person Stranded On Mid-stream Object


67 “What stupid people see”


69 “What evil lurks in the dark”


71 Not a typical scenario.

72 Rescue Objectives Locate Contact Assess Stabilize
Prepare for extrication Extricate Transport to medical facility

73 Effecting a Rescue Low Risk To High Risk REACH THROW ROW GO HELO

74 Reach Extending an Object From the Shore to a Person in the Water
Paddle Ladder Pike Pole Inflated Fire Hose Do Not Get Pulled in

75 Reach

76 Fire Hose Pendulum

77 Throw ROPE – pendulum belay stabilization line snag line
Floatation – PFD rescue ring inflated fire hose

78 Throw Bag Approximately 50 Foot Effective Range
Victim Must Be Physically and Mentally Capable of Grabbing and Hanging Onto Line Line Must Land “at” or “up River” From the Victim

79 Pendulum Belay

80 2ND Person Assists swimmer to shore

81 Receiver Position

82 Proper Ferry Angle

83 Stabilization Line Allows victim to maintain head above water

84 Snag Line A line which is used to pull victim free from entrapment

85 Stabilization/Snag Line Requires quick deployment and people on both sides of river
Comment on difference between stabilization lines and snag lines.

86 Row Boat Options – raft Boat Techniques/operations – Row or paddle
Highline 2 or 4 point tether

87 Row (boat operations) Boats Provide a Safe Platform for Rescuers to Go to the Victim Can Be Controlled From Shore With Tether Lines Can Be Used to Access Hazard Areas of the River Can be used to search waterways

88 Paddle crew training on upper Salt River
Paddle crew training on upper Salt River. Note paddle Captain in rear using rudder stroke

89 Merced River, Calif.

90 GO WARNING – HIGH RISK ! Tension diagonal crossing (zip-line)
Rescue TFD – “live bait” rescue “V” - lower Shallow water crossing Strong swimmer/contact rescue Caution: Rescuers can be swept away

91 Tethered Swimmer

92 Shallow Water Crossing

93 Example of wedge. Note largest person in front

94 Crossing to Vehicle

95 Tension Diagonal Crossing

96 Helicopter Fast Access to Difficult to Reach Locations
High Potential for Significant Life Loss Highest risk options

97 Colorado River, Grand Canyon National Park, Ariz.

98 Rescue Organization Centralized command Assign divisions and groups
Develop a plan Have a back-up plan No free lancing

99 Divisions/Groups Extrication (Technical Rescue) Upstream Downstream
River Right & Left Resource Treatment Transportation

100 Signals

Download ppt "Swift Water."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google