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SWITCH Training Kit: Pilot Training, Entebbe, 28-29 July 2010 Water Demand Management in the City of the Future The concept of water demand management.

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Presentation on theme: "SWITCH Training Kit: Pilot Training, Entebbe, 28-29 July 2010 Water Demand Management in the City of the Future The concept of water demand management."— Presentation transcript:

1 SWITCH Training Kit: Pilot Training, Entebbe, July 2010 Water Demand Management in the City of the Future The concept of water demand management and the benefits this can bring

2 Page 2 Demand Management The development and implementation of strategies, policies, measures or other initiatives aimed at influencing demand, so as to achieve efficient and sustainable use of the scarce water resource (Savenije and van der Zaag, 2002). Any action that modifies the level and/or timing of demand for a particular resource (White and Fane, 2001).

3 The looming water scarcity (1) World population to raise from 6.7 billion in mid-2007 to > 9.2 billion by 2050 There are finite global water resources Increased pollution rates Growing demand due to oIncreased population oIncreased affluence and industrial activities Impact of climate change: oe.g. 2° temp raise ~ shortage for 1-4 billion people in developing countries oIncrease in hydrological extremes Per capita water availability steadily decreasing

4 Projected water & food scarcity in b people (25%) will have absolute water scarcity 2.7b people (33%) will need to develop their water resources by 25% Source: giar.org/home/ws map.htm#A1

5 The looming water scarcity (2) By 2050, ~ 1/3 of pop in low-income countries will face severe shortage Water scarcity more critical in urban areas, where >50% of global pop live (since 2007) o2000 – 2030, pop increase of 2.12 bn for urban o95% of this increase in low-income countries There is need for a paradigm shift in the way urban water services are managed, to prevent demand exceeding supply

6 Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) Planning to meet multiple objectives at optimum costs Customers do not demand for a resource but for a service, i.e. end-uses, rather than water itself IRP – a systematic & participatory planning process to evaluate least cost analyses of both demand-side & supply side options IRP considers both supply and demand options For sustainable UWM, utility managers need to adopt WDM, which has been neglected in the past

7 WDM within the IRP framework WDM is the promotion of policies & measures that serve to control/restrict demand for, use or waste of water supply/other water services WDM then become integrated vertically, at oPolicy level oUtility level oConsumer level …. horizontally, in terms of oTechnological interventions oEconomic interventions oSocial/educational/legislative interventions ….and strategically, in terms of time projections

8 DM measures include those aimed at oIncreasing system efficiency at utility level, e.g. Reduction in systems losses oIncreasing end-use efficiency, e.g. Domestic water efficiency measures, Public education oPromoting locally & unused available resources, e.g. Rainwater Harvesting, Greywater reuse oPromoting substitution of resource use, e.g. Waterless toilets, Greywater reuse oUsing economic instruments to promote efficient use of water Flexible water tariffs (adapted from White & Fane, 2001) Demand Management

9 Domestic Water Use

10 Rainwater harvesting and greywater reuse

11

12 Demand management in Entebbe - 1 Which water demand management measures have been used in Entebbe? oIncreasing system efficiency at utility level, e.g. Reduction in systems losses oIncreasing end-use efficiency, e.g. Domestic water efficiency measures, Public education oPromoting locally & unused available resources, e.g. Rainwater Harvesting, Greywater reuse oPromoting substitution of resource use, e.g. Waterless toilets, Greywater reuse oUsing economic instruments to promote efficient use of water Flexible water tariffs Page 12

13 Demand management in Entebbe - 2 Which water demand management measures could be considered? oIncreasing system efficiency at utility level, e.g. Reduction in systems losses oIncreasing end-use efficiency, e.g. Domestic water efficiency measures, Public education oPromoting locally & unused available resources, e.g. Rainwater Harvesting, Greywater reuse oPromoting substitution of resource use, e.g. Waterless toilets, Greywater reuse oUsing economic instruments to promote efficient use of water Flexible water tariffs Page 13

14 Assessing Supply and Demand Options

15 Economic benefits Demand management measures oSave water consumed (volume in Ml) Reducing the volumes treated and distributed Reducing the volumes of wastewater oSave the cost of abstracting, treating and distributing the saved water oSave the cost of collecting, treating and disposing of wastewater oDelay / reduce capital expenditure required for enhancing water supply oReduced water loss improves the financial performance of the water service provider

16 Environmental benefits Reduced consumption of water oSaving limited water resources Reduced wastewater flows Reduced damage from leakage flows Reduced consumption of energy oSaving limited resources of fossil fuels oReducing emissions of greenhouse gases, and thereby mitigating climate change

17 Social benefits Increased access to water supplies oReduced consumption by some users makes water available for others oE.g. Transfer from high volume consumers to consumers with intermittent supplies Improving hygiene and health Improving school attendance and performance Improving productivity and incomes Increased social benefit from water oTransfer of water from uses with low social value to uses with higher social value oE.g. From leakage / waste to billed consumption oe.g. From garden watering to bathing

18 Who Benefits from WDM? Customers who receive improved water supplies oNew customers oExisting customers Customers who reduce their consumption, who get lower bills The water service provider, from reducing losses, thereby increasing billed water volume and revenue Future generations, from reduced depletion of resources, reduced carbon emissions and reduced pollution

19 WDM in municipality / health premises Educational campaigns for behavioural change Consider ways to improve water efficiency and water conservation Investigate leakages within properties Influence building by-laws for installation of water- efficient devices in the new buildings Work with the Trade/Commerce bureaus of standards to regulate for water-efficient devices Carry out public sensitisation on WDM, starting with schools

20 Acknowledgements Sam Kayaga, WEDC Stuart White and Andrea Turner, ISF


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