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Water hardness pH PO 4 3- NO 2 -, NO 3 - NH 4 + Fe.

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Presentation on theme: "Water hardness pH PO 4 3- NO 2 -, NO 3 - NH 4 + Fe."— Presentation transcript:

1 water hardness pH PO 4 3- NO 2 -, NO 3 - NH 4 + Fe

2 WATER HARDNESS Water hardness is caused by divalent ions, especially Ca 2+ and Mg 2+. The measure for water hardness is 1°d (=10mg CaO/L water). Classification: 0 – 4 °d…. very soft water 4 – 8 °d…. soft water 8 – 12 °d…. medium soft water 12 – 18 °d…. pretty hard water 18 – 30 °d…. hard water over 30 °d …. very hard water

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4 Our results SAMPLEWater hardness School tap water11 Rahtel tap water3 Vuhred tap water7 Šoštanj tap water10 Spring Velenje9 Spring Šoštanj6 Velenje lake18 River Homšnica4

5 pH pH is criteria of acidness and baseness of water. pH = -log [H ] [H ] > => pH < 7 (acid) [H ] = => pH = 7 (neutral) [H ] pH > 7 (base)

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7 Our results SAMPLEpH School tap water8 Rahtel tap water6,5 Vuhred tap water7 Šoštanj tap water8 Spring Velenje7,5 Spring Šoštanj7,5 Velenje lake8 River Homšnica7,5 natural water has pH between 6 and 8 drinking water => pH = 6,5 – 8,5 (EC rules)

8 PO 4 3- Natural unpolluted water contains less than 0,1 mg/L of all the PO 4 (higher concentrations are caused by human pollution). Sources of pollution: phosphoric manures washing and detergents phosphating (transformation of metal surfaces into phosphates as a protection from rusting)

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10 Our results SAMPLEPO 4 3- School tap water0,3 Rahtel tap water0,5 Vuhred tap water0 Šoštanj tap water0,5 Spring Velenje0,5 Spring Šoštanj0,5 Velenje lake0,1 River Homšnica0,5 drinking water => PO 4 3- = 0,6 mg/L (EC rules)

11 NO 2 -, NO 3 - Nitrates (NO 3 - ) are the major polluters of ground water and also of many fluent and influent waters. Sources of pollution: artificial manures intensive stockbreeding poor infrastructure (sewage) The functioning key of nitrates is transformation into nitrites (NO 2 - ).

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13 Our results SAMPLENO 3 - NO 2 - School tap water100,2 Rahtel tap water00,2 Vuhred tap water100,2 Šoštanj tap water100,2 Spring Velenje100,2 Spring Šoštanj100,2 Velenje lake100,2 River Homšnica100,1 drinking water => NO 3 - = 25 mg/L (EC rules) drinking water => NO 2 - = max. 0,1 mg/L (EC rules)

14 NH 4 + The presence of ammonium in water shows that the water was in contact with rotting organic materials, fecals..

15 Our results SAMPLENH 4 + School tap water0,05 Rahtel tap water0,2 Vuhred tap water0,2 Šoštanj tap water0,2 Spring Velenje0,05 Spring Šoštanj0,05 Velenje lake0,2 River Homšnica0,2 drinking water => NH 4 + = 0,05 mg/L (EC rules)

16 Fe Iron is often presented in water. It represents over 5% of Earth bark and by water absorbing it, iron comes in the water. It causes a lot of troubles rusted stains on clothes (washed in washing machine) iron coating on pipes

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18 Our results SAMPLEFe School tap water0,3 Rahtel tap water0,6 Vuhred tap water0,2 Šoštanj tap water0,4 Spring Velenje0,1 Spring Šoštanj0,1 Velenje lake0,3 River Homšnica0,4 drinking water => Fe = max. 2 mg/L

19 WATER IN SLOVENIA To conclude: all pH values of drinking water are according to EC rules all PO 4 3- values meet EC rules NO 2 - and NO 3 - ground water that contains over 25 mg NO 3 - /L water of Drava field water of Ptuj field water of Spodnja Savinjska valley water of Prekmurje field Only both sources and school tap pipe water are according to NH 4 + value all Fe values meet EC rules


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