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Water Will there be enough? Leslie E. Kettren, AICP, PCP Leroy P. Kettren, PG September 29, 2005 Making Great Plans: Putting the Pieces Together Upper.

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Presentation on theme: "Water Will there be enough? Leslie E. Kettren, AICP, PCP Leroy P. Kettren, PG September 29, 2005 Making Great Plans: Putting the Pieces Together Upper."— Presentation transcript:

1 Water Will there be enough? Leslie E. Kettren, AICP, PCP Leroy P. Kettren, PG September 29, 2005 Making Great Plans: Putting the Pieces Together Upper Midwest Regional Planning Conference Alexandria, Minnesota

2 Introduction Emerging issues in competition for water Emerging issues in competition for water Groundwater conflicts increasing Groundwater conflicts increasing Local government & planners can help Local government & planners can help Need for Public Education Programs Need for Public Education Programs

3 WATER SUPPLY STRESS IN NORTH AMERICA Grannemann et al, 2000

4 Great Lakes Basin Largest unfrozen freshwater in Western Hemisphere Largest unfrozen freshwater in Western Hemisphere Freshwater – not a problem Freshwater – not a problem OR IS IT ? !

5 Water Diversion Issues Increased restrictions Increased restrictions Turning to groundwater Turning to groundwater

6 Waukesha, Wisconsin Groundwater supply is shrinking due to increased demands of development Groundwater supply is shrinking due to increased demands of development *

7 Communities unlucky near the divide Green Bay-Fox River Area Water levels declined 300 ft. in some areas

8 Saline water Michigan Basin Grannemann et al, 2000

9 Other saline problem areas

10 Groundwater Basics Occurs in pore spaces between grains of soil or rock in layers called aquifers Occurs in pore spaces between grains of soil or rock in layers called aquifers Zone of Saturation – part of the aquifer where all the pore spaces are filled with water Zone of Saturation – part of the aquifer where all the pore spaces are filled with water Water Table – top of the zone of saturation Water Table – top of the zone of saturation

11 Surface & Groundwater One finite resource - connected One finite resource - connected Overuse results in problems with the other Overuse results in problems with the other Competition will get worse in future Competition will get worse in future Why? Urban growth and sprawl Why? Urban growth and sprawl People, golf courses & industry moving into rural areas People, golf courses & industry moving into rural areas Moving to where BIG wells are Moving to where BIG wells are More & more groundwater in demand More & more groundwater in demand

12 Groundwater withdrawals Domestic wells = small wells

13 Groundwater withdrawals High capacity wells = BIG wells

14 BIG wells 70 gallons per minute (or more) 70 gallons per minute (or more) 100,000 gallons per day 100,000 gallons per day Irrigation – agriculture & golf courses Irrigation – agriculture & golf courses Quarry dewatering Quarry dewatering Dewatering for major construction projects Dewatering for major construction projects Municipal well fields Municipal well fields Industrial processes Industrial processes

15 Affects of BIG wells

16 Cone of depression Cone may extend > 1 mile from well > 1 mile from well Pump

17 Well Interference Cone of depression extends into adjacent well Cone of depression extends into adjacent well Can lower water table Can lower water table Causes well to produce less water Causes well to produce less water Causes well to fail – dry well Causes well to fail – dry well Causes people to get mad! Causes people to get mad!

18 Research (Kettren, 2005) Examined 1316 claim records Examined 1316 claim records 1967 – – 2004 Indiana, Minnesota, Iowa & Michigan Indiana, Minnesota, Iowa & Michigan 511 no well interference 511 no well interference 520 valid claims 520 valid claims 285 miscellaneous (water quality, various concerns/gossip, etc.) 285 miscellaneous (water quality, various concerns/gossip, etc.)

19 TYPE OF HIGH CAPACITY WELLS NUMBER OF CLAIMS PER CENT OF CLAIMS* Quarries Agriculture/major crop irrigation Municipal water works Construction dewatering Industrial process846.4 Golf course/non-crop irrigation705.3 Water level maintenance/ miscellaneous 40.3 Not recorded Total *Percent of claims does not total 100% due to rounding

20 PROBLEM NUMBER OF CLAIMS PERCENT OF CLAIMS* Investigation could not substantiate a decline in water level Well failure due to problems with affected well itself Did not record reason for claim rejection Water level decline due to seasonal fluctuations Situation not covered under applicable state law152.9 Affected well installed in different aquifer from high capacity well Affected well not installed to applicable standards122.3 Total *Percent of claims does not total 100% due to rounding

21 Saginaw County, Michigan Population growth ( ) caused water well conflicts Population growth ( ) caused water well conflicts * Saginaw County

22 Claim Procedures Step 1 Step 1 Contact state regulatory agency Contact state regulatory agency DEQ, DNR, DAG DEQ, DNR, DAG Some states have established procedures Some states have established procedures BUT BUT Step 1 - they call YOU! Step 1 - they call YOU! Local government / local planner Local government / local planner

23 People will call you…… People are unaware of state laws & remedies People are unaware of state laws & remedies Turn to local government for help Turn to local government for help Planners can serve as the first resource Planners can serve as the first resource Prevent well conflict situations Prevent well conflict situations Assistance - when conflicts occur Assistance - when conflicts occur PLANNERS be prepared & knowledgeable PLANNERS be prepared & knowledgeable

24 What can planners do……….. Conflicts Conflicts Becoming common as people move to rural areas where high capacity wells are located Becoming common as people move to rural areas where high capacity wells are located Many states have enacted laws: Many states have enacted laws: To help resolve conflicts To help resolve conflicts To provide compensation to homeowners To provide compensation to homeowners Protect your water supply Protect your water supply Become familiar with your states laws Become familiar with your states laws Take some simple precautions Take some simple precautions

25 What can planners do……….. Site Plan Review – to prevent problems Site Plan Review – to prevent problems Make sure new domestic wells are deep enough Make sure new domestic wells are deep enough Impacts of BIG wells should be considered on nearby small wells Impacts of BIG wells should be considered on nearby small wells New domestic wells should be installed to state standards New domestic wells should be installed to state standards Public Education Public Education

26 Public Education Purpose – reduce invalid claims Purpose – reduce invalid claims ½ cases – state spends time on false alarms ½ cases – state spends time on false alarms Homeowners cant make repairs before state investigates Homeowners cant make repairs before state investigates Investigation takes 2-30 days Investigation takes 2-30 days During this time During this time No water – a real inconvenience No water – a real inconvenience

27 Education - Well Maintenance More than ½ well failures due to: More than ½ well failures due to: Problems with affected well Problems with affected well Not by a nearby high capacity well Not by a nearby high capacity well Claims can be prevented by: Claims can be prevented by: Conducting routine maintenance Conducting routine maintenance

28 Perform periodic inspection & maintenance Perform periodic inspection & maintenance By licensed well driller By licensed well driller Remove sediment & clean well screen Remove sediment & clean well screen Check: Check: depth of pump depth of pump condition of pump condition of pump pressure tank & filters condition pressure tank & filters condition condition of treatment equipment condition of treatment equipment static and pumping water levels static and pumping water levels Education - Recommended Well Maintenance Procedures

29 Education - When a Well Fails 1. Hire licensed well driller to inspect well 2. Notify high capacity well operator & file claim with state agency Most operators are willing to settle claims Most operators are willing to settle claims Many states have toll-free numbers & claim forms on Web Many states have toll-free numbers & claim forms on Web 3. Be prepared to negotiate a settlement 4. Keep record of expenses: Cost for well assessment by licensed well driller Cost for well assessment by licensed well driller Repair and/or replacement costs Repair and/or replacement costs Cost for properly abandoning existing well Cost for properly abandoning existing well Cost for temporary water usage Cost for temporary water usage

30 Minnesota Claim Procedure File complaint with DNR File complaint with DNR Request a Water Well Information and Complaint Questionnaire Request a Water Well Information and Complaint Questionnaire l

31 Water Well Information and Complaint Questionnaire 5 Part Complaint Form Complainant Complainant Part A, well location Part A, well location Part D, signature Part D, signature Part E, complaint questionnaire Part E, complaint questionnaire Licensed Well Driller Licensed Well Driller Part B, well construction Part B, well construction Part C, well condition Part C, well condition Part D, signature Part D, signature All data submitted becomes public information DNR Waters Information

32 Minnesota Claim Procedure Licensed well driller inspects well Licensed well driller inspects well Regional Hydrologist Regional Hydrologist Evaluates complaint Evaluates complaint Determines if investigation is necessary Determines if investigation is necessary Investigation Investigation May require aquifer pumping test May require aquifer pumping test Water levels are measured Water levels are measured Aquifer test data is analyzed Aquifer test data is analyzed Extent of interference is determined Extent of interference is determined

33 Minnesota - When Well Interference Conditions Exist High capacity well operator has 30 days to: High capacity well operator has 30 days to: Request a modification or restriction of permit Request a modification or restriction of permit Must provide affected well owner with water supply Must provide affected well owner with water supply Negotiate a reasonable agreement Negotiate a reasonable agreement Request a public hearing Request a public hearing Affected well owner must: Affected well owner must: Be prepared to negotiate a settlement Be prepared to negotiate a settlement Keep record of expenses Keep record of expenses Well assessment costs Well assessment costs Costs for any repairs Costs for any repairs Cost to properly abandon existing well Cost to properly abandon existing well Cost for temporary water until well is repaired or replaced Cost for temporary water until well is repaired or replaced

34 For Additional Minnesota Information: Contact the DNR Division of Water : Central Office, St. Paul, MN DNR Waters Information (651) Central Office Fax: (651) priations/index.html

35 Michigan DEQ Claim Form Name, address & phone number Name, address & phone number Location of well Location of well Explanation of well interference Explanation of well interference Date(s) of well interference Date(s) of well interference Evidence that high capacity well caused failure Evidence that high capacity well caused failure NO WATER hotline www.MDEQ.gov

36 MDEQ Well Assessment Form Completed by Licensed Well Driller Well drillers name, address & phone number Well drillers name, address & phone number Well owners name, address & phone number Well owners name, address & phone number Reason for complaint Reason for complaint Well drillers diagnosis Well drillers diagnosis Suggested corrections Suggested corrections

37 Indiana Conflict Resolution Contact the DNR Division of Water Mailing address for the Division of Water: Indiana Department of Natural Resources Division of Water 402 West Washington Street, Room W264 Indianapolis, IN Phone numbers for the Division of Water: Main office - (317) or toll free Fax number - (317) questions or comments to the Division of water:

38 Ohio Well Interference Claim Procedures DOES NOT have formal procedures DOES NOT have formal procedures DNR Division of Water DNR Division of Water Conducts technical investigations Conducts technical investigations Prepares reports Prepares reports Small capacity well failures Small capacity well failures Call Ohio DNR at Call Ohio DNR at to to

39 Illinois Interference Claim Procedures Administered by Department of Agriculture Administered by Department of Agriculture County Soil & Water Conservation Districts County Soil & Water Conservation Districts Applies to only 4 Conservation Districts: Applies to only 4 Conservation Districts: Kankakee County Kankakee County Iroquois County Iroquois County Tazwell County Tazwell County McLean County McLean County Conservation District must investigate complaints within 2 days Conservation District must investigate complaints within 2 days

40 Wisconsin Well Interference Procedures NO procedures for investigation of conflicts - unless a municipal water supply is involved. For Information Contact Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Drinking Water and Groundwater 101 Webster Street Madison, WI

41 References Illinois Legislature, Administrative Code, Title 8; Agriculture and Animals; Chapter I; Department of Agriculture; Part 675, Groundwater Use Guidelines, Illinois legislature, Springfield, Available at: Illinois Legislature, Illinois Compiled Statutes, Conservation, Water Use Act of 1983, 525 ILCS 45, Illinois legislature, Springfield, Available at: Indiana legislature, Indiana Code , Emergency Regulation of Groundwater Rights, Water Resources Management Act, Chapter 4, Indiana legislature, Indianapolis, Available at:

42 References Michigan Legislature, Michigan compiled laws, Act 177 of 2003, Part 317, Aquifer Protection and Dispute Resolution, Michigan Legislature, Lansing, Available at: Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 2002, Well interference resolution process, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul, Available at: Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Minnesota Rules, Chapter 6115, Public Waters, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul, Available at: Minnesota legislature, Minnesota statutes, 2004, Chapter 103 G, Waters of the State, Minnesota legislature, St Paul, Available at:

43 References Ohio Legislature, Ohio Revised Code Title XV Conservation of Natural Resources Section 1521 et seq, Division of Water, Ohio Legislature, Columbus Available at: Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Wisconsin Administrative Code, Chapter NR 812, Environmental Protection – Water Supply, Well construction and Pump Installation, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, Available at: Wisconsin legislature, , Wisconsin Statutes and Annotation, Chapter 281 Water and Sewage, Subchapter III Water Quality and Quantity, Section Groundwater withdrawal, Wisconsin legislature, Madison, Available at:

44 Acknowledgements The information presented here was compiled as part of research into the regulation of well conflict interference problems in the Great Lakes Basin. The author wishes to acknowledge, and express his appreciation, to those people and agencies who provided information in this research. The author expresses his special thanks to the Land Grant Colleges and Universities Great Lakes Regional Water Program for their generous support that allowed this work to continue.

45 Q uestions & A nswers Leslie E. Kettren, AICP, PCP Leroy P. Kettren, PG


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