Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

To a great extent water quality determines the success or failure of a fish farming operation WATER IN AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "To a great extent water quality determines the success or failure of a fish farming operation WATER IN AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS."— Presentation transcript:

1 To a great extent water quality determines the success or failure of a fish farming operation WATER IN AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS

2 Fish perform all bodily functions in water Eat Breathe Take in and lose salts WATER IN AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS

3 Water Balance in Freshwater Fish Salts Large quantities of dilute urine Ammonia Water

4 Water Balance in Saltwater Fish Small quantities of concentrated urine Ammonia Water Drinks sea water

5 Water Resources Water quality Water quantity Water sources Inadequate water quality causes more losses than any other problem!

6 WATER IN AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS Physical Temperature Chemical (No effect limits)

7 Physical Characteristics of Water Universal solvent – WATER IN AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS

8 Dissolved Oxygen Importance –highest cause of mortality Solubility –variables Safe levels – > 5mg/l

9 pm10 pm5 am Measured values Projected values mg/l Projected Dissolved Oxygen Levels for Ponds

10 Uniform dissolved O in pond 2

11 Decomposing materials Low dissolved oxygen (cool) High dissolved oxygen (warm)

12 Low dissolved oxygen - possible fish kill Turnover

13 Relationships

14 Temperature (F)(pH) Percent Ammonia Percent of Total Ammonia in the Un-Ionized Form at Various Temperatures and pH

15 Nitrification NO 3 - NH 3 1½ O 2 nitrosomonasnitrobacter NO 2 - Requires 3 moles oxygen to convert one mole of ammonia to nitrate

16 Dissolved Gasses Problem gasses – Nitrogen (primarily) Problem sources – Wells and Springs – leaky pipe Popeye/exophthalmia dorsal view

17 WATER IN AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS Water quantity parameters Requirements are based on temperature- dependent and size-dependent standard metabolic rates for fish

18 WATER IN AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS Water quantity parameters Suggested replacement times Linear Noncirculating – Circulating Suggested water velocity rates Noncirculating – Circulating-

19 WATER IN AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS Water quantity parameters Flow measuring techniques Flow meters Pond filling time – not very accurate

20 WATER IN AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS Water quantity parameters Weir gauges Sharp-crested – if outfall consists of dam boards V-notch Trapezoidal

21 Pre-Use treatment Sediment removal Settling basin/pond – Filtration – Gas stabilization (O 2 and/or N 2 ) Slatted inflow boards WATER IN AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS

22 Pre-Use treatment Sterilization Ultraviolet – Chlorination-de-chlorination – Temperature control Heating Chilling WATER IN AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS

23 Water utilization Open water systems Flow-through -Water enters pond or series of ponds and exits with/without treatment - WATER IN AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS

24 Water Sources Rivers, lakes and streams Surface

25 Springs Advantages – –few or no predators –no pathogens Disadvantages –

26 Wells Types – Advantages –no predators –no pathogens Disadvantages – –low O 2

27 Rivers, Lakes and Streams Advantages –large volumes –inexpensive Disadvantages – –excessive nutrients

28 Surface Advantages –inexpensive Disadvantages –contaminates – –5-7 acre watershed per surface acre of water

29 Groundwater Advantages – Disadvantages –hard to drain removal of fish

30 Municipal Advantages – –no predators – Disadvantages –disinfectants chloramines –

31 Water Quantity Ponds Raceways Cages Recirculating aquaculture systems

32 Ponds Minimum requirement –13 gal/min or 50L/min per acre Rational – –to replace evaporation –

33 Raceways Minimum requirement –500 gal/min. or 1900L/min Rational –

34 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Minimum requirement –varies depending on size of system – Rational –needed to backflush filters during harvesting –

35 Ammonia (mg/l) Nitrites & Nitrates (mg/l) NH NO Time in Days Time Required for Bio-Filter to Mature


Download ppt "To a great extent water quality determines the success or failure of a fish farming operation WATER IN AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google