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Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Water Use and Management.

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Presentation on theme: "Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Water Use and Management."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Water Use and Management

2 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Outline: Water Availability and Use Freshwater Shortages Water Management and Conservation Privatization of water Water wars

3 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. WATER RESOURCES Water, liquid and solid, covers more than 70% of worlds surface. More than 370 billion billion gallons.

4 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Hydrologic Cycle

5 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Sources of water Surface fresh water: 3% of liquid water, which is 13% of fresh water, which is 2.4% of water

6 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Groundwater Second largest reservoir of fresh water. - Infiltration - Process of water percolating through the soil and into fractures and permeable rocks. Zone of Saturation - Lower soil layers where all spaces are filled with water. Water Table - Top of Zone of Sat.

7 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Groundwater

8 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Groundwater Aquifers - Porous layers of sand, gravel, or rock lying below the water table. Artesian - Pressurized aquifer intersects the surface. (Water flows without pumping) Recharge Zone - Area where water infiltrates into an aquifer. Recharge rate is often very slow. - Presently, groundwater is being removed faster than it can be replenished in many areas.

9 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Groundwater Aquifer

10 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Water diversions from rivers Yellow River (Huang He) In northern China Colorado River Delta in U.S./Mexico

11 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Diversion of rivers to the Aral Sea Once the 4th largest inland body of water in the world A series of dams was built to irrigate cotton. Aral Sea reduced to about 25% of its 1960 volume, quadrupled the salinity of the lake and wiped out the fishery. Pollutants became airborne as dust, causing significant local health problems. The environmental damage caused has been estimated at $1.25 -$2.5 billion a year.

12 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. U.S. Water Policy Through most of US history, water policies have generally worked against conservation. In well-watered eastern states, water policy was based on riparian use rights. In drier western regions where water is often a limiting resource, water law is based primarily on prior appropriation rights. - Fosters Use it or Lose it policies.

13 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Ogallala Aquifer High- capacity well withdrawals

14 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Dried-up reservoir

15 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Western U.S. water conflicts Klamath Basin, Oregon vs.Farmers.Ranchers.WiseUsers Commercial fishers, Sport fishers, Tribes,Environmentalists

16 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Bulk water transfers River system diversions (Canada-to-U.S.) Water pipelines (Canada/Great Lakes-to-Southwest) Supertankers (North America-to-Asia) Canadian government banned bulk transfers in 1999.

17 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

18 Groundwater replenishing

19 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. WATER AVAILABILITY AND USE Renewable Water Supplies Made up of surface runoff and infiltration into accessible freshwater aquifers. Readily accessible, renewable supplies are 400,000 gal /person/year.

20 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Drought Cycles Every continent has regions of scarce rainfall due to topographic effects or wind currents. Water shortages have most severe effect in semiarid zones where moisture availability is the critical factor in plant and animal distributions.

21 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Types of Water Use Withdrawal - Total amount of water taken from a source. Consumption - Fraction of withdrawn water not returned to its source.

22 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Types of Water Use Worldwide, humans withdraw about 10% of total annual renewable supply. Many societies have always treated water as an inexhaustible resource.

23 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Quantities of Water Used Human water use has been increasing about twice as fast as population growth over the past century. Average amount of withdrawn worldwide is about 170,544 gal/person/year.

24 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Global Water Use Growth

25 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Precipitation Patterns

26 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Water use

27 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. FRESHWATER SHORTAGES Estimated 1.5 billion people lack access to an adequate supply of drinking water. Nearly 3 billion lack acceptable sanitation. A country where consumption exceeds more than 20% of available, renewable supply is considered vulnerable to water stress.

28 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. A Precious Resource 45 countries have serious water stress, and cannot meet the minimum essential water requirements of their citizens. More than two-thirds of worlds households have to retrieve water from outside the home.

29 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Depleting Groundwater Groundwater is the source of nearly 40% of fresh water in the US. On a local level, withdrawing water faster than it can be replenished leads to a cone of depression in the water table, - On a broader scale, heavy pumping can deplete an aquifer. Mining non-renewable resource.

30 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Depleting Groundwater

31 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Depleting Groundwater Withdrawing large amounts of groundwater in a small area causes porous formations to collapse, resulting in subsidence. Sinkholes form when an underground channel or cavern collapses. Saltwater intrusion can occur along coastlines

32 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Saltwater Intrusion

33 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Domestic Conservation Estimates suggest many societies could save as much as half of current domestic water usage without great sacrifice or serious change in lifestyle.

34 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Typical US Household Water Use

35 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. 12% of population uses 85% of water WATER WARS

36 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

37 Price Mechanisms Charging a higher proportion of real costs to users of public water projects has helped encourage conservation. Yet discriminates against poor.

38 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Global water Industry Over $140 Billion a year The World Water and Wastewater Utilities Market is estimated at $142 billion US in 2000… (2000, $US)

39 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Water multinationals

40 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Public/private water in EU countries

41 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Public and private prices in France

42 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Water War in Bolivia Cochabamba residents protesting Bechtel privatization of municipal water system, 1999

43 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Private and public: subsidies to and from water Private Loss leaders Subsidies from taxation Public Financing other MNC operations Financing other public services Water services

44 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Alternative: Porto Alegre, Brazil - Autonomous department - Efficiency and public accountability Participatory budgeting - Decentralised democratic prioritising

45 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Alternative: Debrecen, Hungary Preferred public to private Cheaper Financial comparison

46 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Safety of municipal water supplies Wisconsin, 1993 Australia, 1998 (privatized system) Ontario, 2000 (govt had dropped e-coli testing)

47 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Bottled water costs more than oil

48 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Bottled water quality in question

49 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Bottled water growth

50 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. WaterPrivatization Woodstock Riot 1999 Fewer bubblers in public buildings?

51 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Perrier/Nestle in the U.S. TexasFlorida

52 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Perrier/Nestle in the Midwest WisconsinMichigan Mecan Springs (Waushara Co.) ; Big Spring (Adams Co.), Protection of rural supplies from high- capacity wells

53 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

54 New Geography of Conflict Possible flashpoint for resource conflict Water systems & aquifers Jordan Nile Tigris – Euphrates Amu Darya Indus Mountain Aquifer (West Bank/Israel)

55 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Middle East Water Conflicts

56 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Israeli- Palestinian Water Conflict Israel uses 82% Of West Bank groundwater; charges Arabs 3x

57 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Israels boundary with Egypt and Gaza (Palestine)

58 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Dead Sea Shrinkage

59 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Tigris and Euphrates rivers Turkey Iraq

60 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. International cooperation on water use

61 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Websites Water resources Privatization of water Bottled water Water Wars (books)


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