Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Water Use and Management

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Water Use and Management"— Presentation transcript:

1 Water Use and Management
Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

2 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Outline: Water Availability and Use Freshwater Shortages Water Management and Conservation Privatization of water Water wars Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

3 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
WATER RESOURCES Water, liquid and solid, covers more than 70% of world’s surface. More than 370 billion billion gallons. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

4 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Hydrologic Cycle Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

5 which is 13% of fresh water,
Sources of water Surface fresh water: 3% of liquid water, which is 13% of fresh water, which is 2.4% of water Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

6 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Groundwater Second largest reservoir of fresh water. Infiltration - Process of water percolating through the soil and into fractures and permeable rocks. Zone of Saturation - Lower soil layers where all spaces are filled with water. Water Table - Top of Zone of Sat. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

7 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Groundwater Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

8 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Groundwater Aquifers - Porous layers of sand, gravel, or rock lying below the water table. Artesian - Pressurized aquifer intersects the surface. (Water flows without pumping) Recharge Zone - Area where water infiltrates into an aquifer. Recharge rate is often very slow. Presently, groundwater is being removed faster than it can be replenished in many areas. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

9 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Groundwater Aquifer Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

10 Water diversions from rivers Yellow River (Huang He)
In northern China Colorado River Delta in U.S./Mexico Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

11 Diversion of rivers to the Aral Sea
Once the 4th largest inland body of water in the world A series of dams was built to irrigate cotton. Aral Sea reduced to about 25% of its 1960 volume, quadrupled the salinity of the lake and wiped out the fishery. Pollutants became airborne as dust, causing significant local health problems. The environmental damage caused has been estimated at $1.25 -$2.5 billion a year. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

12 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
U.S. Water Policy Through most of US history, water policies have generally worked against conservation. In well-watered eastern states, water policy was based on riparian use rights. In drier western regions where water is often a limiting resource, water law is based primarily on prior appropriation rights. Fosters “Use it or Lose it” policies. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

13 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Ogallala Aquifer High- capacity well withdrawals Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

14 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Dried-up reservoir Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

15 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Western U.S. water conflicts Klamath Basin, Oregon vs. Farmers. Ranchers. “Wise Users” Commercial fishers, Sport fishers, Tribes, Environmentalists Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

16 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Bulk water transfers River system diversions (Canada-to-U.S.) Water pipelines (Canada/Great Lakes-to-Southwest) Supertankers (North America-to-Asia) Canadian government banned bulk transfers in 1999. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

17 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

18 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Groundwater replenishing Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

19 WATER AVAILABILITY AND USE
Renewable Water Supplies Made up of surface runoff and infiltration into accessible freshwater aquifers. Readily accessible, renewable supplies are 400,000 gal /person/year. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

20 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Drought Cycles Every continent has regions of scarce rainfall due to topographic effects or wind currents. Water shortages have most severe effect in semiarid zones where moisture availability is the critical factor in plant and animal distributions. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

21 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Types of Water Use Withdrawal - Total amount of water taken from a source. Consumption - Fraction of withdrawn water not returned to its source. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

22 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Types of Water Use Worldwide, humans withdraw about 10% of total annual renewable supply. Many societies have always treated water as an inexhaustible resource. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

23 Quantities of Water Used
Human water use has been increasing about twice as fast as population growth over the past century. Average amount of withdrawn worldwide is about 170,544 gal/person/year. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

24 Global Water Use Growth
Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

25 Precipitation Patterns
Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

26 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Water use Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

27 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
FRESHWATER SHORTAGES Estimated 1.5 billion people lack access to an adequate supply of drinking water. Nearly 3 billion lack acceptable sanitation. A country where consumption exceeds more than 20% of available, renewable supply is considered vulnerable to water stress. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

28 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
A Precious Resource 45 countries have serious water stress, and cannot meet the minimum essential water requirements of their citizens. More than two-thirds of world’s households have to retrieve water from outside the home. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

29 Depleting Groundwater
Groundwater is the source of nearly 40% of fresh water in the US. On a local level, withdrawing water faster than it can be replenished leads to a cone of depression in the water table, On a broader scale, heavy pumping can deplete an aquifer. Mining non-renewable resource. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

30 Depleting Groundwater
Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

31 Depleting Groundwater
Withdrawing large amounts of groundwater in a small area causes porous formations to collapse, resulting in subsidence. Sinkholes form when an underground channel or cavern collapses. Saltwater intrusion can occur along coastlines Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

32 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Saltwater Intrusion Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

33 Domestic Conservation
Estimates suggest many societies could save as much as half of current domestic water usage without great sacrifice or serious change in lifestyle. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

34 Typical US Household Water Use
Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

35 12% of population uses 85% of water
WATER WARS 12% of population uses 85% of water Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

36 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

37 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Price Mechanisms Charging a higher proportion of real costs to users of public water projects has helped encourage conservation. Yet discriminates against poor. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

38 Global water Industry Over $140 Billion a year
The World Water and Wastewater Utilities Market is estimated at $142 billion US in 2000… (2000, $US) Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

39 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Water multinationals Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

40 Public/private water in EU countries
Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

41 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Public and private prices in France Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

42 “Water War” in Bolivia Cochabamba residents protesting
Bechtel privatization of municipal water system, 1999 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

43 Private and public: subsidies to and from water
Subsidies from taxation Loss leaders Water services Financing other MNC operations Financing other public services Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

44 Alternative: Porto Alegre, Brazil
Autonomous department Efficiency and public accountability ‘Participatory budgeting’ Decentralised democratic prioritising Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

45 Alternative: Debrecen, Hungary
Preferred public to private Cheaper Financial comparison Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

46 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Safety of municipal water supplies Australia, 1998 (privatized system) Wisconsin, 1993 Ontario, 2000 (gov’t had dropped e-coli testing) Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

47 Bottled water costs more than oil
Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

48 Bottled water quality in question
Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

49 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Bottled water growth Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

50 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Water Privatization Woodstock Riot 1999 Fewer bubblers in public buildings? Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

51 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Perrier/Nestle in the U.S. Texas Florida Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

52 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Perrier/Nestle in the Midwest Wisconsin Michigan Mecan Springs (Waushara Co.) ; Big Spring (Adams Co.), Protection of rural supplies from high- capacity wells Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

53 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

54 ‘New Geography of Conflict’
“Possible flashpoint for resource conflict” Water systems & aquifers Jordan Nile Tigris – Euphrates Amu Darya Indus Mountain Aquifer (West Bank/Israel)” Flight back from NY 2 days ago, free copy of Foreign Affairs, article on geography of conflict Much writing about resource scarcity - and Nile almost always surfaces as a flashpoint Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

55 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Middle East Water Conflicts Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

56 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Israeli- Palestinian Water Conflict Israel uses 82% Of West Bank groundwater; charges Arabs 3x Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

57 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Israel’s boundary with Egypt and Gaza (Palestine) Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

58 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Dead Sea Shrinkage Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

59 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Tigris and Euphrates rivers Turkey Iraq Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

60 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
International cooperation on water use Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

61 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Websites Water resources Privatization of water Bottled water Water Wars (books) Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Download ppt "Water Use and Management"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google