Presentation on theme: "Strategic Environmental Assessment of National Water Plan, Nepal"— Presentation transcript:
1Strategic Environmental Assessment of National Water Plan, Nepal BYRam B. Khadka
2Nepal: An Introduction Location:Nepal is the Himalayan Kingdom known as the Land of the Mt. Everest and the birthplace of Lord Buddha. The country is situated in South Asia, bordered on the north by China and on the south, west and east by India.
3Nepal: General Information Topographical Features:Nepal is a mountainous country with the Himalayan belt in the north, the hilly region and fertile valleys in the Middle and the narrow strip of plain in the South, all running parallel to each other from East to West.Climate:The country has diverse climatic conditions. It is generally cold in the mountainous region, mild weather in the hills, and warm in the plains.Rainfall: 1,500 -2,500mm (average)Capital: Kathmandu, a historical city with rich cultural heritage is Nepal's capital with 1.5 million population.
5Background information 6000 Rivers, mostlytrans-Himalayan andsnow –fedDrain 194,471 km2225 billion cubic liters of water is availableAnnually15 billion cubic liters of water have beenutilized so far
6Background information 72 percent of population have an access to water supply25 percent have access to sanitation facility0.76 million ha of agriculture land have been irrigatedHydropower development potential is 83000MW, at present only 619MW has been generated.
7Background information Water is one of the major natural resources for economic developmentInspite of many efforts made in the past water resource development is slow,In order to make water resource development comprehensive, systematized and accelerate the process of development, Government of Nepal issued Water Resource Strategy in 2002.
8Water Resource Strategy (WRS) for Nepal WRS contains following 10 action programs:management water-Induced disastermanagement of watershed and aquatic ecosystemdomestic water supply and sanitationIrrigation facilities for agriculturedevelopment of hydropower for electricitywater-based cultural, recreational, and eco-tourism activitiesamendment the existing water resource policy and legal frameworkwater-related information systemsdevelopment of regional and bi-lateral co-operation andrevision and modification of exsisting institutional proceduralmechanism.
9National Water Plan for Nepal (NWP) In order to operationalize WRS of Nepal, aNational Water Plan was developed andendorsed by the government (2005).Thefollowing are the action programs containedin the NWPThe implementation of NWP activities is totake place within the time frame of 5,15 and20 years.
10National Water Plan (NWP) Contd. Management of major types of water induced disastersImprovement of water Quality and watershedsProvide safe drinking water to 100% people of NepalProvide irrigation facilities to 100% arable land
11National Water Plan (NWP) Contd. Develop 4000MW of hydropowerProvide water to 100% industry, navigation and tourismEnhance inland fisheries and increase the production to MT per yearEstablish hydrometric stations to 370 at strategic places and disseminate the information
12National Water Plan (NWP) Contd Establish regional cooperation for water sharing fullyRevise and refine the existing legal framework, develop policies, guidelines, norms and standards.Restructure administrative institutions revise and improve administrative mechanism.Or
13Application of SEA in NWP No legal requirement for SEA in NepalWater Energy Commission of Nepal decided to apply SEA in NWP voluntarily to make plan environmentally sound and sustainable.SEA was carried out based on secondary sources of Information and an extensive public consultation with some field verification.Followed screening, scoping, baseline information collection, impact identification and prediction, mitigation measures and environmental management plan.
14Application of SEA in NWP Stakeholders consultation at different stagesUse of internationally recognized checklist, interaction matrix, and Impact summary matrix (Saddler and Verheem, 1996).Issues identified in scoping were classified into i physical, ii biological iii socio-economic/cultural and iv legal and institutional components.
15Issue Analysis and Prediction NWP was examined whether,Issues were addressed in NWPAssessment of the status of issues includedMitigation measures are providedPhysical IssuesDownstream release of water, submergingof large amount of farmland, water logging, extraction of ground water-lowering of water levelFormation of new flood plainWater pollution due to chemical fertilizer and pesticidesNo Measures are mentioned in policies, guidelines and no standards
16Issue Analysis and Prediction Biological Issues: effect on;Forest, flora, animals both aquatic andTerrestrialsProtected areas, wild animal habitat,Destruction of biodiversityEffect on fish and fisheriesProduction of Green House Gas (GHG)Downstream Pollution
17Issue Analysis and Prediction Socio-Economic/Cultural Issueemployment opportunity,local market development,reduced drudgery in women and children,skilled manpower development,gender,enhancement of local organizations.land acquisition,displacement, and resettlement,cultural malpractices, and pressure on social services
18Issue Analysis and Prediction Legal and Institutional ComponentPolicy conflictNo coordinationImproper legal framework ineffective inImplementationNo water quality standards, no code of conduct,No waste water treatment commitmentThe private sector projects are operating wellThe government sector projects do not functionproperly because of the financial limitation imposedby finance actNo comprehensive legislation
19Mitigation Measures /Alternative Options Mitigation measures at strategic level caninvolves:rewriting the strategic actions to minimize negative environmental effects and enhance the beneficial one,establishing management guidelines for implementing strategic action,shifting responsibility to lower tier of strategic action or in project level, andno action alternative.
20Mitigation Measures /Alternative Options Physical ComponentsMaintaining water flow down stream : release of 10% dry period flow plus existing water requirement in downstream.Downstream Water Pollution andGroundwater Quality ; Standards and policy guidelinesUse of Inundated Upland Fields and ForestCloud Burst, Glacial Lake Outburst Flood,and Landslide Dam Flood; MinimizationErosions, Landslides, and Sedimentation: minimizationLowering of Ground Water ;Policy guidelinesWater logging and Soil Modification; Policy guidelines
21Mitigation Measures /Alternative Options Forest Vegetation and Wild animals;Forest and Vegetation; Policy guidelines and standardsWildlife and Biodiversity;Protected Areas;Aquatic flora and Fauna
22Mitigation Measures /Alternative Options Socio-economic and Cultural Issues ;Mostly to be addressed by issuing of policy guidelines, directives, standards, and implementation guidelinesEmployment Opportunities;Economic ActivitiesLocal Market Development MarketSkilled manpower development;Reduce Drudgery to Women and ChildrenCultural Practice;Land Acquisition, Displacement and ResettlementPressure on Social ServiceGender Issue
23Mitigation Measures /Alternative Options Legal and Institutional ComponentComprehensive National Water Resource PolicyAction Plans for Water resource and Environment LawsLegal Regime for Ground Water ManagementPollution Standards for Enforcement of EnvironmentProtection ActStrengthen Community-Based Water User Organizations
24Environmental Management Plan (EMP) rewriting, strategy and Action Plans, development of policy guidelines for implementation of directives to project-level implementations are the key strategic mitigation prescriptions.EMP of National Water Plan should examine whether the issues are addressed and the corresponding gaps are identified.In SEA of NWP strategic EMP parameters on physical, biological, socio-economic, and cultural components of the environment have been identified and recommendation should be made to apply in project level activitiesThe second part in EMP is to monitor the implementation of mitigation prescriptions. Monitoring such as (i) baseline (ii) impact and (iii) compliance monitoring are applicable to strategic actions.
25Conclusion and Recommendation Analysis has been carried out for the consideration of in the uppertier of decision-making.The key environmental issues identified were:downstream release of water and water use right,inundation,downstream and ground water pollution,issues on the loss of forests and wildlife, both aquatic and terrestrial,issues on boom and bust cycle related to workforce,land acquisition displacement and resettlement, andineffective environmental laws, regulations, and standards and institutions related to water resource development.Issues on human resource development and employment opportunity.
26Conclusion and Recommendation Minimization of the adverse issues and enhancement ofbeneficial issues of NWP implementation at the StrategicLevel are:revising and modification of existing system of legalframework,revising and writing of water resource development policies, Plans and programs, andIssuing policy guidelines, standards, norms, reforming existing institutional and procedural aspects, etc.THANK YOU