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Water, Vitamins & Minerals. Vitamins Certain vitamins and minerals are needed for the body to function. 13 vitamins 22 minerals Two types of vitamins.

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Presentation on theme: "Water, Vitamins & Minerals. Vitamins Certain vitamins and minerals are needed for the body to function. 13 vitamins 22 minerals Two types of vitamins."— Presentation transcript:

1 Water, Vitamins & Minerals

2 Vitamins Certain vitamins and minerals are needed for the body to function. 13 vitamins 22 minerals Two types of vitamins Water-soluble Fat-soluble

3 Fat-Soluble vitamins Vitamin A, D, E and K Excess is stored in the liver and in body fat It is possible to build up to a toxic level

4 Vitamin A (Retinol) Beta-carotene is converted into vitamin A Vitamin A: Promotes good vision Promotes healthy skin Helps with growth and maintenance of bones, teeth, and cell structure RDA: 900 micrograms for males; 700 micrograms for females

5 Too much vitamin A May turn your skin orange May cause fatigue, weakness, severe headache, blurred vision, hair loss and joint pain. Toxicity: May cause severe liver or brain damage Birth defects

6 Too little vitamin A May cause night blindness Lowered immune system

7 Foods rich in vitamin A Foods Only animal products Liver Eggs Milk, butter and cheese Carotenoids Orange/Yellow fruits and vegetables Cantaloupes, carrots, sweet potatoes, winter squash Leafy green vegetables Spinach, broccoli

8 Vitamin D – The Sunshine Vitamin Essential for building and maintaining bones and teeth Responsible for absorption and utilization of calcium Other health benefits: May boost immune system May also help decrease certain cancers RDA: 5 micrograms until age micrograms / day until 70; 15 mcg 70+

9 Too little vitamin D Vitamin D deficiency has been in the news a lot lately. Deficiency may occur from: Inadequate diet Vegetarianism, lactose intolerance, milk allergy Body unable to absorb needed vitamin D Limited exposure to sunlight

10 Vitamin D Deficiency May lead to osteomalacia and/or osteoporosis

11 Getting vitamin D Sun exposure for 10 minutes a day Foods: Fortified milk Tuna Salmon May need a supplement Check with doctor first though

12 Vitamin E Important to red blood cells, muscles and other tissues Deficiency is rare Toxicity is rare But Vitamin E acts as a blood thinner Foods: Vegetable oils, salad dressings, whole grain cereals, green leafy vegetables, nuts, seeds, peanut butter and wheat germ.

13 Vitamin K Important for blood clotting Also has a role for bone health Mostly made in the intestines Foods: Turnip greens, cauliflower, spinach, liver, broccoli, kale and cabbage

14 Water-Soluble Vitamins Vitamins Bs and C Eight B vitamins: Thiamin (B-1) Riboflavin (B-2) Niacin (B-3) Pyridoxine (B-4) Cobalamin (B-12) Folic acid Pantothenic acid Biotin

15 Thiamin or B-1 Helps to convert carbohydrates to energy Deficiency: Fatigue, nausea, depression, nerve damage Foods: Pork, beef, liver, peas, seeds, legumes, whole- grain products, and oatmeal

16 Riboflavin or B-2 Key to metabolism and red blood cells Deficiency: Dry, scaly skin Foods: Milk, yogurt, cheese, whole-grain breads, green leafy vegetables, meat, and eggs

17 Niacin or B-3 Also involved with energy production Also helps with skin, nerves and digestive system Deficiency: Rare but causes: diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia and death Foods: Meat, poultry, liver, eggs, brown rice, baked potatoes, fish, milk, and whole-grain foods

18 Pyridoxine or B-6 Involved in chemical reactions of proteins and amino acids Deficiency: Skin changes, dementia, nervous system disorders and anemia Foods: Lean meats, fish, legumes, green leafy vegetables, raisins, corn, bananas, mangos

19 Cobalamin or B-12 Helps with nervous system, red blood cells and DNA synthesis Deficiency: Nervous system disorders and pernicious anemia Foods: Only found in animal products Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk products and clams

20 Folic acid (Folacin, Folate) Key role in red blood cell formation and cell division Deficiency: Anemia, digestive disorders Foods: Leafy, dark green vegetables Also found in liver, beans, peas, asparagus, oranges, avocados

21 Pantothenic Acid and Biotin Help with metabolism and formation of some hormones Deficiencies are rare Foods: Almost any food, plant-based or animal-based

22 Vitamin C Important to bone health, blood vessel health, cell structure and absorption of iron Deficiency: Rare Too much vitamin C Foods: Melons, berries, tomatoes, potatoes, broccoli, fortified juices, kiwi, mangos, yellow peppers and citrus fruits

23 Minerals 22 minerals are needed by the body Two categories: Major Include calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and sulfur Trace Include iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, molybdenum, arsenic, nickel, silicon, boron and cobalt

24 Sodium What does sodium do for you? Helps maintain fluid balance Helps transmit nerve impulses Influences contraction and relaxation of muscles

25 Sodium & Health Too much sodium Causes high blood pressure May lead to fluid retention

26 Sodium Savvy The human body requires about 500 mg of sodium per day, while the average American usually ingests between 2,300- 6,900 mg each day. It is recommended to stay in a range of 1,500 to 2,400 mg / day.

27 Where are you getting sodium?

28 Sodium & Food On food labels: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) Baking soda Baking powder Disodium phosphate Sodium alginate Sodium nitrate or nitrite

29 Reducing sodium in your diet Eat more fresh foods Eat less processed foods Look for low-sodium products Limit the salt you add to foods Experiment with other seasonings Use salt substitutes with caution

30 Calcium The most abundant mineral in your body 99% is stored in the bones Known for bone health How much do you need? Males years old: 1,000 mg / day Females years old: 1,000 mg / day

31 Calcium & Foods Dairy products, fortified juices, sardines FoodCalcium Yogurt, plain (low-fat) Yogurt, flavored (low-fat) 1 cup mg 1 cup – 345 mg Milk, skim Milk, 1-2% 1 cup – 302 mg 1 cup – 300 mg Ice cream½ cup – 88 mg Broccoli, cooked½ cup – 68 mg Salmon, canned3 oz – 165 mg Fortified orange juice8 oz – 300 mg

32 Iron Iron deficiency is the most widespread vitamin or mineral deficiency in the world. 70% of your bodys iron is in your hemoglobin Too little iron = too little oxygen

33 Iron & Foods Heme iron: Found in animal products Red meats, liver, poultry and eggs Non-heme iron: Found in plant products Beans, nuts, seeds, dried fruits, fortified breads and cereals

34 Iron supplements Check with your doctor first. High risk groups: Strict vegetarians Those who do not eat a balanced diet Those who are over 60 Smokers and those who regularly drink alcohol Chronic dieters Those who suffer from food allergies, intolerances

35 Water Essential for life It is possible to live without food than without water. Water makes up about 45-75% of your body weight

36 Why is water important? Aids with transport Mechanical functions Helps to break substances down Helps to maintain body temperature/pH

37 How much water do you need? Adequate intake: For men: 125 oz / day For women: 91 oz / day Ideally 80% of water should coming from drinking fluids. 20% of water intake should come from food


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