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Technology in Action Alan Evans Kendall Martin Mary Anne Poatsy Tenth Edition Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

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Presentation on theme: "Technology in Action Alan Evans Kendall Martin Mary Anne Poatsy Tenth Edition Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall."— Presentation transcript:

1 Technology in Action Alan Evans Kendall Martin Mary Anne Poatsy Tenth Edition Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

2 Technology in Action Chapter 6 Understanding and Assessing Hardware: Evaluating Your System Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

3 Chapter Topics Your Ideal Computer Evaluating the CPU Subsystem Evaluating the Memory Subsystem Evaluating the Storage Subsystem Evaluating the Video and Audio Subsystems Evaluating System Reliability and Making a Final Decision 2 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

4 Your Ideal Computer New technologies emerge so quickly that it is hard to decide if expensive extras are tools you would use Should you upgrade your system? Should you buy a new computer? Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 3

5 Your Ideal Computer (cont.) Things to consider –CPUs are becoming faster –Moores Law –System components continue to improve –Hard drives growing in storage capacity Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4

6 Your Ideal Computer (cont.) Huge number of choices –Tablets –Ultrabooks –Netbooks –Tablet PCs –Laptops –Desktops Mobility versus processing power Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5

7 Your Ideal Computer (cont.) Desktop – Best value – 24-inch or larger monitor – More reliable – Easier to expand and upgrade – More difficult to steal Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6

8 Your Ideal Computer (cont.) Computers usually last 2 years and maybe even 4 or 5 Depends on how easy it is to upgrade Laptops often have an ExpressCard slot –Solid-state drive –New kinds of ports –Other capabilities –Ultrabooks and tablets dont have ExpressCard expansion options ExpessCards can add a solid-state drive (SSD) Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7

9 Evaluating the CPU Subsystem CPU –Located on motherboard –Processes instructions, performs calculations, and manages flow of information through a computer system –Intel Core processors Dominant processors (i7, i5, and i3) Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 8

10 Evaluating the CPU Subsystem Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 9

11 Evaluating the CPU Subsystem How the CPU Works CPU is composed of two units –Control unit coordinates activities of all other computer components –Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) performs arithmetic calculations Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 10

12 Evaluating the CPU Subsystem How the CPU Works (cont.) Machine cycle is series of steps performed to process a program instruction –Fetch data or instruction from RAM –Decode instruction that computer understands –Execute instruction –Store result in RAM Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11

13 Evaluating the CPU Subsystem CPU Factors CPUs processing power –Clock speed – dictates how many instructions the CPU can process each second Overclocking – run the CPU at a faster speed than the manufacturer recommends –Cores – contains the parts of the CPU required for processing –Cache memory Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 12

14 Evaluating the CPU Subsystem CPU Factors (cont.) Hyperthreading allows a new set of instructions to start before the previous set has finished Multiple cores used on one CPU chip enable execution of two sets of instructions at the same time Possible to design CPU to have multiple cores and hyperthreading Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13

15 Evaluating the CPU Subsystem CPU Factors (cont.) Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 14

16 Evaluating the CPU Subsystem CPU Factors (cont.) Cache memory allows immediate access to data and instructions without having to go to RAM Cache memory levels –Level 1 cache is memory built onto CPU chip for storage of data or commands just used –Level 2 and Level 3 cache are slightly farther away, take longer to access, and contain more storage space Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 15

17 Evaluating the CPU Subsystem CPU Factors (cont.) CPU Benchmarks are measurements used to compare processor performance Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16

18 Evaluating the CPU Subsystem Measuring the CPU Computers OS has utilities to measure CPU usage –Task Manager –CPU usage graph –Depends on number of programs running at one time Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 17

19 Evaluating the CPU Subsystem Measuring the CPU (cont.) Overall performance depends on many factors, including RAM and hard drive speed Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 18

20 Evaluating the Memory Subsystem Random access memory (RAM) is a computers temporary storage space –Short-term memory –Available only when computer is on –Volatile storage ROM memory –Holds critical startup instructions –Nonvolatile storage Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 19

21 Evaluating the Memory Subsystem Faster for CPU to retrieve data from RAM Fastest memory is more expensive Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 20

22 Evaluating the Memory Subsystem The RAM in Your System Types –Double data rate 3 (DDR3) –Double data rate 5 (DDR5) Memory modules are small circuit boards that hold a series of RAM chips Dual inline memory modules (DIMMs) 21 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

23 Evaluating the Memory Subsystem The RAM in Your System (cont.) Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 22 Amount of RAM is computers physical memory –System Properties window –Measured in gigabytes SuperFetch: Monitors which applications are used the most and preloads them

24 Evaluating the Memory Subsystem The RAM in Your System (cont.) Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 23

25 Evaluating the Memory Subsystem The RAM in Your System (cont.) Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 24

26 Evaluating the Memory Subsystem Adding RAM Motherboard has specific number of slots for memory cards Each slot has limit on amount of RAM it can hold Operating system imposes own RAM limit –Windows 8 (32 bit) maximum is 4 GB –Windows 8 (64 bit) maximum is 192 GB 25 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

27 Evaluating the Memory Subsystem Adding RAM 26 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

28 Evaluating the Storage Subsystem Temporary storage –RAM Permanent storage –Hard drives –Solid state drives (SSDs) –Optical drives –External hard drives Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 27

29 Evaluating the Storage Subsystem Mechanical Hard Drives Largest capacity of any storage devices –Some exceed 4 TB More economical than other storage Most systems can support more than one internal hard drive 28 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

30 Evaluating the Storage Subsystem Mechanical Hard Drives (cont.) Composed of coated platters stacked on a spindle –Platter – each plate that composes a hard drive Data saved as pattern of magnetized spots of 1s and 0s When retrieved, patterns of spots are translated into data Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 29 Access arms

31 Evaluating the Storage Subsystem Mechanical Hard Drives (cont.) Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 30 Read/write head Access arms

32 Evaluating the Storage Subsystem Mechanical Hard Drives (cont.) Access time – the time it takes the hard drive to locate stored data and make it available for processing –Measured in milliseconds (ms) Optical drives have faster access time Large-capacity drives access time is 12 to 13 ms DVD drive can take over 150 ms 31 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

33 Evaluating the Storage Subsystem Mechanical Hard Drives (cont.) 32 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

34 Evaluating the Storage Subsystem Solid State Drives SSDs: Use electronic memory and have no mechanical motors or moving parts –Fast access times –Run with no noise, generate little heat, require little power 33 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

35 Dig Deeper How a Mechanical Hard Drive Works Track (concentric circles) and sector (pie- shaped wedges) created in the magnetized surface of each platter during low-level formatting to prepare disks to hold data 34 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

36 Dig Deeper How a Mechanical Hard Drive Works Read/write heads retrieve and record magnetic data to and from the hard drive platter Access time has two factors: seek time and latency 35 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

37 Evaluating the Storage Subsystem Optical Drives Store data as tiny pits burned into the disc by high-speed laser Optical media –Compact disc (CD) –Digital video disc (DVD) –Blu-ray disc (BD) Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 36

38 Evaluating the Storage Subsystem Optical Drives (cont.) Optical media formats –Prerecorded –Recordable –Rewriteable Many lightweight systems dont include optical drives External optical drives Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 37

39 Evaluating the Storage Subsystem Your Storage Capacity and Needs Hard drive capacity –Measured in gigabytes or terabytes Need enough to store –The OS –Software applications –Data files –Digital libraries Other options –External hard drive Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 38

40 Evaluating the Storage Subsystem Your Storage Capacity and Needs Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 39

41 Evaluating the Storage Subsystem Your Storage Capacity and Needs (cont.) Redundant array of independent disks (RAID): Set of strategies for using more than one drive –RAID 0 Cuts files in half between two drives Faster –RAID 1 Mirrored drives Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 40

42 Evaluating the Storage Subsystem Your Storage Capacity and Needs (cont.) Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 41

43 Evaluating the Video Subsystem Video Cards Video display depends on two components –Video card Expansion card that translates binary data into images –Monitor Ports –DVI –HDMI –DisplayPort Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 42

44 Evaluating the Video Subsystem Video Cards (cont.) Video memory –Graphics double data rate 3 (GDDR3) –Graphics double data rate 5 (GDDR5) Evaluate system video card information using Advanced Settings of the Screen Resolution dialog box Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 43

45 Evaluating the Video Subsystem Video Cards (cont.) GPU performs computational work like CPU Specialized to handle –3D graphics –Image and video processing 44 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

46 Evaluating the Video Subsystem Video Cards (cont.) CPU runs more efficiently when a GPU does all graphics computation 45 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

47 Evaluating the Video Subsystem Video Cards (cont.) Two or even three video cards can be used Video chip set manufacturers –Nvidia: SLI –ATI: Crossfire 3-D panels 46 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

48 Evaluating the Audio Subsystem Computers output sound with speakers and a sound card 3-D sound technology is better at convincing the human ear that sound is omnidirectional Surround sound is a type of audio processing that makes the listener experience sounds as if it were coming from all directions Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 47

49 Evaluating the Audio Subsystem Dolby Digital 7.1 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 48

50 Evaluating the Audio Subsystem Audio MIDI Interface box – used to connect MIDI instruments, high-quality microphones, and recording equipment to your computer Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 49

51 Evaluating System Reliability Performance problems –Slow performance –Freezes –Crashes Try to fix problem before buying a new machine Proper upkeep and maintenance could postpone upgrade or replacement Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 50

52 Evaluating System Reliability (cont.) Clear out unnecessary files Install a reliable antivirus package Run spyware and adware removal programs Run the Disk Defragmenter utility These utilities can be configured to run automatically at any time interval Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 51

53 Evaluating System Reliability (cont.) System problems –Troubleshooting Check RAM Refresh System restore Microsoft Knowledge Base Search Google Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 52

54 Evaluating System Reliability (cont.) Latest version of software increases reliability Upgrade or update OS, browser software, and application software Problem Steps Recorder Automatic Updates Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 53

55 Evaluating System Reliability (cont.) Upgrade the OS to the latest version –Substantial increases in reliability –Might require hardware upgrades Additional RAM Updated graphics processor Larger hard drive –Windows 8 upgrade automatically checks system compatibility 54 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

56 Making a Final Decision How closely does your system meet your needs? How much would it cost to upgrade your system? How much would it cost to purchase a new system? Price both scenarios to determine better value 55 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

57 Chapter 6 Summary Questions 1.What kind of computer is best for me? 56 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

58 Chapter 6 Summary Questions 2.What does the CPU do, and how can I evaluate its performance? 57 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

59 Chapter 6 Summary Questions 3.How does memory work in my computer? 58 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

60 Chapter 6 Summary Questions 4.How do I evaluate how much memory I need? 59 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

61 Chapter 6 Summary Questions 5.What are the computers storage devices? 60 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

62 Chapter 6 Summary Questions 6.How do I evaluate my storage devices? 61 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

63 Chapter 6 Summary Questions 7.What components affect the quality of video on my computer? 62 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

64 Chapter 6 Summary Questions 8.How do I know if I need better video performance? 63 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

65 Chapter 6 Summary Questions 9.What components affect my computers sound quality? 64 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

66 Chapter 6 Summary Questions 10. How can I improve the reliability of my system? 65 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

67 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


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