Hardware and Software Networks and Computers Safe Practices hardware networkAUP software standalone computer virus systems software logging on operating system password application software file management system unitfile type
Hardware is physical computer equipment. This is equipment that you can actually touch like the CPU, the keyboard, and the monitor. Software is computer instructions. These fall into two categories: o System Software o Application Software
System software refers to the operating system, the utility programs, and drivers that manage the computer. o The Operating System controls the basic operations of your computer. Your operating system is probably Windows XP, Vista, or Windows 7. o Drivers are programs that control specific brands and models of devices, like specific printers. o Utilities are programs that help manage the system. Some examples are v irus scanning software, defrag, writing to a CD.
Application software helps to user to perform a specific taskto do their work, pursue their hobbies, etc. Examples of Application Software Word processor Word, WordPerfect Spreadsheet Excel, Lotus 1-2-3 Presentation PowerPoint Database Management Access Desktop Publishing Publisher, InDesign Email software Outlook, Eudora Personal Finance Software Money, Quicken Accounting Software Quickbooks Games Graphics Editing P hotoshop Web Design Software FrontPage, DreamWeaver
Input Devices include: Keyboards Mouse Scanners Cameras Bar Code Readers Joysticks Game Controllers Mouse Keyboard Scanner Game Controller Camera Peripherals are devices that are attached to the computer that arent necessary for the computer to function, like the scanner, webcam, joystick.
The processor is called the CPU (Central Processing Unit). While people sometimes call the case the CPU, it is actually the system unit. o The system unit is the computer case that contains the CPU, power supply, memory, and storage. The CPU is actually a chip on the motherboard inside the case. The CPU chip is called the microprocessor. Motherboard Microprocessor
Memory refers to computer chips that store data and programs while the computer is running. The memory chips are located on the motherboard inside the system unit. RAM (random access memory) is another name for memory. o It is the memory that is used to store programs and data. Motherboard RAM – Memory Chips System Unit
Output devices include: o Monitors o Printers o Speakers o Projectors o Robotic controls o Speech synthesizers Monitor Projection System Robotic Control Printer Speakers Peripherals are devices that are attached to the computer that arent necessary for the computer to function, like the scanner, webcam, joystick.
Storage devices include: o Disk drive o CD/DVD drive o Flash drive o Tape drive All of these devices can be external (often attached by USB or other cable). Some are frequently internal (inside the case). Disk drive CD/DVD drive Flash drive Tape drive
Optical media (CDs and DVDs) o Handle by edges or center, not touching surface. o Clean with lint free closes with approved cleaning solution. o Store upright in jewel case. o Store at room temperature. USB flash drives and external hard drives o Wait until operations have stopped before trying to remove. o Use Safely Remove Hardware feature. o Avoid static electricity. o Store at room temperature. o Dont force USB connector into computerYou may have it upside down. o Keep cap on when not in use. (Flash drive) o Dont move or drop while drive is spinning. (External hard drive) USB External Disk drive Optical media (CDs & DVDs) Flash drive
File management refers to a group of programs on the computer that allows the user to create, edit, view, print, rename, copy, or delete files, folders, or an entire file system.
File typerefers to the way the data is encoded for storage. The file type is indicated by the extension, like.docx for Word 2007. File extensionan abbreviation that indicates the software used to save or open the file..docx – Word file.pptx– PowerPoint file.xlsx – Excel file.mdb– Access 2007 file.html – Web page file.jpg– graphic file
A is a system that transmits any combination of voice, video and/or data between users. A network is a system that transmits any combination of voice, video and/or data between users. o The network includes the network operating system in the client and server machines, the cables connecting them and all supporting hardware in between such as bridges, routers and switches. o In wireless systems, wireless access points, antennas, and towers are also part of the network. A refers to a computer that is self-contained, one that does not require any other devices to function. It may be attached to the network but will continue to work when disconnected from the network. A stand-alone pc refers to a computer that is self-contained, one that does not require any other devices to function. It may be attached to the network but will continue to work when disconnected from the network.
Logging On enables you to gain entrance into the network. In order to log on you will need a user name and password. A password is a keyword used to access information. (such as: network, website, etc).
Most schools and business have acceptable use policies which define unacceptable behavior and its results. In many schools the punishment ranges from a warning to expulsion. In most business, violation of the AUP is grounds for firing. Be sure you are aware of and follow your schools AUP.
Misuse, disconnecting, or vandalizing hardware Changing setting on computers without permission Installation of software without permission Deliberate introduction of a virus Attempting to access unauthorized files or network resources Usage of another persons user name and password. Using the computers for harassment or to access or convey objectionable material Copyright and plagiarism Visiting inappropriate sites Use of chat rooms
Use antivirus software o It should run memory resident (continuously) Update your software often Be careful opening email attachments o Do not open an attachment from an unknown source. o Save the file and scan it before opening. Scan all files on floppy disks or CDs or downloaded from the Internet before using Virusprogram that was written to cause corruption of data on a computer. It is usually attached to an executable file. It can cause major damage to the computers data.