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Photosynthesis Glencoe Ch. 8. Kansas Science Standards The sun is the primary source of energy for life through the process of photosynthesis. -plants.

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Presentation on theme: "Photosynthesis Glencoe Ch. 8. Kansas Science Standards The sun is the primary source of energy for life through the process of photosynthesis. -plants."— Presentation transcript:

1 Photosynthesis Glencoe Ch. 8

2 Kansas Science Standards The sun is the primary source of energy for life through the process of photosynthesis. -plants and other photosynthetic organisms use energy from the sun to make glucose. - photosynthesis is a series of chemical reactions that takes place in a chloroplast.

3 Energy for Life; all living things need energy! Without energy, things tend to get messy. ex: your room, death Entropy: natural tendency toward disorder.

4 Two Laws of thermodynamics: 1. Energy cannot be created nor destroyed, just changed from one form to another, i.e. chemical (food) energy converted to mechanical (movement energy) 2. Some energy is always lost (usually as thermal energy) during the change or Entropy increases i.e. trophic levels in the food chain.

5 Autotrophs: get energy from the sun (or chemicals) to make own food. Heterotrophs: obtain energy from food it eats. Remember??

6 Metabolism All of the chemical rxns in a cell Metabolic pathway = series of chem. rxn in which the product of one rxn is the substrate for the next. 2 types: Catabolic – (catabolism) break down molecules to release energy Anabolic – (anabolism) use energy to build larger molecules from smaller ones

7 Anabolic steroids? hormones that build up molecules of protein to make muscles Balance between catabolic and anabolic pathways affected by circadian rhythms, activity periods demand energy from glucose

8 Introduction to Plants

9 Energy is stored in the bonds between atoms and molecules (food) = chemical energy http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=chemical+food+energy&view=detail&id=D0B8159D8F5E6616C858C30DF7FB7FBB50583354&first=1&FOR M=IDFRIR&qpvthttp://www.bing.com/images/search?q=chemical+food+energy&view=detail&id=D0B8159D8F5E6616C858C30DF7FB7FBB50583354&first=1&FOR M=IDFRIR&qpvt=

10 Plants change light energy into chemical energy which is stored in the bonds of glucose molecules that make up organisms. (anabolic pathway) sun 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O -------- 6O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 Carbonwater oxygen glucose Dioxide http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C1_uez5WX1o Photosynthesis

11 Products of photosynthesis: Makes glucose to store energy. Also stores energy short term in the molecule ATP.

12 ATP: adenosine triphosphate Small molecule that stores small amounts of energy for a cell. Like pennies of energy compared to the $20 bill of glucose. Energy in ATP can be used anywhere in the organism.

13 ATP Energy is stored in the bond of the last phosphate group. Like a rechargeable battery. Absolutely necessary for life processes! http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=atp&view=detail&id=760CFE3A35731F 10F0227628A9A367A8793A4189&first=1&FORM=IDFRIR&qpvt=

14 Plants take in carbon dioxide Pore on bottom of leaf called stoma (stomata pl.). Let CO 2 into leaf. Let water vapor out. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0 PEYAOKTqEU&feature=related

15

16 Stomate: open and closed

17 Plants get water through roots!!! Water is absorbed from soil through the roots.

18 Photosynthesis Photosynthesis happens in the chloroplast of a plant cell.

19 Chloroplast parts: Thylakoids - membrane bound disks Granum - stack of thylakoids. Stroma - juicy inside. Double membrane around outside. Own, separate DNA

20 Micrograph of chloroplast

21 Chloroplasts gather sun energy Pigments: molecules that absorb certain wavelengths of light energy. Chlorophyll: several pigments that absorb mostly violet-blue and red wavelengths and reflect green. (chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b most common) Carotenoids (ex: β-carotene) absorb blue/green, reflect yellow, orange, red http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=chlorophyll&view=detail&id=740A7FAFF FE7B29220ACCA4E3FCCAA798E3489D2&first=31&FORM=IDFRIR&qpvt=

22 Pigments: A pigment is a molecule that absorbs light in the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The leaves of most plants are rich in pigments. These pigments absorb light and convert it into chemical energy to fuel the production of sugars. The primary photosynthetic pigment is chlorophyll a. Other pigments such as chlorophyll b and carotenoids are referred to as accessory pigments. These absorb light and funnel the energy to chlorophyll a. Different pigments absorb different types (wavelengths) of light. Some pigments might absorb blue light better than other wavelengths of light, for example. Others may absorb all of the colors well, or none.

23 CO 2 + H 2 O -----> O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6

24 Glucose = C 6 H 12 O 6 The carbon in glucose comes from carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) The hydrogen in glucose comes from water (H 2 O) The oxygen in glucose comes from CO 2. The sun energy is stored in the bonds that hold the glucose molecule together.

25 Factors affecting Photosynthesis Water Temperature Intensity of light Concentration of CO 2

26

27 Power to the Plankton

28 Overview of Photosynthesis

29 Two Parts: Light-dependent reactions Light-independent reactions Chloroplast

30 Light-dependent reactions Occurs within thylakoid membrane of chloroplast. Chlorophyll energized by sunlight. (needs light) Sun energy moves to ATP and NADPH. (energy carriers) Oxygen produced.

31 NADPH Another energy carrying molecule like ATP. Like a rechargeable battery: NADP + H ---> NADPH (Low energy) (High energy)

32 http://www.fw.vt.edu/dendro/forestbiology/photosynthesis.swf

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34 Light Reactions animation

35 Light-independent reactions Happens in the stroma of chloroplast. Uses energy from light-dependent reactions (ATP and NADPH) to make glucose from CO 2. Does not need light to work.

36 Photosynthesis animation overview PH

37 Calvin cycle

38 The Calvin Cycle Calvin Cycle Animation Photosynthesis Animated Overview

39 Alternate pathways C 4 – plants in hot dry areas keep their stomata closed on hot days, fix carbon as a 4-carbon compound. (corn, sugar cane) CAM – crassulacean acid metabolism plants living where water is scarce keep stomata closed in day, store CO 2 as an acid that they can use in daytime for Calvin cycle.(cacti, orchids, pineapple)

40 YouTube Resources: Photosynthesis song detailed overview Bozeman Photosynthesis


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