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Cradle of Civilization

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1 Cradle of Civilization
IRAN (PERSIA) Cradle of Civilization ( PART 6 )

2 GENERAL MEHI RAHIMI He will live in our hearts and minds as the
The Brave Iranian general who shouted: “long live the king”, when he was being shot by the criminal terrorist mullahs and their thugs He will live in our hearts and minds as the most courageous Iranian general, For ever Source: memory-of-general-mehdi.html

Major General, Imperial Iranian Army Aviation Head of Special Forces Major General Khosrodad was the first head of the Special Forces and at the time of execution was Major General of the Imperial Iranian Army Aviation. He had studied at American Defense Academy and the French military school, Saint Cyr, and he mastered English and French. He was a helicopter pilot, Head of Equestrian Federation, and a champion in jumping on horseback. He also liked skiing. His colleagues remember him as a talented and effective manager; a loved and respected commander. Major General Khosrodad was not an affluent man and did not abuse his position to collect wealth. He had no security concern and prior to the Lavizan incident, when four criminal Islamist soldiers shot and killed scores of soldiers and officers, during lunch time at cafeteria of the base, would often go out unprotected. During the Iranian unrest of 1979, before the fall of the government, he believed that army should not be involved in politics and said: “We are soldiers and have nothing to do with politics. I am obedient to whoever governs the country”. The general was executed a few days after the upheaval of 1979, by the terrorist criminal mullahs Source: memorial-case php

AN EXCERPT OF NATIONAL IRANIAN MILITARY HEROES From left to right: Professor Hassan Paakravaan. , H.I.M. Prince Shahriar Shafigh , General Gholaam-Ali Oveisi. From left to right: General Mehdi Rahimi. , Colonel Siyavash Bayaani , General Aayat Mohagheghi, General Ali Neshat. Source: CrimeNews40.asp

Achaemenid Rhython in the shape of a Lioness. Iranian rhython arts also influenced the arts of ancient Greece  as seen in the Athenian rhython now housed at Museo di Archeologia Ligure, Genova. Source:/ lion-and-sun-motif-of-iran-a-brief-analysis/

6 IRANIAN ARTS Visual Arts Decorative Arts Literature Performance Arts
Paintings Miniatures Decorative Arts Jewelry Handcrafts Pottery Literature Mythology Performance Arts Music Dance Others Architecture Hand-knotted Persian Carpets

7 1951 miniature painting by Master Behzad depicting the story of
PERSIAN MINIATURES The origin of the Persian miniature is difficult to trace. The art form reached its peak mainly during the Mongol and Timurid periods (13th-16th century), and was Heavily influenced by Chinese paintings as the Mongol rulers of Persia brought with them numerous Chinese artists to the court. Persian Arts, Visual Arts, Painting, Miniatures, Decorative Arts, Jewelry , Embroidery, Motifs, Handicrafts, Pottery, literature, Mythology, Architecture, Carpets, Performing Arts, Dance, and Music. Reflecting the Chinese background of painters who introduced watercolor techniques to Iran and initiated several medieval schools of Persian miniature painting. In fact, many religious paintings, including a famous one portraying the Prophet Muhammad's Miraj from the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem into the heavens, displays stylistic elements of undoubtedly Chinese origins. Islamic angels are depicted as wearing the tight robes of northern Chinese style. Persian miniature paintings of the Ilkhanid and Timurid periods, especially ones related to the Shahnameh stories, usually borrow landscape painting techniques from contemporary Chinese schools, developed during the Song Dynasty and Yuan Dynasty. Hossein Behzad (1894 – 1968) Prominent Persian miniaturists was a prominent painter from Tehran, Iran. He became internationally known and won many awards In honor of this artist, the "Behzad Museum", located in Tehran's Sa'd Abad Palace holds the collection of most of his works. 1951 miniature painting by Master Behzad depicting the story of Shirin and Farhad Source:

8 PERSIAN MINIATURES A polo scene in old Persia,
A Persian miniature is a small painting, whether a book illustration or a separate work of art intended to be kept in an album of such works. The techniques are broadly comparable to the Western and Byzantine traditions of miniatures in illuminated manuscripts. Although there is an equally well-established Persian tradition of wall-painting, the survival rate and state of preservation of miniatures is better, and miniatures are much the best-known form of Persian painting in the West. Miniature painting became a significant Persian form in the 13th century, and the highest point in the tradition was reached in the 15th, and 16th centuries. The tradition continued, under some Western influence, after this, and has many modern exponents. The Persian miniature was the dominant influence on other Islamic miniature traditions, principally the Ottoman miniature in Turkey, and the Mogol miniature in the Indian sub-continent. The themes of Persian miniatures are mostly related to Persian mythology and poetry. Western artists discovered the Persian miniature around the beginning of the 20th century. Persian miniatures uses pure geometry and a vivid palette. The allure of Persian miniature painting lies in its absorbing complexities and in the surprising way it speaks to large questions about the nature of art and the perception of its masterpieces. A polo scene in old Persia, depicted by Hossein Behzad. Style is Persian miniature. Source:


PERSIAN JEWELS Iran possesses an extraordinary treasure of royal jewelry, including a copious amount of mother-of-pear from the Persian Gulf. The Iranian crown jewels are among the largest, most dazzling and valuable jewel collection in the world. The jewels are displayed in the vaults of the Central Bank of Iran in Tehran, and are one of the most appealing tourist attractions in Iran. Akik(a semi-precocious stone) is also exported from Iran to various countries including the Indian subcontinent. IRANIAN IMPERIAL ROYAL JEWELS The Imperial crown jewels of Iran include several elaborate crowns and decorative thrones, thirty tiaras, and numerous aigrettes, a dozen bejewelled swords and shields, a vast number of unset precious gems, numerous plates and other dining services cast in precious metals and encrusted with gems, and several other more unusual items (such as a gemstone globe) collected by the Iranian monarchy during its 2,500-year existence. The collection is kept at "The Treasury of National Jewels" which is its official name, called "Jewelry Museum". It is situated inside Central Bank of Iran on Tehran's Ferdowsi Avenue. The Imperial crown jewels of Iran is the largest jewelry collection in the world. The majority of the items now in the collection were acquired by the Safavid dynasty, which ruled Iran from 1502 to 1736 AD. Afghans invaded Iran in 1719, and sacked the then capital of Isfahan and took the Iranian crown jewels as plunder. By 1729, however, after an internal struggle of nearly a decade, Nader Shah Afshar the Great successfully drove the Afghans from Iran. In 1738, the Shah launched his own campaign against the Afghan homeland. After taking and raiding the cities of Kandahar and Kabul as well as several principalities in northern India, the victorious Nader Shah returned to Iran with what remained of the plundered crown jewels as well as several other precious objects now found in the Iranian Treasury. These included several heavily jewel-encrusted thrones and numerous diamonds, emeralds, rubies, sapphires, and other precious gemstones. Four of the most prominent acquisitions from this conquest were the Koh-i-Noor and Darya-ye Noor diamonds (both originating from India and still amongst the largest in the world), the Peacock Throne, and the Samarian Spinel. Source:

11 Pahlavi’s Crown Kiani Crown

12 (Installed in Iranian Royal Jewelry)
Koh-I-noor (stolen from Persia and now is in England. Here shown in British Royal Crown) Daryay-i-noor (Installed in Iranian Royal Jewelry) Sources: 1.; and 2. ambushed-Indian-TV-105-carat-Koh-noor-diamond.html

13 Coronation Necklace Naderi Throne Coronation Belt Imperial Globe
Emerald Necklace Source:

14 Queen Farah’s Coronation Cap Dish cover Chest full of Pearl
Noor-ol-Ain Tiara An elaborate diamond and emerald Aigrette, set in silver Sword Coronation Source:

15 Handicrafted Copper Works


17 MUSIC OF IRAN The history of music composition in Iranian culture
Traditional Hierarchies of Authenticity and Value Persian Classical Music Persian Symphonic Music Folk music Pop Music Other musics

18 Taq-e Bostan carving, Women playing
harp while the king is standing in a boat holding his bow and arrows, from 6th century Sassanid Iran. Ancient Iranians attached great importance to music and poetry, like today. Post Sassanid era silver plate, 7th century. Ali Rahbari conducting Jeunesse Musicales de Tehran, 1974 A historical painting from Hasht - Behest palace, Isfahan, Iran, from 1669. Source:

CONDUCTORS, MUSICIANS, AND VOCALISTS Source: photos-images/violinists.html

20 COLONEL ALI NAGHI VAZIRI Composer, Musician of classical and
(1887 – 1979 AD) Composer, Musician of classical and traditional Persian music, and a celebrated tar player Ali-Naqi Vaziri was a musicologist, composer, a celebrated player of the tar, and the founder of the Academy of Music of Iran as well of Iran's National Orchestra. Ali-Naqi Vasiri (better known as Colonel Ali-Naqi Vasiri) is one of the seven children of Musa Khan Vaziri (a prominent official in the Persian Cossack Brigade) and Bibi Khatoon Astarabadi, a notable Iranian writer, satirist and one of the pioneering figures in the women's movement of Iran; his book Ma'ayeb al-Rejal (Failings of Men, also translated as Vices of Men) is considered by some as the first declaration of women's rights in the modern history of Iran. The celebrated artistic painter is Ali-Naqi's brother. Ali-Naqi Vaziri was a master of Iran's classical music so that he was able to play the tar in a style very reminiscent of that of Mirza Abdollah. He always looked for new dimensions and perspectives in musical expression, and by doing so her revolutionized the style of playing the tar. He was the first to transcribe the classical radio of the Persian music. Master Abol-Hassan Saba was one of his outstanding student. Source:

21 ABOL- HASAN SABA (902 – 1957 AD) Most renowned Iranian musician, composer of Persian classical music, violinist, and setar player Saba was born in Tehran to Abol - Qasim Khan Kamal ol-Saltaneh, He studied several of Iranian and non Iranian musical instruments and became a master (Ostad) in Radif, but selected violin and setar as his specific instruments. He was a student of Mirza Abdollah Vaziri as well as Darvish Khan. Saba is considered one of Iran's most influential figures in traditional and instrumental Persian music. Saba perfected his tonbak skills with Haji-Khan Zarbi and received training on the Santur from Ali Akbarshahy. In addition, before violin, he learned to play the Kamancheh under the guidance of Hossein Khan Esmail-Zadeh. His first violin teacher was Hossein Hang-Afarin. Later, when Ali-Naqi Vaziri established his School of Music, Saba enrolled to learn the theory of music and the art of playing the violin. He was also familiar with Ney, Western flute, and tar. Noticing his passion, talent, and skills, Vaziri suggested that Saba started teaching music. In 1927, Saba founded a music school in Rasht. The music he heard in some villages was the starting point for his significant future research in Persian folk music. Saba composed some of his best works in this period of time, including Zard-e Malijeh, Deylaman, and Bezendan. He wrote four volumes of training manuals for the santur, three volumes for the violin, and a volume for the setar and tar. He died in 1957, and was buried in Tehran's Zahir o-dowleh Cemetery of artists and musicians. Abol-hasan Saba Source:

22 ALI TAJVIDI (1919 – 2006 AD) Persian musician, composer, master violinist, song writer, and music professor at the School of National Music and Tehran University Ali Tajvidi was a Persian musician, composer, violinist, song writer, and music professor at the School of National Music and Tehran University. He composed more than 150 songs and discovered and produced for many Persian performers such as Delkash and Hayedeh. He was born in Tehran, where his father was active as a painter in the style of Kamal-ol-Molk. In his youth he took violin lessons for two years under Hossein Yahaghi (uncle of Parviz Yahaghi) and for many years was under the tutelage of Abol-Hassan Saba for the violin as well. After 1941, having developed his violin technique considerably, Tajvidi performed regularly as a violin soloist in Radio Iran programs. In later years, he conducted two orchestras, for which he wrote numerous compositions. Asheqi Sheyda, Be Yad-e Saba, Atash-e Karevan, Didi ke Rosva Shod Delam, and Sang-e Khara are among his best known works. He wrote a three-volume book, entitled "Persian Music", which has been released by the Soroush Publishing Company. In 1998, the Iranian government acknowledged his musical accomplishments by awarding him the highest artistic medal that they dispense. During his career, Tajvidi co-operated with outstanding contemporary artists including Gholam Hossein Banan, Hossein Qavami, Mahmoud Mahmoudi-Khansari, Akbar Golpaygani, Hossein Khajeh Amiri, Jalil Shahnaz, Farhang Sharif, Habibollah Badiei, Parviz Yahaghi, Javad Ma’roufi, Faramarz Payvar, Mehdi Khaledi, Banoo Delkash, and Homayoun Khoram. Homeira, a noted singer, first became famous by the song (sabram ata kon) which was composed by Ali Tajvidi. Tajvidi also composed some songs that he played solo on the violin. He is regarded as one of the best violinists in Iran, on a par with Parviz Yahaghi. He also played the sitar. He made Radif which concerns the traditional music of Iran, maghami or dhastgahi for the violin. Ali Tajvidi Source:

23 A prominent Iranian composer and master pianist Anoushiravan Rohani
Javad Ma'roufi (1912 – 1993 AD) A prominent Iranian composer and master pianist Anoushiravan Rohani A prominent composer and master pianist, and key board player Sources: &

FIRST IRANIAN FEMALE VOCALIST (1905 – 1959 AD) As a young child, Qamar lost both her mother and her father, so her grandmother became her guardian. Her grandmother, Mulla-Kheyr-al-Nesa (titled to Eftekhar-al-Zakerin), was a singer of the Rozekhani ceremonies (religious ceremony) and Qamar accompanied her and participated. These were some of her first acquaintances with the Persian vocal music of the Rozekhani genre. Qamar became more acquainted with Persian music as the years passed. The beginning of her career took place when she attended a wedding ceremony where the great master of tar, Morteza Neydavoud, was invited. When she sang in the wedding ceremonies privately, Ostad Neydavood accompanied her on the tar, and he later asked her to sing something else for her. Qamar did as she was asked, and Neydavoud loved her voice so much that he invited her to attend in his class on traditional Persian music to learn the radif repertoire. She began attending his classes and soon she became one of the best singers of Iran, despite this being a time where most Iranian women were not allowed to sing. Her first concert with Neydavoud was at the salon of the Grand Hotel around 1924 or so. Their second concert was at the Palace Cinema located in the Lalehzar Street of Tehran. As time went on, her fame continued to grow. She was acquainted with several famous poets and writers. Gradually, she recorded a multitude of gramophone disks and performed several concerts accompanied by the tar of her former master, Neydavood. These increased her fame as the decades passed. The national radio paid Qamar a meager superannuation salary when she retired, but nevertheless, she shared whatever she earned among the poverty-stricken. As a result, she was practically destitute when she died on August 6, She is buried in the Zahir od-Dowleh cemetery, Darband, Shemiran, Tehran. Qamar ol-Molouk Vaziri Source:

25 King of the Iranian Pop (Sultan of Jazz) Sources : &
Gholam-Hossein Banan (1911 – 1986 AD) Delkash (1924 – 2004 AD) Delkash was born in Babol, and was the daughter of a cotton trader who had twelve other children. She later was introduced to the music masters of the time, Ruhollah Khaleghi and Abdolali Vaziri. She was named Delkash by Khaleghi. Delkash started public singing in 1943, and was employed in Radio Iran in 1945, only five years after the establishment of the program. There, she worked with the composer Mehdi Khaledi for seven years, until 1952, which made them both very famous. The best of her songs were written by Rahim Moeini Kermanshahi, Iranian lyricist, and Ali Tajvidi, Iranian composer, from 1954 until 1969. She also worked as a song writer under the pen name of Niloofar and played in a few Iranian movies. She worked with the great singer and electric guitar musician VIGEN DERDERIAN Sultan of Jazz. their most beautiful duet "Delam Mikhast" can be heard in youtube. Delkash died in Sep 2004, at the age of 80, in Tehran and was buried in Emamzadeh Taher a popular graveyard for the artists in Karaj. Vigen Derderian (1929 – 2003 AD) King of the Iranian Pop (Sultan of Jazz) Sources : &

Homeyra (Parvaneh Amir Afshari) 1945 Haydeh Aref Arefkia , 1945 Morteza Barjesteh Source: Persian_pop_music Dariush Eghbali , 1951

27 Tehran Symphonic Orchestra Source:


29 Rise of Pahlavi dynasty meant a methodical concentration on modernizing the country. During the years to come an accurate attempt was done in order to compile and develop different styles of dance. From Pre-historic folkloric dancing, which is left from the Persian original dance, to the contemporary works of the great western choreographers like Maurice Béjart and Martha Graham. The history of Iranian ballet traditions starts from 1928, when Madame Cornelli gave her very first lessons in classical ballet until 1982, three years after the 1979 unrest. She and later other pedagogues such as Serkis Janbazian and Madame Yelena, trained some children of the upper class in Tehran. These pedagogues, all of them with Armenian origin, have been educated abroad by European ballet masters. Later on, Madame Cornelli evolved her activity by touring with her ballet ensemble in different parts of the country and abroad. Yelena Avedisian, known as Madame Yelena, immigrated to Iran in She moved to the city of Tabriz with her Iranian husband, where she shortly thereafter started her dance school. In 1962, she established the “Song and Dance Ensemble” with the participation of her 150 students. Later, when she moved to Tehran and established a new school, she made ballets of Persian character. ”Rose of Shiraz”, ”Song of the Canary”, ”Gulnara”, ”Portrait of a Patriotic Girl”, ”Fire Dance”, and ”Fountains at the Ferdousi Square” are some of them. During the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s a new kind of entertaining dance was developed. It had its roots in Qajar dance traditions and became known as popular dance, or in the term of our time disco dance. It was performed by ordinary people and aimed only as entertainment at private gatherings and festivities. This kind of dance did not have any artistic quality, but it became more and more popular and new stiles were developed. Motrebi, Ru-hawzi, Baba Karam, Shateri and Tehrooni were performed by people, even as solo dances. In early 1940s the first known Iranian dance ensemble with a professional character was formed, called "Revival of Ancient Iranian Arts". For the first time, in 1947, the company was introduced abroad touring in Turkey, Greece, Italy and Lebanon. Later, between 1951 and 1953 performances were given in India and all the Middle Eastern countries. The Iranian group of "National Folkloric Music, Song and Dance" was formed in 1958 by the Ministry of Culture and Arts under the direction of Nejad Ahmadzadeh. The goal was to revive, restore and develop all kind of national and folkloric music, song and dance. Groups of experts were sent to villages and far-fetched provinces of Iran to gather material and to make an in depth study of these art forms.

The company performed in the presence of all the state guests of Iran including many royal families and presidents of the East and the West such as the King Hassan II of Morocco, Presidents De Gaule of France, Queen of England, Yahya Khan of Pakistan, Chaussesco of Romania, Nixon of USA, etc. In 1959, the ensemble participated in the International Folk Dance Festival in Turkey, being its first international introduction. Later in 1964 the troupe made a long tour in the Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tunisia, Morocco, the USSR and almost all East European countries. It gave also a week of performances at the Iranian pavilion in Canada at Expo 1967 and Expo 1970 in Japan. During the ensemble made another extensive tour in the USSR, Afghanistan and Tunisia.More and more dancing became accepted in the traditional Iranian society and thanks to the devoted work of some Iranian enthusiasts it was developing to a popular form of art. Nejad Ahmadzadeh says: "Dance used to be a lowly means of entertainment in Iranian culture. During my career we placed it on the cultural map of Persia as an art form, where it belonged". During the 1950s some initiatives have been taken also for establishing a government supported and well organized ballet ensemble at a national level. The Ministry of Culture and Arts invited some ballet masters and choreographers from Europe and the United States to come to Iran and together with the Iranian ballet veterans start a national ballet company. Nejad Ahmadzadeh was sent by the Ministry to the United States to visit and study different opera houses and concert halls. At his return he established the technical, administrative and artistic sections of the newly built “Roudaki Hall Opera House”. During the same time also a state supported Ballet School was formed for which ballets teachers were engaged from abroad.  On the invitation of the ministry, Dame Ninette de Valois went to Tehran in 1958 to establish the classical ballet company to which she then sent Ann Cock, Nicholas Beriozoff, Miro Zolan, his wife Sandra Vane and Marion English (Delanian) to teach and stage ballet productions. In 1966, Robert de Warren was appointed artistic director of the National Company, which performs at “Roudaki Hall Opera House” in Tehran, and the “Iranian National Ballet” was formally founded in 1967 by Nejad Ahmadzadeh at the time of coronation festivities in Tehran. For this occasion many respected artists such as Hehudi Menuhin, Elizabeth Schwartzkopf and ensembles including Grands Ballets Classiques de France, Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra, Moscow Symphony Orchestra visited Tehran and the Roudaki Hall. When de Warren left the ballet company in 1971 to study national folk dances and later form the “Mahalli Troupe of Iranian Folk Dancers”, the first Iranian prima ballerina Aida Ahmadzadeh (the wife of the founder of Roudaki Hall) succeeded him as director.

31 Later guest producers included William Dollar, Ivon Pattersen, Anne Heaton, Vakhtang
M. Chaboukiani and others. A varied repertoire was created and the Ministry of Culture and Arts partially sponsored the company. Collaboration with American and European dance establishments in cities such as New York, Paris, London and Brussels started.  In 1969, Rudolf Nurejev and Margot Fonteyn visited Iran and set up the ballet of Le Corsaire on the national scene. During the same year an Iranian ballet dancer, Bijan Kalantari, graduated from the School of Metropolitan Opera and Ballet came to Iran. His collaboration with the national ballet company resulted in arrangement of a gala evening with the participation of some Iranian ballet dancers and their partners, active in Europe and the USA, Haydeh Changizian and Ali Pourfarroukh. In autumn 1969, Bijan Kalantari established a new ballet department at the Tehran’s Music High School, supported by the Ministry of Culture and Arts. His intention was to educate dancers with different styles for the National Ballet. Kalantari, who had collaborated with successful choreographers like Serge Lifar, is considered as the person who imported the modern pedagogic system for classical ballet to Iran. Before moving to his native country, he had worked with ballet companies such as the Dallas, Kansas and Vienna Operas, as well as the Metropolitan Opera and Ballet. The National Company grew steadily from approximately a dozen to 46 dancers, one third of them Iranians. It became an internationally known ballet ensemble and toured the world. The young company was soon notorious as the best and the most respected of all ballet companies in the Middle East. It became most known among companies of Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, Turkey, and Egypt etc. Membership of the company became popular and attractive by first class dancers all over the world. Many foreign ballet stars and prima ballerinas, for instance from the Bolshoi Ballet, were invited to dance at the premiers. &


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