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Designed to process instructions ALU arithmetic logic unit CU control unit.

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Presentation on theme: "Designed to process instructions ALU arithmetic logic unit CU control unit."— Presentation transcript:


2 Designed to process instructions ALU arithmetic logic unit CU control unit

3 RAM Random Access Memory ROM Read Only Memory

4 Temporary (volatile) holding area for data, application software and operating system Less storage than disk Capacity measured in MB (128 - 256 MB) Speed in nanoseconds Random Access Memory

5 Permanent on a chip from manufacturer Holds computer start up routine, which are hard-wired instructions Read-Only Memory

6 The form in which information is conceived, manipulated and recorded on a digital device. Uses discrete digits/electronic signals - 1,0 (bits - binary digits) - On/Off - Yes/No Byte = 8 bits = 1 character

7 Depends on computer ASCII (7 bits) Extended ASCII (8 bits - current PCs) EBCDIC (8 bits - older IBM machines ) Unicode (16 bits - good for languages - future)

8 Bit = b Nibble = Half of a byte Byte = B Kilobyte (KB) (1024 bytes) Megabyte (MB) (Million bytes) Gigabyte (GB) (Billion bytes) Terabyte (TB) (Trillion bytes)

9 Dial-up connection via modem (56K) Cable modems Network card and cable modem required Always-on and 25 times faster than dial-up

10 ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) 64K or 128K Always-on and expensive DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) and xDSL Up to 125 times faster than dialup DSS (Digital Satellite Service) 500K Need proximity to a telephone switching station

11 Account = Mailbox Message Attachment ASCII vs HTML format Netiquette userid@computer

12 E-mail servers Store-and-forward technology Types POP (Post Office Protocol) used via ISP IMAP (Internet Messaging Access Protocol) Web-based like Hotmail

13 System Software Application Software

14 OperatingSystemsDeviceDriversUtilitiesProgrammingLanguages DOS Windows Linux UNIX Mac OS

15 DocumentProduction SpreadsheetSoftware Accounting & Finance MathematicalModeling Statistical Entertainment DataManagement Graphics Music VideoEducational Reference

16 Computer program main executable program (.exe) Support module called by the program (.dll) Data module Example: a dictionary file or a file that is not supplied by the user

17 Computer languages Source code High-level languages: COBOL, C++, Java Machine language Compiler Creates object code in single batch Interpreter Converts one instruction at a time Common with web-based scripts (part of web page)

18 Interacts with application software, device drivers & hardware to manage computers resources Multitasking CTRL-ALT-DEL GUI graphical user interface Utilities

19 Software License: a legal contract that defines the ways in which you may use a computer program. Copyright: a form of legal protection that grants the author of an original work an exclusive right to copy, distribute, sell and modify that work. Software piracy For contract to take effect: Open a shrink-wrap license product Agree to an installation agreement

20 Shareware: try before you buy on the honor system Freeware: no fee - can use, but not alter or sell Open Source: uncompiled source code that can be changed - sold or free Public Domain: can be copied, altered and resold

21 Power up ROM runs bootstrap program POST (Power-on self-test) Identifies and checks peripherals ROM loads operating system from hard disk into RAM Checks configuration and customization startup routines Safe Mode if this process is not successful

22 A collection of data on a storage medium Filename conventions Filename extension.txt.txt.jpg.jpg.exe.exe.doc.doc

23 Device drive letters A: C: D: Directory Root Directory (C:\) Subdirectory or folder (C:\Documents) File specification or Path File size and date Filename extensionFilename Secondary folder Primary folder Drive letter C:\Music\Reggae\Marley One Love.mp3

24 Move to Recycle Bin in Windows Undelete Empty Bin

25 Helps you organize your computer files File/Save and File/Open Utilities like Windows Explorer or MAC Finder list, find, move, copy, delete, rename Save vs. Save As

26 Filing cabinet model Metaphor to help you visualize files on a storage device Windows Explorer Folder hierarchy

27 Storage medium formatted into tracks /sectors electronically File system keeps track of names and file locations. FAT (File Allocation Table) on each disk keeps track of where all files are. If damaged, you lose everything.

28 Storage Medium: disk, tape, CD, DVD holds data Storage Device: disk drives, CD drives mechanical device Storage = Medium + Device

29 Data copied from storage device to RAM Processed in RAM volatile (temporary) high speed storage Data copied back to storage medium (permanent) Storing data is writing/saving file Retrieving data is reading/loading/opening file

30 Magnetizes microscopic particles on medium surface Permanent, but modifiable Hard disk, floppy disk, zip disk and tape Read-write head Not very durable

31 Stores data as microscopic light and dark spots on disk surface Pits and lands Uses laser lights More durable

32 Versatility versatile devices can access data from several different media; i.e., DVD drive – data DVDs, DVD movies, audio CDs, etc. Durability mishandling, environmental factors Speed access time milliseconds (ms – thousandths of a second) random versus sequential access

33 Most common 3 ½ 1.44 MB (1,440,000 bytes) Write protect window Others zip disks (100 MB and 250 MB) SuperDisks (120 MB) Compatibility

34 CD-ROM: Compact Disk Read-Only Memory manufactured; cannot change; up to 680MB; more durable CD-R: Compact Disk Recordable you record; cannot be erased or modified CD-RW: Compact Disk Rewritable you record; can erase and modify

35 Digital Video Disk originally an alternative to VCR Manufactured Can play CD-ROM and most CD-Rs and CD-RWs

36 USB flash drive CompactFlash (CF) cards high-end digital cameras MultiMedia cards (MMC) Smaller; mobile phones, pagers, cameras SecureDigital (SD) cards MP3 storage

37 Screen size (13 to 21) measured diagonally viewable image size (vis) Dot pitch measure of image clarity smaller is better Resolution horizontal and vertical pixels displayed on the screen 640 x 480, 800 x 600, 1024 x 768 (higher is better) Color depth (or bit depth) number of colors that can be displayed 24-bit (true color) = millions of colors

38 Resolution (dpi) Materials cost Speed (ppm or cps) Quality versus Price

39 device driver Plug and Play (PnP)

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