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January 23-24, 2002 Towards the Fanless PC Bill Gervasi Technology Analyst, Transmeta Chairman, JEDEC Memory Parametrics

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Presentation on theme: "January 23-24, 2002 Towards the Fanless PC Bill Gervasi Technology Analyst, Transmeta Chairman, JEDEC Memory Parametrics"— Presentation transcript:


2 January 23-24, 2002 Towards the Fanless PC Bill Gervasi Technology Analyst, Transmeta Chairman, JEDEC Memory Parametrics

3 2 The New Multimedia PCs What doesnt fit? MP3 music & DVD movies 100W per channel amplifier Surround sound speaker system MP3 music & DVD movies 100W per channel amplifier Surround sound speaker system PC fans, disks, etc. with 75 dB of white noise

4 3 Market Effects PC having trouble escaping the den Too noisy for family room or bedroom Always-on strategies have failed Limits applications for PCs Cant hook into main sound system Cant displace gaming stations PCs not meeting government standards Especially in Europe Too noisy, consume too much power Office and POS impacted by noise

5 4 Why Are PCs So Noisy??? Fans everywhere!!! Fan in the power supply Fans by the PCI/AGP cards Fans at the front of the box Fan on top of the CPU Fan on top of the graphics controller

6 5

7 6 Know Your Enemy Wanted: Dead (only) Public Enemies #1 #2 #3 #4

8 7 Fan Noise And these are just the CPU fans!!!

9 8 Why Do We Need Fans? CPUs on runaway thermal path Graphics controller overkill Memory subsystems not well managed Add-in cards with unknown wattage requirements

10 9 First Worst Culprit: The CPU

11 10 Transistor Trends Pentium is a trademark of Intel Corp.

12 11 CPU Power Trends

13 12 CPU Power Density, 2000-2010

14 13 … and the CPU isnt the only power hog in the system … … while most subsystems are stable, the graphics controller challenges the CPU for watts …

15 14 x86 PC Platform Power Graphics

16 15 PC Graphics 2D & text essentially unchanged Addition of video acceleration & data types 3D explosion Texturing, bumping Antialiasing Out of control… !!!

17 16 PC Graphics Reality Few features ever used 2D & text is still the dominant use Wasted frame buffer performance 9.6 GB/s memory bandwidth for 2D??? AGP bus a power drain

18 17 Memory & Chipsets

19 18 Memory Market just now shifting from 3.3V SDRAM Full size 5 ¼ DIMMs, 3 slots Does a mainstream PC need 1.5 GB??? No power management implemented Thermal throttles enabled only when the bandwidth is really needed

20 19 Chipsets No power management Inefficient buses with PLLs Soft peripherals using power hungry CPU instead of ultra low power DSPs Polled mode peripherals burn power on bus Interrupting protocols (like USB) prevent deep sleep modes

21 20 What About Other Sources of Noise? DVD or CD drives Hard disk drives

22 21 Other Sources of Noise: DVD Ricoh MP9060A-DP The first thing we didn't like was a noisy work of the optical head (2 times louder than that of TEAC 532EB(32x)). As you know, loud CD spinning is one of the major drawbacks of all CD-ROMs with more than 24x. Here, thanks to the tight-fitting tray, nothing can be heard... but the combine may not "like" some kinds of discs, in this case there begins strong vibration with some noisy effects. … AOpen DRW4624 Noise effects are practically the same as that of the Ricoh device. The construction of the tray's lid is not ideal, so there is some unpleasant air whistle. The combine is not so sensible to the disc quality and balance. It read low-quality discs more quietly and without so strong vibration. The combine did not overheat after it had written 6 discs successively. The tray and the case were just a little warm. Samsung SM-304 In this case noise effects were quite inaudible, the tray fitted tight. The optical head moved noiselessly. The combine is not sensible to the disc quality (perhaps, it depends on the type of the tray). … Toshiba SD-R1002 As for noise effects we can place this combine between Ricoh and Samsung. Since there installed the standard tray, you can hear the "standard" air noise. The combine is not very sensitive to the disc quality, though there is some light vibration. The tray's lid fits quite tight. The optical head moves noiselessly. … Source:

23 22 Other Sources of Noise: HDD db(A)

24 23 What effect has this trend had on the PC market?

25 24 Desktop PCs are a Commodity Margins are shrinking everywhere so OEMs are relying upon other sources Internet signup bounties (AOL, Earthlink) Subscription services (Real Networks) Software services (Quicken) Press & Analysts are saying the PC is dead Rapid technology advances have out-paced user needs Free CPU Cycles, Free GB, Free Bandwidth

26 25 What the world needs now… efficient computing ecoPC

27 26 ecoPC Goals No fans, no noise Never needs to be turned off Utilize existing industry infrastructure Lay out a new roadmap for the future Cost competitive with BYO generic boxes

28 27 Todays Product Differentiation iMac NetVista iPAQ DesktopDISCOVERY Thin Client Differentiated designs – right idea but NO MASS MARKET Prevents volume discount of infrastructure

29 28 What Do BYO Generic Boxes Do Right? $BOM $BOM $ BOM These things are dirt cheap because they use standard parts

30 29 Low Energy Consumption 15Watt Typical, 20Watt Max Low Cost of Acquisition Sub $800 Low Noise No fans, quiet drives = Silent PC Low Space Consumption 1 thick chassis Low Cost of Operation Low Energy Bills from Power Efficiency Low TCO Maintenance Costs Legacy Free Low Cost of Manufacturing & Assembly Standard parts like BYO generic ecoPC: Segment Definition Windows XP Based PC

31 30 Similar to todays notebooks Low power x86 CPU & energy efficient chipset Low power graphics, integrated or discrete Low power hard disk & optical drive RAM: DDR 2.5V External power supply No cooling fans Legacy free USB or Bluetooth keyboard & mouse Integrated LAN, modem, 802.11 wireless ecoPC -- Key Specs

32 31 No extra bays; only external expansion Universal Flash slot: CF, Smart, Stick No PCI-class add-in slots Cardbus? Possibly…need a better expansion strategy! 1394 & USB suffer from abstraction overhead Universal Docking with serialized host bus PCI or HyperTransport or 3GIO Merges out-of-box with native contact ecoPC -- Expansion

33 32 ecoPC Peripherals New ecoPC specification needed Acoustic limits defined Drives selected for low noise DVD Hard disk Power limits strictly enforced Thermal/power sensors prevent violation ecoPC certification and logo

34 33 ecoPC Processing Units On Demand processing Monitor system activity and shut off unused execution units Scale operational frequency on application demand E.g., LongRun TM & PowerNow! TM Utilize every microsecond that power is being burned Offload interruptions to remote low power units (e.g., DMA units, DSPs) LongRun is a trademark of Transmeta Corp. PowerNow! is a trademark of AMD Corp.

35 34 Power = CV 2 f% Factors: Capacitance (C) Voltage (V) Frequency (f) Duty cycle (%) Power states Keys to mobile design: Reduce C and V Match f to demand Minimize duty cycle Utilize power states

36 35 ecoPC CPU Low Transistor Count CPU Seldom executed instructions in software Run time optimization Scaleable operating frequency and voltage Integrates smart memory controller Utilize every powered microsecond

37 36 ecoPC Graphics Shuts down unused pipes 2D, 3D, video Rendering engines Slows memory during screen refresh Avoid unnecessary operations Scatter-gather DMA using SMA Focal point prioritized rendering resolution Thermal limits switch rendering style Reduce rendering quality of low priority objects

38 37 ecoPC Memory JEDEC roadmap triples GB/s/W with each generation Power reduction of 30% Bandwidth doubles Move from 3 DIMMs to 2 SO-DIMMs Sufficient capacity, higher performance, lower power, and no evil PLLs SDR DDR I DDR II 3.3V 2.5V 1.8V

39 38 Power: DDR II vs DDR I vs SDR PC133 DDR333 DDR I Four times the bandwidth yet half the power! DDR533 DDR II

40 39 Low Power DRAM Futures Aggressive use of power states (CKE) Increased refresh flexibility Temperature compensated refresh Partial array refresh Reduced page size Fewer cells discharged/recharged

41 40 ecoPC DRAM Timing Relaxed mode timing Comprehend effects of DLL Aligns data to clock on reads… only! Use DRAM in low performance mode while DLL is not locked Accommodate wide range on clock to strobe > t DQSCK CK DQS

42 41 Strobe to Data is Fixed H L DATA DQS ODD DATA EVEN DATA EVEN DATA ENABLE ODD DATA ENABLE 8 t DQSQ evenodd DQS DLL has no effect on data to strobe timing, therefore DRAM can be used while DLL not locked!

43 42 Why Relaxed Mode Timing? Utilize the DLL/PLL lock times 2-100 s per power management event Allows much finer granularity on control Better utilization of powered on state Switch back to full performance mode after the DLL/PLL lock This concept can be applied to any locked bus

44 43 Building the ecoPC

45 44 Todays PC

46 45 Cooler CPU

47 46 Integrated Graphics

48 47 Efficient Memory

49 48 Eliminate PCI

50 49 No Fans

51 50 Slimline Case

52 51 ecoPC A New Standard

53 52 Conclusions Thermals of todays PCs too high Use of fans to cool PCs restricts market growth ecoPC standard definition needed to expand the PC market Low heat No noise Performance on demand

54 53 Summary We have the basic components for the ecoPC now from notebook market Future focus on high computing efficiency will increase performance without compromising power or noise limits

55 54 Thank You

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