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DIGITAL IMAGING VIEW OF DIGITAL PRESERVATION Presentation by: Richard J. Laxman Family and Church History Department Laxmanrj@ldschurch.org Herbert J. White Family and Church History Department Whitehj@ldschurch.org © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 20041
What does Digital Preservation really mean? Why is preserving digital documents difficult? What is the process for Digital Preservation? DIGITAL PRESERVATION © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 20042
Enable reliable, authentic, meaningful and accessible records to be carried forward through time within and beyond organizational boundaries for as long as they are needed for the multiple purposes they serve. --Sue McKemmish, School of Information Management, Monash University DIGITAL PRESERVATION What does Digital Preservation really mean? © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 20043
Preservation should allow future users to: Retrieve, access, decipher, view, interpret, understand, appreciate and experience Informational artifacts (i.e. documents, data, records, sound, movie, etc.) In whatever way and for whatever purpose are desired in the future While retaining their meaning and Validity(i.e. authenticity) -Jeff Rothenburg Dec 2002 DIGITAL PRESERVATION What does Digital Preservation really mean? © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 20044
DIGITAL PRESERVATION CORRECT MEDIA PHYSICAL PROCESSING PROPER STORAGE MICROFILM ARCHIVAL TRIANGLE = Long Term Preservation Richard Koehler © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 20045
DIGITAL PRESERVATION DIGITAL PRESERVATION PROCESS Why is preserving digital documents, objects, metadata, databases difficult? © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 20046
DIGITAL PRESERVATION TEMPERATURE HUMIDITY HARDWARE SOFTWARE METADATA PROCESS MEDIA BIT-STREAM DIGITAL PRESERVATION PROCESS If All Elements are Handled Correctly Then = Long Term Preservation RECOVERY © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 20047
PRESERVATION PROCESS DIGITAL PRESERVATION © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 20048
DIGITAL PRESERVATION CONSTANT TEMPERATURE CONSTANT HUMIDITY OUT DATED HARDWARE OBSOLETE SOFTWARE READABLE METADATA ACTUAL PROCESS DECAYING MEDIA CHANGING BIT-STREAMS DIGITAL PRESERVATION PROCESS RECOVERY © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 20049
DIGITAL PRESERVATION WHAT TYPE OF DIGITAL PRESERVATION SECURITY SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION STRATEGY CREATION OF BACKUPS STRATEGY STANDARDS STRATEGY ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY REFRESH STRATEGY MIGRATION STRATEGY EMULATION STRATEGY ENCAPSULATION STRAGETY ANALOG STRATEGY TECHNOLOGY STRATEGY COMPUTER MUSEUM STRATEGY DIGITAL ARCHEOLOGY STRATEGY MULTIPLE ACQUISITIONS STRATEGY REDUNDANCY STRATEGY LOCKSS STRATEGY © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200410
DIGITAL PRESERVATION PROCESS Born Digital Documents Critical Data Sets Field Capture Conversion Acquired Multiple Acquisition Strategy Image Metadata Ingest into GSU Digital Process Organizational Strategy Standards Strategy LOCKSS Strategy Redundancy Strategy Original Documents, Digital Copies in GSU, Donor Copy Lots of Copies Keep Stuff Safe © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200411
DIGITAL PRESERVATION PROCESS Ingest into GSU Digital Process Critical Data Sets LOCKSS Strategy Redundancy Strategy Metadata Preservation Strategy Preservation DLT Preservation DVD Future Technology Donor CopyDistribution Copy © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200412
DIGITAL PRESERVATION PROCESS Critical Data Sets Preservation DVD Preservation DLT Distribution Copy Donor Copy Metadata Preservation Strategy Future Technology Security System Administration Strategy Creation of Backup Strategy Preservation Recovery and Restore Strategy © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200413
DIGITAL PRESERVATION Preservation, Recovery, Restore Strategies Computer Museum Strategy Digital Archeology Strategy Refresh Preservation Strategy Media 3-5Years Migration Preservation Strategy Hardware Software O.S. Emulation Preservation Strategy Encapsulation Preservation Strategy Hardware Software O.S. Emulate Technology Preservation Strategy Hardware Software O.S. Preserve Copy Analog Preservation Strategy Human Readabl e © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200414
DIGITAL PRESERVATION CORRECT MEDIA PHYSICAL PROCESSING PROPER STORAGE NITRATE FILMS ACETATE FILMS UN-PLANNED MIGRATION MICROFILM MIGRATION POLYESTER FILMS © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200415
TEMPERATURE HUMIDITY HARDWARE SOFTWARE METADATA PROCESS MEDIA BIT-STREAM DIGITAL PRESERVATION PLANNED MIGRATION AUDIT OF COLLECTION WORKING WITH VENDORS INSURING PROPER STORAGE RECOVERY © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200416
DIGITAL PRESERVATION QUESTIONS © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200417
DIGITAL PRESERVATION Additional Slides not Presented at the Conference © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200418
HARDWARE DIGITAL PRESERVATION © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200419
4004 1971 8008 1972 8080 1974 8086 1978 286 1982 386 Processor 1985 486 Processor 1989 Pentium Processor 1993 Pentium II Processor 1997 Pentium III Processor 1999 Pentium 4 Processor 2000 Future 2??? DIGITAL PRESERVATION HARDWARE © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200420
DIGITAL PRESERVATION Moores Law 4004 1971 2,250 8008 1972 2,500 8080 1974 5,000 8086 1978 29,000 286 1982 120,000 386 Processor 1985 275,000 486 Processor 1989 1,180,000 Pentium Processor 1993 3,100,000 Pentium II Processor 1997 7.500,000 Pentium III Processor 1999 24,000,000 Pentium 4 Processor 2000 42,000,000 We have observed that technology has taken a similar track, about every 18 - 24 months Technology doubles, indicating a need to change In 1965 Dr. Gordon Moore observed an exponential growth in the number of transistors per integrated circuit and predicted that this trend would continue. © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200421
SOFTWARE DIGITAL PRESERVATION © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200422
Digital images or records are stored in an encoded format and only understood with a Program The image or record cannot be viewed without the Program to decode the bit stream The bit stream must be decoded to make it viewable to individuals Software and Operating Systems are essential in the imaging Process DIGITAL PRESERVATION SOFTWARE – OPERATING SYSTEM DEPENDENT © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200423
DIGITAL PRESERVATION Harrows Observation Increases in Computing Power (in MIPS (Million of instructions per Second) from 1981 thru 2003. © Copyright 2004 Jeffrey R. Harrow © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200424
MEDIA DIGITAL PRESERVATION © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200425
First read write 8 Floppy drive1973 First read-write 5.25 Floppy disk1976 First read-write 3.5 Floppy disk1980 CD-ROM (640 MB)1982 DAT Tape1987 DLT 600 (6 GIG)1991 DVD (4.7 GB)1993 IOMEGA Zip and Jazz drives1993-4 DLT 40/80 GB (40 un – 80 comp)1999 USB memory Drives2002- 3 Dell announces no longer 3.5 Floppy DVD Blue Ray (24 – 48 GB)2004 DIGITAL PRESERVATION MEDIA © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200426
DIGITAL PRESERVATION MEDIA NOT QUITE All digital media has shown some type of decay in it magnetic ability, pit decay, dye stability, or reflectance breakdown. All digital media is susceptible to Media obsolescence due to format incompatibility, or due to the unavailability of drivers, or controllers. All digital media require Software, software change providing for incompatibility, software becomes obsolete, Software disappears. All digital media require some type of Operating System, Drivers, etc.. When they are no longer available the media is no longer readable. All digital media requires Hardware, as technology improves hardware is improved. After so many cycles of Hardware improvement the software, drivers or operating system no longer will run on the hardware platform Are digital Records Invincible © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200427
Forever? Digital Data can be duplicated perfectly from one copy to another. WRONG Due to the issues in the previous slide, including Moores Law, and as stated by well respected scientists in the digital field: DIGITAL PRESERVATION How long will digital records last? © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200428
'Digital information lasts forever, or five years whichever comes first,' says Jeff Rothenberg, senior computer scientist at RAND Corp. "Forget forever. Under less-than-optimal storage conditions, digital tapes and disks, including CD-ROMs and optical drives, might deteriorate about as fast as newsprint == in 5 to 10 years. --Jeff Rothenberg Tests by the National Media Lab, a St. Paul (Minn.)-based government and industry consortium, show that tapes might preserve data for a decade, depending on storage conditions. DIGITAL PRESERVATION How long will digital records last? © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200429
DATA STORAGE: FROM DIGITS TO DUST Marcia Stepanek: " Up to 20% of the information carefully collected on Jet Propulsion Laboratory computers during NASA's 1976 Viking mission to Mars has been lost. Some POW and MIA records and casualty counts from the Vietnam War, stored on Defense Dept. computers, can no longer be read. And at Pennsylvania State University, all but 14 of some 3,000 computer files containing student records and school history are no longer accessible because of missing or outmoded software. DIGITAL PRESERVATION Media is susceptible to decay © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200430
DVD Analyze and record at time of creation Re-analyze and Samplecompare results Refresh as necessary DLT Verify and record at time of writing Load to server and verify data Refresh as necessary DIGITAL PRESERVATION Media Testing Process Available ??? © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200431
TEMPERATURE DIGITAL PRESERVATION HUMIDITY © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200432
Care and Handling of CDs and DVDs A Guide for Librarians and Archivists http://www.itl.nist.gov/div895/carefordisc/CDandDVDCareandHandlingGuide.pdf DIGITAL PRESERVATION TEMPERATURE & HUMIDITY © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200433
Storage and environmental conditions can have a significant impact on the life of digital media. While CDs and floppy disks can tolerate a fairly wide range of conditions without sustaining immediate damage, constant temperature and relative humidity slows down the process of physical deterioration. Ideally, physical format electronic material should be stored in a dust-free environment, with stable temperature and relative humidity (below 20 degrees Celsius, relative humidity 40 per cent). http://www.nla.gov.au/pres/epupam.html DIGITAL PRESERVATION TEMPERATURE & HUMIDITY © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200434
Storage issues Improper storage may be the most common reason for premature media failure. Moderation of temperature and humidity are well known to extend the usable life of most storage media, but many other factors can help, too. DIGITAL PRESERVATION http://www.library.cornell.edu/iris/dpworkshop/working2/ol dmedia/mediathreats.html maintain temperature ~ 20 deg C (68 deg F) maintain relative humidity around 40% avoid large and rapid fluctuations in temperature/humidity control dust (maintain a slight positive pressure environment) avoid exposure to magnetic fields (magnetic media) avoid exposure to fumes establish a no food or drink policy in media storage areas establish a no smoking policy in media storage areas store media in closed metal cabinets, electrically grounded shelve media vertically (not stacked) store media in approved cases minimize exposure to sunlight and UV from light fixtures © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200435
BIT STREAM DIGITAL PRESERVATION DIGITAL OBJECT © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200436
DIGITAL PRESERVATION 0111101110000101010100010011010000101010010101101 Integer 53 Character H Real Number 1.357 Sound Logical bitmap no, yes, yes, no, yes, no, yes Bit in an image BIT STREAM © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200437
DIGITAL PRESERVATION 0111101110000101010100100011010000101010010101101 Integer 96 Character Z Real Number 5.357 Logical bitmap no, no,no, no, no, no, no Bit in an image Sound BIT STREAM © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200438
EXAMPLES As the Pit on the DVD or CD is changed because of dust, or pit fill, this will change the results when read. When the reflective material begins to breakdown it will change Or when the Dye used in the disk begin to break down the disk becomes unstable DIGITAL PRESERVATION BIT STREAM © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200439
METADATA DIGITAL PRESERVATION © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200440
METADATA IS THE MEANS BY WHICH THE DIGITAL OBJECT ARE FOUND AND DISPLAYED WITHOUT METADATA THE DIGITAL OBJECT IS JUST ONE OF BILLIONS OF OBJECTS IT WOULD BE LIKE LOOKING FOR ONE GRAIN OF SAND ON THE SEA SHORE DIGITAL PRESERVATION METADATA © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200441
"Informational Data which provides the Discovery and Descriptive, Administrative, Intellectual Property Rights, Structural or Technical and Indexing descriptions regarding the digital or analog object, within a document imaging environment" DIGITAL PRESERVATION METADATA © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200442
METADATA COME IN FIVE VARIETIES DISCOVERY AND DESCRIPTIVE ADMINISTRATIVE IPR (INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS) STRUCTURAL OR TECHNICAL INDEXING (GSU) DIGITAL PRESERVATION METADATA © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200443
DIGITAL PRESERVATION –Based on the Dublin Core Title Creator Subject / Key Word Publisher Contributor Date Type Format Identifiers Source Language Relation Coverage Audience DISCOVERY AND DESCRIPTIVE © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200444
DIGITAL PRESERVATION ADMINISTRATIVE Access Management Preservation Storage Information Dictionary Definitions Description Miscellaneous Administrative Elements Responsibilities Processing Elements Processing Summary Change Process History Procedures Processing Hints © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200445
DIGITAL PRESERVATION IPR (INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS) IPR Description IPR Dates IPR Exploration IPR History IPR Fixity Options IPR Identification Selection and Negotiation IPR Gathering IPR Methodology IPR Contact Points IPR Archiving Decisions IPR Rights Management IPR Access Controls © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200446
Basic Camera /Scanner Parameters Basic Imaging Parameters Basic Imaging Information Energetics Spatial Metrics Format Preferred Presentation Parameters Target Data Resources Computational DIGITAL PRESERVATION STRUCTURAL OR TECHNICAL © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200447
DIGITAL PRESERVATION Batch Header Information Unique Identifiers Data Fields for Indexing Indexing Groups Indexing Individuals Names given – Sur Locality Dates Event Etc… INDEXING (GSU) © 2004 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.25 March 200448
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