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Topics for Today Climate Change: A Global Problem? Quiz #7 (of 11)!!

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Presentation on theme: "Topics for Today Climate Change: A Global Problem? Quiz #7 (of 11)!!"— Presentation transcript:

1 Topics for Today Climate Change: A Global Problem? Quiz #7 (of 11)!!

2 Readings for Today 3.8 Methane and other greenhouse gases 3.10 Responding to science with policy changes 3.11 The Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change 3.12 Global warming and ozone depletion May even bleed into Monday.

3 Topics for Monday Where does the Carbon Go? The Carbon Cycle

4 Readings for Monday 3.5 The Carbon Cycle

5 Announcements!!!

6

7 Bring back your radon disks!!

8 Announcements! Nice, warm weather… Please remember: Do not wear shorts or sandals to lab!!

9 Topics for Today Climate Change: A Global Problem? Quiz #7 (of 11)!!

10 Review… The Greenhouse Effect

11

12 Q: When will IR cause a molecule to vibrate? A: When there is a dipole moment!

13 Review Dipole Moment: Unequal distribution of charge! Does CO 2 absorb IR radiation? N 2 ??

14 DEMO!! CO 2 N2N2

15 What makes greenhouse gases more potent? N2ON2O CFCs HCFCs HFCs CH 4 CO 2 CH 4 O3O3 H2OH2O

16 1) Atmospheric Lifetime 2) Atmospheric Concentration 3) How efficiently can the molecule absorb IR?

17 1) Atmospheric Lifetime 2) Atmospheric Concentration 3) How efficiently can the molecule absorb IR?

18 CO 2 bending and stretching… Summary Symmetric Stretch Asymmetric Stretch Bend 1 Bend 2 CO 2 has only 3 vibrations

19 CFCs CFCs have at least 10 possible vibrations!! CFCs are much more efficient at trapping IR than CO 2. This is due to the more complicated SHAPE

20 1) Atmospheric Lifetime 2) Atmospheric Concentration 3) How efficiently can the molecule absorb IR? 4) WHERE it absorbs in the IR range!!

21 Water Vapor Figure 3.16

22 Figure 3.15 in your Text CO 2

23 Figure 3.15 in your Text CO 2 What about the other gases?

24 Absorption %

25

26 Very little IR is absorbed from 8-12 micrometers!! Reminder: This is 8,000-12,000 nm!! This range is called the atmospheric window.

27 Where do CFCs absorb?

28 HCFC 132a Micrometers ?

29 HCFC 132a MICROMETERS CFCs (and replacements) absorb directly in the atmospheric window!!!

30 Where do CFCs absorb? At about 7-11 micrometers! !

31 1) Atmospheric Lifetime 2) Atmospheric Concentration 3) How efficiently can the molecule absorb IR? So, just how potent are the major GHGs? 4) WHERE it absorbs in the IR range!!

32 Global Warming Potential (GWP) The ability for a gas to trap energy in the atmosphere. Based on an equal mass of CO 2 over a specific time period. Atmospheric Lifetime (years) Atmospheric Concentration (ppb) GWP Contribution to Enhanced Effect CO ,000160% CH % N2ON2O % CFC> 1003~10,00012%

33 GHGs are not the only thing in the atmosphere that change the Earths energy balance!!!

34

35 Global Warming Potential (GWP) The ability for a gas to trap energy in the atmosphere. Based on an equal mass of CO 2 over a specific time period. Atmospheric Lifetime (years) Atmospheric Concentration (ppb) GWP Contribution to Enhanced Effect CO ,000160% CH % N2ON2O % CFC> 1003~10,00012%

36 What are the effects of the enhanced greenhouse effect?

37 TEMPERATURE CHANGE CO 2 Concentration (ppm) Greenhouse gases correlate with warming!

38 Venus atmosphere is about 97% CO 2 The average temperature is about 900 o F! Runaway greenhouse effect!

39 Very thin atmosphere; most of the CO 2 is frozen in the ground… The average temperature is about -60 o F!

40 TEMPERATURE CHANGE CO 2 Concentration (ppm)

41

42 An increase of about 0.8 o C over the past century!

43 So what if the Earth gets a little warmer?? This is an average…

44 The big problem is NOT necessarily the warming…

45 Greenhouse gases lead to more energy trapped in the atmosphere.

46 The effects of this can can vary… Overall, the Earths natural energy balance is changed

47 What are the effects of increased energy in the atmosphere?

48 Spruce trees in the arctic tundra…

49 Retreating Glaciers…

50 The Cascades

51 Illecillewaet Glacier, Glacier National Park. Photo Credit: Dr. Dan McCarthy, Brock University

52 Glacier National Park The parks namesake glaciers will disappear in the next few decades.

53 The snows of Kilimanjaro 3.9 Figure 3.26

54 Slowing of ocean currents…

55 Changing the energy balance also… Changes weather patterns

56

57 Increases the intensity of storms…. An increase in energy also

58 SO, What do we know?

59 1) GHGs are generally increasing…

60 Methane Nitrous Oxide CFCs and related

61 2) The Earths temperature is rising…

62

63 1) GHGs are generally increasing… 2) The Earths temperature is rising… And, now, for the 65 million dollar question…

64 1) GHGs are generally increasing… 2) The Earths temperature is rising… Are these related ?

65 Disagreement … Handout.


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