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UNIT 9 -ing clauses: cause and effect. Study this sentence: Computers can communicate with synthesisers, using MIDI. It contains two clauses: A main clause:

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Presentation on theme: "UNIT 9 -ing clauses: cause and effect. Study this sentence: Computers can communicate with synthesisers, using MIDI. It contains two clauses: A main clause:"— Presentation transcript:

1 UNIT 9 -ing clauses: cause and effect

2 Study this sentence: Computers can communicate with synthesisers, using MIDI. It contains two clauses: A main clause: Computers can communicate with synthesisers and an –ing clause: using MIDI

3 We can use –ing clauses to: Explain how something happens DVD drives read DVD disks (by) using blue laser light. You can copy music files from a CD to your hard disk (by) using a ripper. Using a ripper, you can copy music files from a CD to your hard disk.

4 We can also use –ing clauses to: Show the effect of something A WAV file may sample a song 44,000 times a second (cause), creating a huge mass of information (effect). Many computer users download music albums for free (cause), causing copyright problems (effect). Note Note: We dont use by before the –ing clause when we describe the effect.

5 To sum up about –ing clauses -ing clauses can show how something happens: You can copy music files in your hard disk (how?)… …(by) using a ripper program. -ing clauses can also show the result of something: Sounds we dont hear are removed from mp3 files (and whats the result?)… …producing much smaller files.


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