Presentation on theme: "-ing clauses: cause and effect"— Presentation transcript:
1 -ing clauses: cause and effect UNIT 9-ing clauses: cause and effect
2 It contains two clauses: A main clause: Study this sentence:Computers can communicate with synthesisers, using MIDI.It contains two clauses: A main clause:Computers can communicate with synthesisersand an –ing clause:using MIDI
3 We can use –ing clauses to: Explain how something happensDVD drives read DVD disks (by) using blue laser light.You can copy music files from a CD to your hard disk (by) using a ripper.Using a ripper, you can copy music files from a CD to your hard disk.
4 We can also use –ing clauses to: Show the effect of somethingA WAV file may sample a song 44,000 times a second (cause), creating a huge mass of information (effect).Many computer users download music albums for free (cause), causing copyright problems (effect).Note: We don’t use ‘by’ before the –ing clause when we describe the effect.
5 To sum up about –ing clauses -ing clauses can show how something happens:You can copy music files in your hard disk (how?)……(by) using a ripper program.-ing clauses can also show the result of something:Sounds we don’t hear are removed from mp3 files (and what’s the result?)……producing much smaller files.