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Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Computing on a Distributed, Virtualized Infrastructure Beng-Hong Lim Senior Director of R&D VMware CERCS.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Computing on a Distributed, Virtualized Infrastructure Beng-Hong Lim Senior Director of R&D VMware CERCS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Computing on a Distributed, Virtualized Infrastructure Beng-Hong Lim Senior Director of R&D VMware CERCS Distinguished Lecture and Keynote Georgia Tech, October 17, 2008

2 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Outline Why virtualize? How virtualization helps Challenges and opportunities Recap and speculate

3 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Why virtualize? Common reason: share limited resources past: expensive hardware Today: hardware is cheap, but … space, power, cooling

4 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. BEFOREAFTER Servers1,00080 Storage270 TB DAS140 TB SAN & NAS Network3,000 cables/ports300 cables/ports Facilities 200 server racks 400 power whips 10 server racks 20 power whips Customer Example: Leading North American Utility Server consolidation

5 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Virtual Machines, Real Savings 80% reduction in space, power and cooling $8 million saved over 2 years Server consolidation

6 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Server consolidation is now mainstream Virtualization makes one computer act like many - popular press tagline

7 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Beyond server consolidation Management complexity hardware: distributed, heterogeneous software: distributed, complex Distributed infrastructure management: the next killer app for virtualization Why is your part taking so long?

8 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. BEFOREAFTER Servers1,00080 Storage270 TB DAS140 TB SAN & NAS Network3,000 cables/ports300 cables/ports Facilities 200 server racks 400 power whips 10 server racks 20 power whips Customer Example: Leading North American Utility Beyond server consolidation

9 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Operational efficiency server and app load from 40 hrs to 30 mins 10,000 person-hours saved per year Beyond server consolidation

10 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Workloads per Virtual Infrastructure Admin 50 workloads per admin for physical infrastructure admin A Pharmaceutical Company A Medical Center An Investment Bank A Large Consumer Bank A Foreign Investment Bank

11 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Distributed Infrastructure Management To better manage modern hardware and software Virtualization: liberates software from hardware encapsulates software within versatile virtual execution environments automates management of hardware as a giant pool of resources

12 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Liberating software from hardware App-1 OS/1 HW-1 App-2 OS/2 HW-2

13 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Liberating software from hardware App-1 OS/1 App-2 OS/2 VMM HW-1 VMM HW-2 Virtual Hardware Abstraction

14 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. VMM Software as a highly-manageable object Snapshot Fork Migrate Record Replay/Rewind etc. Log Disk Storage Physical Machines Virtual Machines Virtualization provides new ways to manipulate software

15 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Distributed Virtualization Layer Exchange Server Hardware as a distributed pool of resources Allocate resources and capabilities on-demand to applications Utilize redundant hardware for reliability and availability CPU2 x 1GHz Memory4 GB Disk500 GB Network 1 Gbps Fault TolerantYes Disaster RecoveryEnabled SecurityHigh Virtualization makes many computers act like one

16 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Distributed Infrastructure Management To better manage modern hardware and software How do we achieve this?

17 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Distributed hardware and software trend High-speed connectivity Web-based applications

18 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Server Management Virtual machines are hardware independent VMotion (Live Migration) Pre-copy memory Virtual disks on networked storage Preserve VMs identity: name, MAC address, IP address

19 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Automatic load balancing across machines Distributed Resource Scheduling (DRS) Dynamic Balancing Continuous Optimization

20 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Adding and removing resources Hot-plug machines Add/remove capacity on demand Improve application availability Distributed power management VMware VirtualCenter X

21 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Power Savings with DPM 50% Savings During VMmark Watts No DPM With DPM 5 hour VMmark run 110 VMs, 4 server cluster

22 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Storage Management Optimize disk usage, availability and management Storage resource pool Storage VMotion: live storage migration Thin provisioning

23 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Storage VMotion Migrate running VM to new storage VM stays on same host Virtual disks may be individually placed Storage type independent Migration does not disturb VM No downtime Transparent to guest OS and apps Minimal performance impact

24 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Storage VMotion Benefits Retire or migrate between arrays Arrays coming off maintenance/leasing cycles Storage tiering Migrate from FC to iSCSI, NAS or within or between enclosure(s) Eliminate performance bottlenecks Load balance through LUN reconfiguration Seamlessly add and begin using new LUNs Non-disruptive VM file system upgrade Future proofing disk format

25 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Thin Provisioning: Smart Allocation Virtual Disks Physical Storage App OS App OS App OS VMware ESX 20GB40GB100GB 5GB 20GB 40GB 5GB 40GB 20 GB

26 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Software Management

27 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. DevQA Release Management CCR Operators Ops 12 3 Developers and QA Traditional Software Lifecycle developteststagedeploymanageintegrate (Change, Configuration and Release Management)(Operations, Optimization and Support) Different environments at each stage, hard to bridge

28 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Virtualization eases software development VMware Workstation Indispensible software development tool Developer-oriented features VM teams to model distributed hardware Multiple snapshots Scripted control of VM operations Record/Replay VAssert VProbes (DTrace for VMs) A rich set of tools not available in physical environments

29 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Software Deployment and Management Process App Stack A App Stack B DB2 9 App Stack C Different application stacks have different configurations and requirements

30 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Checkpoint Windows Apache Linux FIREWALL Tomcat mySQL CRM Virtual Appliance Virtual appliance as unit of deployment Pre-built, pre-configured and ready-to-run software application packaged with the OS inside a Virtual Machine Or packaged inside multiple Virtual Machines

31 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Virtual appliance packaging Open Virtual Machine Format (OVF) a vendor and platform independent standard for packaging and distributing virtual machines handles single VMs and multi-tier VM teams OVF 1.0 spec released by DMTF The OVF descriptor file includes critical infrastructure information describes virtual hardware configuration and properties tells management tools and hypervisors what to do with the virtual machines resource management, security, and availability become properties of the virtual machine, independent of where or how it is deployed X.Ovf Security = High Performance = 500 ms Availability = 99.99% Access control IP port restrictions Apache Linux Tomcat mySQL SLA Definitions Virtual Appliance

32 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Dev, test, debug with virtual machines DevQA (Change, Configuration and Release Management) CCR (Operations, Optimization and Support) Ops 12 3 SHARED VIRTUAL INFRASTRUCTURE Distributed, Multi-site development Dev/Staging Process Automation Deploy and Manage Complex Applications As Enterprise Virtual Appliances Software Lifecycle on a Virtual Infrastructure

33 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Draw the Logical Datacenter and… VI automatically deploys to physical resources and… Virtual Infrastructure Interconnect Pool CPU Pool Memory Pool Storage Pool dynamically adapts the mappings to optimize efficiency within SLAs and policies

34 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Outline Why virtualize? How virtualization helps Challenges and opportunities Recap and speculate

35 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Challenge: supporting mobility Uniform hardware abstraction CPU: x86 standard I/O devices: emulated vs. passthrough Network switch management port state, configuration and control long-distance VMotion

36 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Passthrough I/O Devices I/O MMU VF PF PF = Physical Function, VF = Virtual Function I/O Device Guest OS Device Driver Guest OS Device Driver Guest OS Device Driver Virtualization Layer Basic passthrough support I/O MMU for DMA isolation (Intel VT-d, AMD IOMMU) Partitionable I/O devices for device sharing (PCI-SIG IOV) However, we lose uniform abstraction and VM mobility Potential solutions: paravirtualization guest driver coordination standardized hardware interfaces

37 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Network Switch Management Network-centric view: virtualization blurs the host/network boundary Virtual network switches and topologies within a host VMs can move anywhere The virtual network switch is a new access layer. Network administrators can no longer rely on physical port- based access control distribution core access Extend switching and management protocols to virtual environments. hosts VMs

38 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Distributed Virtual Switches vSwitch Distributed Virtual Switch Todays vSwitch Distributed vSwitch

39 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Aggregated vSwitch Control and Configuration ESX host 1ESX host 3ESX host 2

40 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Migrates port state with VM ESX host 1ESX host 3ESX host 2

41 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Opportunity: making virtual better than real Security inspect OS activity from a safe platform, e.g., another VM. Provide APIs for anti-virus software Overshadow: defending applications from compromised OSes (Chen et al., ASPLOS 2008) minimize and harden virtualization stack Fault tolerance software-based tolerance against hardware failures run VMs in lockstep (Bressoud and Schneider, SOSP 1995) Synthesize useful functions in virtual hardware

42 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Virtual Machine Fault Tolerance X Lockstep PrimarySecondary Primary X

43 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Virtual Machine Record & Replay REPLAY Application Operating System Virtualization Layer Application Operating System Virtualization Layer RECORD Logging causes of non-determinism Input (network, user), asynchronous I/O (disk, devices), CPU timer interrupts Deterministic delivery of events previously logged Result = repeatable VM execution

44 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Determinism Given the exact same inputs, a processor will deterministically execute the same instruction stream and end up in the exact same state Input is anything outside the CPU/memory that is visible to software: I/O and interrupts non-deterministic processor behavior (e.g., CPU timestamp) Hard to do on physical machines, but doable for virtual machines Record/replay in VMware Workstation for over a year

45 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Virtual Machine Fault Tolerance For a given primary VM, run a secondary VM on a different host Secondary VM kept in virtual lockstep via logging info sent over private network connection Only primary VM sends and receives network packets, secondary is silent partner If primary host fails, secondary VM takes over with no interruptions virtual lockstep

46 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Opportunity: client virtualization

47 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Client virtualization User experience access to applications and data from any device with good graphics and interactive performance on one easy to manage desktop environment Centralized management OS and application deployment and management data backup and recovery recovering from corruption Thick vs. Thin, Mobile vs. Fixed, Online vs. Offline

48 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Client virtualization A solution: virtual desktop in a VM all the benefits of software lifecycle management maintain single master version Distributed virtual hardware: migrate computation and data to appropriate locations CPU and memory: client vs. server Graphics processing: local vs. remote Virtual disk storage: local vs. networked, replicated, deduplicated

49 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Client virtualization scenario Compute Graphics Storage Online, standard graphics

50 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Client virtualization scenario Compute Graphics Storage Online, high-speed graphics

51 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Client virtualization scenario Compute Graphics Storage Offline

52 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Client virtualization A solution: virtual desktop in a VM all the benefits of software lifecycle management Distributed virtual machine hardware: migrate computation and data to appropriate locations CPU and memory: client vs. server Graphics processing: local vs. remote Virtual disk storage: local vs. networked, replicated, deduplicated No lock-in to a particular configuration

53 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Outline Why virtualize? Infrastructure Management Challenges and Opportunities Recap and Speculate

54 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Recap Why virtualize? server consolidation distributed infrastructure management Infrastructure Management Challenges and Opportunities Recap and Speculate

55 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Recap Why virtualize? Infrastructure Management data center management software lifecycle management Challenges and Opportunities Recap and Speculate

56 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Recap Why virtualize? Infrastructure Management Challenges and Opportunities maintaining mobility making virtual better than real client virtualization Recap and Speculate

57 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Speculating about the future A Virtual, Mobile and Cloudy Future? in your hand: multi-function mobile devices in the cloud: multiple data centers virtual appliances everywhere Everything more distributed, more mobile

58 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Mobile clients Proliferation of mobile client devices notebooks, multi-function handhelds, smart phones Can a mobile device serve all your computing needs? limited size, compute power, network bandwidth one (small) size does not fit all Well be using various types of client devices user environment and computation typically tied to device User environment, data and computation should migrate automatically and seamlessly to appropriate hardware

59 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. In the data center Convergence of data center hardware Traditional roles of data center hardware Servers host applications Storage arrays serve and manage storage blocks Network switches process and route network traffic Storage arrays and network switches are appliances In a virtualized world move storage and network processing into virtual appliances servers = switches = storage = VM hosts

60 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. In the cloud Improved economics: shared, managed infrastructure Lightweight entry and exit Consumption-based pricing Accessible using standard Internet protocols Scalable and elastic How Do We Define The Cloud?

61 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Challenges of Cloud Computing Need for New, Highly Efficient and Flexible Computing Infrastructure Multi-tenancy Application Compatibility Lack of Standardization Creates Complexity and Switching Costs

62 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Cloud Services Virtual Datacenter Off-Premise Clouds Image Management User Accounts Chargeback Mobility vCloud APIs

63 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Primary Datacenter Cloud Provider Federation: Connecting the Clouds Secondary or Branch Datacenter vApp

64 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Seamless Cloud Connectivity vCloud Provider 1 Secondary or Branch Datacenter 3 3Security vApp Primary Datacenter vApp

65 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. A Distributed, Virtualized Infrastructure StorageNetworkFirewallMailWeb Virtual Infrastructure

66 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. In conclusion Virtualization plays a central role in managing the globally-distributed infrastructure run applications anywhere manage software and hardware independently break down traditional boundaries Essential properties uniform, isolated and mobile execution environment global resource pools compatibility Do more with less

67 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Thank You!

68 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Storage resource pool

69 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Hardware Management The Data Center

70 Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Role of virtualization in the cloud Flexible computing infrastructure Application compatibility Security and multi-tenancy Bridge between internal and external clouds


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