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1 Copyright © 2012, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 6 Warehouse-Scale Computers to Exploit Request-Level and Data-Level Parallelism: Computer Architecture A Quantitative Approach, Fifth Edition
2 Copyright © 2012, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Introduction Warehouse-scale computer (WSC) Provides Internet services Search, social networking, online maps, video sharing, online shopping, email, cloud computing, etc. Differences with HPC clusters: Clusters have higher performance processors and network Clusters emphasize thread-level parallelism, WSCs emphasize request-level parallelism Differences with datacenters: Datacenters consolidate different machines and software into one location Datacenters emphasize virtual machines and hardware heterogeneity in order to serve varied customers Introduction
3 Copyright © 2012, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Introduction Important design factors for WSC: Cost-performance Small savings add up Energy efficiency Affects power distribution and cooling Work per joule Dependability via redundancy Network I/O Interactive and batch processing workloads Ample computational parallelism is not important Most jobs are totally independent Request-level parallelism Operational costs count Power consumption is a primary, not secondary, constraint when designing system Scale and its opportunities and problems Can afford to build customized systems since WSC require volume purchase Introduction
4 Copyright © 2012, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Prgrmg Models and Workloads Batch processing framework: MapReduce Map: applies a programmer-supplied function to each logical input record Runs on thousands of computers Provides new set of key-value pairs as intermediate values Reduce: collapses values using another programmer-supplied function Programming Models and Workloads for WSCs
5 Copyright © 2012, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Prgrmg Models and Workloads Example: map (String key, String value): // key: document name // value: document contents for each word w in value EmitIntermediate(w,1); // Produce list of all words reduce (String key, Iterator values): // key: a word // value: a list of counts int result = 0; for each v in values: result += ParseInt(v); // get integer from key-value pair Emit(AsString(result)); Programming Models and Workloads for WSCs
6 Copyright © 2012, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Prgrmg Models and Workloads MapReduce runtime environment schedules map and reduce task to WSC nodes Availability: Use replicas of data across different servers Use relaxed consistency: No need for all replicas to always agree Workload demands Often vary considerably Programming Models and Workloads for WSCs
7 Copyright © 2012, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Computer Architecture of WSC WSC often use a hierarchy of networks for interconnection Each 19 rack holds 48 1U servers connected to a rack switch Rack switches are uplinked to switch higher in hierarchy Uplink has 48 / n times lower bandwidth, where n = # of uplink ports Oversubscription Goal is to maximize locality of communication relative to the rack Computer Ar4chitecture of WSC
8 Copyright © 2012, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Storage Storage options: Use disks inside the servers, or Network attached storage through Infiniband WSCs generally rely on local disks Google File System (GFS) uses local disks and maintains at least three relicas Computer Ar4chitecture of WSC
9 Copyright © 2012, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Array Switch Switch that connects an array of racks Array switch should have 10 X the bisection bandwidth of rack switch Cost of n-port switch grows as n 2 Often utilize content addressible memory chips and FPGAs Computer Ar4chitecture of WSC
10 Copyright © 2012, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. WSC Memory Hierarchy Servers can access DRAM and disks on other servers using a NUMA-style interface Computer Ar4chitecture of WSC
11 Copyright © 2012, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Infrastructure and Costs of WSC Location of WSC Proximity to Internet backbones, electricity cost, property tax rates, low risk from earthquakes, floods, and hurricanes Power distribution Physcical Infrastrcuture and Costs of WSC
12 Copyright © 2012, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Infrastructure and Costs of WSC Cooling Air conditioning used to cool server room 64 F – 71 F Keep temperature higher (closer to 71 F) Cooling towers can also be used Minimum temperature is wet bulb temperature Physcical Infrastrcuture and Costs of WSC
13 Copyright © 2012, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Infrastructure and Costs of WSC Cooling system also uses water (evaporation and spills) E.g. 70,000 to 200,000 gallons per day for an 8 MW facility Power cost breakdown: Chillers: 30-50% of the power used by the IT equipment Air conditioning: 10-20% of the IT power, mostly due to fans How man servers can a WSC support? Each server: Nameplate power rating gives maximum power consumption To get actual, measure power under actual workloads Oversubscribe cumulative server power by 40%, but monitor power closely Physcical Infrastrcuture and Costs of WSC
14 Copyright © 2012, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Measuring Efficiency of a WSC Power Utilization Effectiveness (PEU) = Total facility power / IT equipment power Median PUE on 2006 study was 1.69 Performance Latency is important metric because it is seen by users Bing study: users will use search less as response time increases Service Level Objectives (SLOs)/Service Level Agreements (SLAs) E.g. 99% of requests be below 100 ms Physcical Infrastrcuture and Costs of WSC
15 Copyright © 2012, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Cost of a WSC Capital expenditures (CAPEX) Cost to build a WSC Operational expenditures (OPEX) Cost to operate a WSC Physcical Infrastrcuture and Costs of WSC
16 Copyright © 2012, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Cloud Computing WSCs offer economies of scale that cannot be achieved with a datacenter: 5.7 times reduction in storage costs 7.1 times reduction in administrative costs 7.3 times reduction in networking costs This has given rise to cloud services such as Amazon Web Services Utility Computing Based on using open source virtual machine and operating system software Cloud Computing
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