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Teachers Discovering Computers Integrating Technology and Digital Media in the Classroom 7 th Edition Hardware for Educators Chapter 4.

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Presentation on theme: "Teachers Discovering Computers Integrating Technology and Digital Media in the Classroom 7 th Edition Hardware for Educators Chapter 4."— Presentation transcript:

1 Teachers Discovering Computers Integrating Technology and Digital Media in the Classroom 7 th Edition Hardware for Educators Chapter 4

2 Three main parts of computers Input System unit Output Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 2

3 The System Unit Electronic components a computer uses to process data Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 3

4 Data Representation Analog vs. Digital Digital Two states (1) on (0) off Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 4

5 Data Representation Binary number system Combination of ones and zeroes represent characters Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 5 Bit Byte

6 Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 6

7 The Components of the System Unit 1-(The Motherboard) Contains many of the electronic components 2- Chip (Processor) A small piece of semiconducting material usually no bigger than one-half-inch square and is made up of many layers of circuits and microscopic components that carry electronic signals Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 7

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10 The Components of the System Unit 3.The Control Unit A component of the CPU that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer Fetch - get the next instruction from memory Decode - translate the instruction Execute - carry out the command Store the result - write the result to memory Machine cycle Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 10

11 The Components of the System Unit 4.The Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU) Performs the execution part of the machine cycle Arithmetic (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) Comparison (greater than, equal to, less than) Logical (AND, OR, NOT) Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 11

12 Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 12

13 The Components of the System Unit 5.The System Clock Synchronizes all computer operations Each tick is called a clock cycle Faster clock means more instructions the CPU can execute each second Speed measured in gigahertz (GHz) What is the Speed of your computer? LinkLink Windows /Pause Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 13

14 The Components of the System Unit 6.Memory (ROM) Used to store data and instructions The operating system and other system software Application software Data being processed by application programs Bytes are stored at specific locations or addresses Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 14

15 The Components of the System Unit Memory (ROM) Size of memory is measured by the number of bytes available Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 15

16 The Components of the System Unit 7- Random Access Memory (RAM) The memory chips in the system unit When the computer starts, certain operating system files are loaded from a storage device into RAM Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 16 What is the Speed of your computer? Link Link Windows /Pause

17 The Components of the System Unit Random Access Memory (RAM) Configuring RAM The more RAM, the more programs and files a computer can work on at once Software usually tells you how much RAM is required Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 17

18 The Components of the System Unit Read-Only Memory (ROM) Cannot be modified Contents not lost when the computer is turned off Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 18

19 The Components of the System Unit 8.Expansion Slots and Expansion Cards Expansion slot A socket on the motherboard that can hold an expansion card Add new devices or capabilities to the computer Expansion card Circuit board that enhances functions of a system component and/or provides connections to peripherals Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 19

20 The Components of the System Unit 9.Removable Memory Devices Flash memory cards USB flash drives PC Cards ExpressCard modules Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 20

21 The Components of the System Unit 10.Ports and Connectors Port Point of attachment to the system unit Usually on the back and front of the system unit Connectors (wires) Used to plug into ports Male connectors Female connectors Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 21

22 Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 22

23 The Components of the System Unit Ports and Connectors USB USB 2.0 USB 3.0 FireWire Bluetooth Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 23

24 What is Input? Any data or instructions you enter into the memory of a computer Data – unprocessed items Programs - series of instructions that tells the computer how to perform a task Commands - an instruction given to a computer program User responses - responses to questions or messages from the software Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 24

25 Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 25

26 What are Input Devices? Any hardware component that allows you to enter data, programs, commands, and user responses into a computer Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 26

27 What are Input Devices? Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 27

28 What are Input Devices? 1.Mouse One or two button mouse Scroll wheel Moving the mouse pointer Clicking Dragging Double-clicking Optical mouse Wireless mouse Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 28

29 What are Input Devices? 2.Touchpad and Pointing Stick Touchpad – small, flat, rectangular pointing device that is sensitive to pressure and motion Pointing Stick – pressure- sensitive pointing device shaped like a pencil eraser Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 29

30 What are Input Devices? 3.Trackball Like a mouse, but the ball mechanism is on top Requires frequent cleaning Good when you have limited desk space Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 30

31 What are Input Devices? 4.Joystick Uses the movement of a vertical lever Often used with games 5.Wheel Steering-wheel type input device Used to simulate driving a car or other vehicle Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 31

32 What are Input Devices? 6.Touch and multi-touch screens Monitor has a touch sensitive panel Used to issue simple commands or choose from a list of options Some models of desktop and notebook computers, all tablet computers, and many mobile devices have touch screens Kiosks Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 32

33 What are Input Devices? 7.Optical Scanners Captures an entire page of text or images such as photographs or artwork electronically Converts the text or image on the original document into digital data that can be stored on a storage medium and processed by the computer Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 33

34 What are Input Devices? 8.Pen Input Users write, draw, and tap on a flat surface to enter input Stylus – small metal or plastic device that looks like a tiny ink pen but uses pressure instead of ink Digital pen – slightly larger than a stylus and provides more functionality Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 34

35 What are Input Devices? 9.Digital Cameras Allows you to take pictures and store the photographed images digitally Download, or transfer, pictures to your computer Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 35

36 What are Input Devices? 10. Audio and Video Input Audio input Entering speech, music, or sound effects Sound card Speech Recognition Computers capability of distinguishing spoken words Video input Capturing a full-motion recording onto a computer and storing the video on a computers storage medium Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 36

37 What is Output? Text Graphics Audio Video Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 37

38 What are Output Devices? Any computer component capable of conveying information to the user Commonly used output devices 1.Display devices 2.Printers 3.Data projectors 4.Facsimile machines 5.Multifunction devices 6.Interactive whiteboards 7.Speakers, headphones, and earphones Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 38

39 What are Output Devices? 1.Display devices Cathode ray tube (CRT) LCD (liquid crystal display) monitors Plasma monitors Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 39

40 Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 40

41 What are Output Devices? Monitor Quality Resolution (sharpness and clarity) Expressed as number of columns and rows 1600 x 1200 Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 41

42 What are Output Devices? 2.Printers An output device that produces text and graphics on a physical medium such as paper or transparency film. Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 42

43 What are Output Devices? Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 43

44 What are Output Devices? Nonimpact Printers Do not strike paper Much quieter A- Ink-jet printers Spray tiny drops of ink onto the paper Both black-and-white and color B- Photo printers Produce photo lab quality pictures Many use ink-jet technology Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 44

45 What are Output Devices? C- Laser printers High-speed, high-quality nonimpact printer Very high quality resolution Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 45

46 What are Output Devices? 3.Data Projectors Allows an audience to view output LCD projectors Digital light processing (DLP) projector Most LCD projectors are five pounds and up. LCD has historically better color saturation but less clear picture Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 46

47 What are Output Devices? 4.Facsimile (Fax) Machine Used to transmit and receive an image of a document over a telephone line Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 47

48 What are Output Devices? 5.Multifunction Devices Can print, scan, copy and fax Less space Lower cost than separate units Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 48

49 What are Output Devices? 6.Interactive whiteboards Touch-sensitive device, resembling a dry-erase board. Ill have a demo Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 49

50 What are Output Devices? 7.Speakers, Headphones, and Earphones Voice output Audio output device Internal speaker Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 50

51 What is Storage? The devices that record and retrieve data, instructions, and information Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 51

52 Storage Media and Devices Storage device or Short term memory or RAM or Random Access memory (active files, active memory) Storage Medium or secondary storage or ROM (Read Only Memory) such as Disk, CD, DVD, Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 52

53 Storage Media and Devices 1.Magnetic Disk (Floppy or ZIP) Uses magnetic patterns to store data, instructions, and information on the disks surface Formatting is the process of preparing a disk for reading and writing by organizing the disk into storage locations called tracks and sectors Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 53

54 Storage Media and Devices 2.Hard Disks Provide large storage capacity Sizes range from 320 GB to 1.5 TB Consists of several inflexible, circular disks, called platters Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 54

55 Storage Media and Devices 3.Miniature and Portable Hard Disks Miniature hard disks are found in mobile devices and consumer electronics and have greater storage capacities than flash memory Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 55

56 Storage Media and Devices 4- Portable Hard Disks (External Hard Discs) Up to 4 TB Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 56

57 Storage Media and Devices 5. Solid State Drives A storage device that typically uses flash memory to store data, instructions, and information and contains no moving parts Range in size from 16 GB to 512 GB Used in all types of computers Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 57

58 Storage Media and Devices 6- Optical discs (CDs and DVDs) Type of storage medium that consists of a flat, round, portable disc made of metal, plastic, and lacquer that is written to and read from using a laser Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 58

59 Storage Media and Devices CD-ROM Compact disc read-only memory Can contain text, graphics, video, as well as sound Can hold up to 1 GB Used to distribute software Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 59

60 Storage Media and Devices CD-R and CD-RW Compact disc-recordable Can write on each part of the disc only one time Cannot be erased Compact disc-rewriteable Can write on multiple times Erasable disc Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 60

61 Storage Media and Devices DVD and BD Digital video disc read-only memory (DVD-ROM) Can store from 4.7 GB to 17 GB High quality DVD-ROM drives BD (Blu-ray Disc) has storage capacities of 100GB, with expectations of exceeding 200 GB Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 61

62 Storage Media and Devices 7. Miniature Mobile Storage Media (memory cards) Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 62

63 Miniature Mobile Storage Media Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 63

64 Storage Media and Devices 8.USB Flash Drive Storage device that plugs into a USB port on a computer or mobile device 9.Smart Card Similar in size to a credit card Stores data on a thin microprocessor embedded in the card 10.Cloud Storage Rapidly growing Internet service that provides storage to computer users Apples iCloud Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators 64


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