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**Disk and Washer Methods**

7.3 Volumes Disk and Washer Methods LIMERICK GENERATING STATION Limerick Generating Station, located in Limerick Township, Montgomery County, PA, is a two-unit nuclear generation facility capable of producing enough electricity for over 1 million homes. The plant site is punctuated by two natural-draft hyperbolic cooling towers, each 507 feet tall, which help cool the plant. Limerick's two boiling water reactors, designed by General Electric, are each capable of producing 1,143 net megawatts. Unit 1 began commercial operation in February 1986, with Unit 2 going on-line in January 1990.

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**Suppose I start with this curve.**

My boss at the ACME Rocket Company has assigned me to build a nose cone in this shape. So I put a piece of wood in a lathe and turn it to a shape to match the curve.

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**r= the y value of the function**

How could we find the volume of the cone? One way would be to cut it into a series of thin slices (flat cylinders) and add their volumes. The volume of each flat cylinder (disk) is: In this case: r= the y value of the function thickness = a small change in x = dx

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**The volume of each flat cylinder (disk) is:**

If we add the volumes, we get:

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**This application of the method of slicing is called the disk method**

This application of the method of slicing is called the disk method. The shape of the slice is a disk, so we use the formula for the area of a circle to find the volume of the disk. If the shape is rotated about the x-axis, then the formula is: A shape rotated about the y-axis would be:

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**y-axis is revolved about the y-axis. Find the volume.**

The region between the curve , and the y-axis is revolved about the y-axis. Find the volume. We use a horizontal disk. y x The thickness is dy. The radius is the x value of the function volume of disk

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The natural draft cooling tower shown at left is about 500 feet high and its shape can be approximated by the graph of this equation revolved about the y-axis: The volume can be calculated using the disk method with a horizontal disk.

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**Example: Using calculus, derive the formula for finding the volume of a sphere of radius r.**

The region bounded by a semicircle and its diameter shown below is revolved about the x-axis, which gives us a sphere of radius r. Area of each cross section? (circle) What is y? dx –r r Equation of semicircle:

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**Example: Using calculus, derive the formula for finding the volume of a sphere of radius r.**

Area of each cross section? (circle) Volume: –r r (Remember r is just a number!!!)

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**Example: Using calculus, derive the formula for finding the volume of a sphere of radius r.**

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**Area of each cross section? (circle)**

Example: Find the volume of the solid generated when the region bounded by y = x2, x = 2, and y = 0 is rotated about the line x = 2. Area of each cross section? (circle) What is r? r = 2 – x dy r Remember, we are using a dy here!!! So, 2

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**Area of each cross section? (circle)**

Example: Find the volume of the solid generated when the region bounded by y = x2, x = 2, and y = 0 is rotated about the line x = 2. Area of each cross section? (circle) Volume: r 2 Bounds? From 0 to intersection (y-value!!!)

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**and is revolved about the y-axis. Find the volume.**

The region bounded by and is revolved about the y-axis. Find the volume. If we use a horizontal slice: The “disk” now has a hole in it, making it a “washer”. The volume of the washer is: outer radius inner radius

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**This application of the method of slicing is called the washer method**

This application of the method of slicing is called the washer method. The shape of the slice is a circle with a hole in it, so we subtract the area of the inner circle from the area of the outer circle. The washer method formula is:

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**If the same region is rotated about the line x=2:**

The outer radius is: The inner radius is: r R

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Augustin Louis Cauchy 1789 – 1857 Augustin Louis Cauchy 1789 – 1857 Cauchy pioneered the study of analysis, both real and complex, and the theory of permutation.

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