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Microsoft Virtual Academy Module 3 Creating and Managing Virtual Hard Disks, Virtual Machines, and Checkpoints.

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Presentation on theme: "Microsoft Virtual Academy Module 3 Creating and Managing Virtual Hard Disks, Virtual Machines, and Checkpoints."— Presentation transcript:

1 Microsoft Virtual Academy Module 3 Creating and Managing Virtual Hard Disks, Virtual Machines, and Checkpoints

2 Module Overview Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks Creating and Configuring Virtual Machines Installing and Importing Virtual Machines Managing Virtual Machine Checkpoints Monitoring Hyper-V

3 Lesson 1: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks What Are the Storage Options for Virtual Machines? Overview of the Hyper-V Virtual Hard Disk Formats Fixed Size and Dynamically Expanding Virtual Hard Disks Differencing Virtual Hard Disks Directly Attached Storage Virtual Hard Disk Sharing and Quality of Service Management Hyper-V Considerations for Virtual Hard Disk Storage

4 What Are the Storage Options for Virtual Machines? Virtual hard disk and directly attached disks Support two storage controller types: Fixed size, dynamically expanding or differencing disk files Directly attached diskslocal, or on iSCSI or Fibre Channel SAN IDESCSI Only for Generation 1 virtual machines For Generation 1 and Generation 2 virtual machines Two controllersTwo devices per IDE controller Four controllers64 devices per SCSI controller Virtual machine starts from IDE Only Generation 2 starts from SCSI Cannot modify devices while virtual machine is running Can modify devices when virtual machine is running

5 Overview of the Hyper-V Virtual Hard Disk Formats.vhd Up to 2,048 GB in size.vhdx Up to 64 TB in size Internal log for enhanced resiliency User defined metadata Large disk sector support Larger sector size (improved performance) Default format in Windows Server 2012 R2 Can convert between both formats.vhdx recommended, if not used on older versions of Hyper-V

6 Fixed Size and Dynamically Expanding Virtual Hard Disks Fixed sizeDynamically expanding Allocates all storage Larger initial size Creation takes time (without Windows Offloaded Data Transfers) Allocates space as needed Smaller initial size Created faster Minimize fragmentationCan cause fragmentation Cannot over-commitCan over-commit Better performance (older Hyper-V) Comparable performance (Windows Server 2012) Use in productionUse in testing and development

7 Differencing Virtual Hard Disks Stores changes from the parent disk Parent disk should not change Differencing disk isolate changes Multiple differencing disks can use same parent Increases overhead (lower performance) Can be used for standardized base images Should avoid in production 1 2 3 4 File C x x x x 3 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 File A File B 1 2 3 4 File D Read Modify Delete Create Read-Only Grow

8 Directly Attached Storage Virtual machine directly accesses physical disk Internal or LUN attached to Hyper-V server Disk must be offline before it can be used LUN on iSCSI or Fibre Channel SAN Pass-through disk considerations Best performance Unlimited size, lowest CPU utilization No checkpoints or differencing virtual hard disks No portability and encapsulation Not included in Hyper-V backup

9 Virtual Hard Disk Sharing and Quality of Service Management Provides shared storage for virtual machines Used as shared SAS disk by virtual machines Virtual hard disk must be using VHDX format Must be connected to virtual SCSI controller Must be stored on failover cluster CSV Scale-out file server with SMB 3.0 Separation between infrastructure and virtual machines Storage QoS restrict disk throughput Configured per virtual hard disk Dynamically configurable while virtual machine is running

10 Hyper-V Considerations for Virtual Hard Disk Storage Virtual hard disks consume large amounts of space Can increase over time, implement monitoring Use multiple physical disks for better throughput Use redundant storage spaces SSD dramatically increases performance SMB 3.0 file share Use SAN for storing virtual hard disks Specialized, redundant, fast Shared storage for failover clustering Exclude VHDs from antivirus scanning

11 Lesson 2: Creating and Configuring Virtual Machines What Are the Components of a Generation 1 Virtual Machine? Overview of Generation 2 Virtual Machines Configuring Virtual Machine Settings What Is Dynamic Memory? What Is Smart Paging? Overview of Integration Services Using a Virtual Fibre Channel Adapter

12 What Are the Components of a Generation 1 Virtual Machine? Virtual machine has virtual hardware devices Only devices that Hyper-V supports can be used Virtual hardware can be: Emulated – available during boot Synthetic – available in supported operating systems SR-IOV – available in supported operating systems Prior to Windows Server 2012 R2, only Generation 1 virtual machines were available

13 Overview of Generation 2 Virtual Machines Emulated devices are removed UEFI firmware instead of BIOS Secure boot Boots from SCSI controller PXE boot uses a standard network adapter Faster boot and operating system installation Can run side by side with Generation 1 Generation 1 must be used for legacy systems Supported guest operating systems Windows Server 2012 and Windows Server 2012 R2 64-bit versions of Windows 8 and Windows 8.1

14 Configuring Virtual Machine Settings Only limited options are available during creation Many more options are available after the virtual machine is created Configuration options depend on the generation of the virtual machine Most settings can be configured only if turned off Adding or removing hardware components Configuring memory, processor, disk settings Few settings are configurable while virtual machine is running Connecting a network adapter to a virtual switch Adding a virtual hard disk to a SCSI controller Enable or disable Integration Services Use Hyper-V Manager or Windows PowerShell Set-VM, Add-VMHardDiskDrive, Add-VMNetworkAdapter

15 What Is Dynamic Memory? More efficient use of available physical memory Shared resource that can be reallocated automatically Demand, available memory, and virtual machine memory settings Dynamic memory settings Startup RAM Operating system typically requires more memory when started Minimum RAM Can be decreased while virtual machine is running Maximum RAM Can be increased while virtual machine is running Memory buffer Percentage of extra memory to reserve for a virtual machine Memory weight Prioritizes memory allocation when physical memory is low

16 What Is Dynamic Memory? T = 0T = 15T = 30 2 GB 4 GB 6 GB 8 GB Virtual Machines Memory Settings Total System Memory Memory in Use by virtual machines 8 GB 3 GB Physical Memory Used37.5 % Finance virtual machine Sales virtual machine Engineering virtual machine

17 What Is Dynamic Memory? T = 0T = 15T = 30 2 GB 4 GB 6 GB 8 GB Finance virtual machine Sales virtual machine Engineering virtual machine Total System Memory Memory in Use by virtual machines 8 GB 6 GB Physical Memory Used75 % Virtual Machines Memory Settings

18 What Is Dynamic Memory? Engineering reaches max allocation T = 0T = 15T = 30 Finance virtual machine Sales virtual machine Engineering virtual machine Service virtual machine 2 GB 4 GB 6 GB 8 GB Total System Memory Memory in Use by virtual machines 8 GB 7,5 GB Physical Memory Used94 % Virtual Machines Memory Settings

19 What Is Smart Paging? Memory Management technique that uses physical disk resources as temporary memory Ensures that a virtual machine can always restart Used during virtual machine restart only If Hyper-V is low on memory, and The virtual machine has more startup than minimum RAM, and Memory cannot be reclaimed from other virtual machines Temporarily degrades virtual machine performance Used only for a limited time, and then removed Not used when a virtual machine started from the Off state Virtual machine operating system paging is always preferred

20 What Is Smart Paging? T = 0T = 15T = 30 Finance virtual machine Sales virtual machine Engineering virtual machine Service virtual machine 2 GB 4 GB 6 GB 8 GB Virtual Machines Memory Settings Total System Memory8 GB Sales virtual machine and Service virtual machine can be restarted only if Smart Paging is used

21 Overview of Integration Services Makes a guest operating system aware that it is running on a virtual machine Many operating systems include integration services Install the latest integration services VMBus and synthetic devices support Time synchronization, mouse release, VSS Managed as virtual machine settings

22 Overview of Integration Services Without Integration Services With Integration Services

23 Using a Virtual Fibre Channel Adapter Access to Fibre Channel SAN storage from virtual machine Hyper-V server has Fibre Channel HBA Use Virtual SAN Manager to configure a virtual SAN Virtual Fibre Channel adapter maps to the physical HBAs Virtual Fibre Channel adapter connects to the Virtual SAN Storage hardware must support N_Port ID virtualization Virtual machine can have four virtual Fibre Channel adapters SupportedNot supported Virtual machine live migrationBoot from Fibre Channel SAN Virtual machine failover clusterCheckpoints MPIO - multiple paths to SANHost-based backup Live migration of SAN data

24 Lesson 3: Installing and Importing Virtual Machines Virtual Machine Installation Methods Importing Virtual Machines Virtualizing a Physical Computer The Virtual Machine Connection Application Overview of Enhanced Session Mode

25 Virtual Machine Installation Methods Install from a bootable CD/DVD-ROM Single virtual machine can only use physical media at one time Install from an.iso file Multiple virtual machines can use.iso file Install from a network-based installation server Generation 1 – legacy network adapter required Copy virtual hard disk file with operating system installed Similar to computer cloning Virtual hard disk should first be generalized Use differencing virtual hard disks Parent virtual hard disk should first be generalized Parent virtual hard disk must not change

26 Importing Virtual Machines You can import a virtual machine without first exporting it Only virtual machine data files are needed Over 40 different types of issues detected, such as: Missing parent virtual hard disk Virtual switch not available Virtual machine has more processors than available Import process: Creates a copy of the virtual machine configuration file Validates hardware configuration settings Compiles a list of incompatibilities Displays incompatibilities and asks for new settings Removes the configuration file copy Cannot start older saved states and checkpoints

27 Virtualizing a Physical Computer Converting a physical computer to a virtual machine Hyper-V does not include P2V functionality Hyper-V can copy content of data disks Configure disk in New Virtual Hard Disk Wizard Copy entire disk, not volume or partition Supported only for data, system disks are not supported Disk2vhd Creates virtual hard disks Uses VSS Captured system has same identity Add virtual hard disk to virtual machine

28 Virtualizing a Physical Computer

29 The Virtual Machine Connection Application Connects to virtual machines on local and remote Hyper-V Port 2179 used (can be modified in the registry) Connection allowed by Windows Firewall Installed as part of Hyper-V role or RSAT feature Single users can connect to virtual machines Remote Desktop in virtual machines is not used Hyper-V Administrators can connect to virtual machines You can restrict access to virtual machines Revoke-VMConnectAccess cmdlet

30 Overview of Enhanced Session Mode Remote Desktop connection to a virtual machine Virtual machine can be without network connectivity Devices can be redirected Printers, drives, smart cards, audio, other PnP devices Shared clipboard, enhanced copy Folder redirection RDS component is used User must sign in to virtual machine Remote Desktop Users group membership required Enabled at Hyper-V virtual machine connection and virtual machine level Guest operating system support required Windows Server 2012 R2 or Windows 8.1 Available only when the virtual machine is running

31 Lesson 4: Managing Virtual Machine Checkpoints What Are Virtual Machine Checkpoints? Implementing Hyper-V Checkpoints Overview of Checkpoints at File Level Exporting Virtual Machines and Checkpoints Issues with Checkpoints in Distributed Environments Checkpoints and Virtual Machine Generation ID

32 What Are Virtual Machine Checkpoints? Checkpoint is a point-in-time virtual machine state Can be taken if virtual machine is not in Paused state Contains virtual machine configuration, memory and disk state Does not affect the running state of a virtual machine Primarily used for testing and development Can cause issues in distributed production environment Create differencing disk – decrease performance Cannot be created for directly attached disks Used by Hyper-V Replica or in VDI deployments

33 Implementing Hyper-V Checkpoints When created, a checkpoint cannot be modified Only viewed, applied, exported, renamed, or deleted Checkpoint creation steps: 1. Pause virtual machine 2. Create differencing disk for each disk that virtual machine is using 3. Create a copy of virtual machine configuration 4. Resume virtual machine 5. Copy virtual machine memory to disk Checkpoint consists of Configuration file (*.xml) Saved state file (*.vsv) Memory content (*.bin) Differencing disks (*.avhd)

34 Overview of Checkpoints at File Level Snapshot Apply (= delete Now) Delete (= merge) Apply (create branch) Delete (= delete).vhd.avhd

35 Exporting Virtual Machines and Checkpoints Exporting a virtual machine is not required You can copy virtual machine files Exporting virtual machine consolidate its files If differencing drives are used, the entire hierarchy is exported Exporting multiple virtual machines increases total size When exporting a virtual machine, all its checkpoints are exported Exporting a checkpoint exports only a single state Differencing disks in checkpoint hierarchy are merged Live export – you can export while a virtual machine is running Update integration services after import Discard memory content and saved state from different architecture or pre-Windows 2012 Hyper-V

36 Issues with Checkpoints in Distributed Environments Applying a checkpoint takes a virtual machine back to a previous state Can have serious implications and result in corruption Vector-clock synchronizations are impacted Distributed applications depending on increasing logical clock AD DS, DFS Replication, SQL Server replication Applying checkpoint rolls back the logical clock Members of replica set to not converge to the same state Cryptography - reducing entropy of the random data Distributed applications using vector clock algorithms have no awareness of running in a virtual environment Removes changes in virtual machine as if they never happened User data is lost, passwords are reverted Regardless of whether they were already synchronized or replicated

37 Issues with Checkpoints in Distributed Environments Time DC1 T1T1 Replication to DC2: USN >100 Replication to DC2: USNs >200 DC1(A) @USN = 200 DC1(A) @USN = 250 ID: A USN: 100 Create Checkpoint Create Checkpoint RID Pool: 500 - 1000 +100 users ID: A USN: 200 RID Pool: 600 - 1000 ID: A USN: 100 Apply T1 Checkpoint RID Pool: 500 - 1000 ID: A USN: 250 +150 users RID Pool: 650 - 1000 T2T2 T3T3 T4T4 Only 50 users are replicated to both domain controllers. Others are either on first or second domain controller. 100 users (RID 500-599) have duplicated SIDs. DC2

38 Checkpoints and Virtual Machine Generation ID Designed to address issues of reverting to a past state 64-bit integer, tied to a virtual machine configuration Generation ID passed to a virtual machine in the BIOS Application can compare current and previous values If values differ, then something happened to virtual machine Hypervisor must support virtual machine generation ID Operating system in virtual machine must be generation ID-aware Virtual machine generation ID changeDoes not change Virtual machine starts from checkpointVirtual machine is live-migrated Virtual machine restored from backupVirtual machine is paused or resumed Virtual machine is migratedVirtual machine is restarted Virtual machine is importedHyper-V server is restarted

39 Checkpoints and Virtual Machine Generation ID

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42 Lesson 5: Monitoring Hyper-V Overview of Performance Monitoring Monitoring a Hyper-V Host Monitoring Virtual Machines Resource Metering in Hyper-V

43 Overview of Performance Monitoring Monitors operating system and applications using system resources Provides up-to-date information on performance Health of the IT infrastructure Compare current activity with the baseline Planning for future requirements Whether current performance is sufficient Identifying issues Detecting problems Proactive (real-time) and reactive (historical data) Windows Server 2012 R2 includes several tools Operations Manager centralizes monitoring, alerting, and reporting for the enterprise

44 Overview of Performance Monitoring Task Manager provides local, real-time performance data Helps to identify and resolve performance-related issues

45 Overview of Performance Monitoring Resource Monitor provides in-depth real-time performance data CPU, Memory, Disk, Network

46 Overview of Performance Monitoring Event Viewer shows events that relate to server activity Collected locally and remotely F iltering, custom views, attaching tasks to the events

47 Overview of Performance Monitoring Reliability Monitor provides an historical view of server reliability and associated events

48 Overview of Performance Monitoring Performance Monitor provides real-time monitoring and viewing of historical data gathered by data collector sets Additional performance objects added with server roles

49 Monitoring a Hyper-V Host Only Performance Monitor can monitor Hyper-V Many Hyper-V performance objects added Other tools monitor only their virtual environment Parent partition is also considered a virtual machine Memory, disk and network monitored the same \Logical Disk(*)\Avg. Disk sec/Read and /Write \Memory\Available Mbytes \Network Interface(*)\Bytes Total/sec Processor utilization based on available resources Hyper-V allocates resources to each virtual machine \Processor(*)\% Processor Time shows relative utilization \Hyper-V Hypervisor Logical Processor(_Total)\% Total Run Time should be used

50 Monitoring Virtual Machines Virtual machine tools monitor the virtual environment Heavy utilization in virtual machine does not mean that Hyper-V host is heavy utilized (and vice versa) Available resources adjusted based on server load Memory and disk counters are the same as on the server Hyper-V performance counters should be used Hyper-V Hypervisor\Virtual Processors Hyper-V Hypervisor Logical Processor \% Guest Run Time Hyper-V Virtual Network Adapter(*)\Bytes/sec Limit the processor resources that the virtual machine can use

51 Resource Metering in Hyper-V Track resources used by virtual machine or pool Processor, disk, memory, network Can be used for charge back Resource metering data follows a virtual machine Configure by using Windows PowerShell Enable-VMResourceMetering, Measure-VM Average CPU usage Average physical memory usage Minimum/maximum memory usage Maximum amount of disk space allocated to a virtual machine Total incoming/outgoing network traffic for a network adapter Graphical reporting is not included Basic reporting in Windows PowerShell


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