Presentation on theme: "Accretion Disks Prof. Hannah Jang-Condell. Accretion Disks Galaxy: M81 Protoplanetary Disk: AB Aurigae Neutron Star (artists conception) (Giovanni Benintende)(M."— Presentation transcript:
Accretion Disks Prof. Hannah Jang-Condell
Accretion Disks Galaxy: M81 Protoplanetary Disk: AB Aurigae Neutron Star (artists conception) (Giovanni Benintende)(M. Masetti, NASA)(Fukagawa, et al. 2004)
Why are disks so common?
M. Hogerheidge 1998, after Shu et al Why are disks so common? Initial material has random velocities Angular momentum is conserved as material falls in The final disk is oriented in the direction of the total net angular momentum
Side note: Galaxies Why are elliptical galaxies not disk-like? Stars are collisionless, dont get canceling of angular momentum as with gas.
Accretion Disks Galaxy: M81 Protoplanetary Disk: AB Aurigae Neutron Star (artists conception) Central object = supermassive black hole Disk = gas in the galaxy Central object = neutron star Disk = material pulled off a companion star Central object = young star Disk = gas left over from star formation
Definition An accretion disk a structure that enables the transport and dissipation of angular momentum so that gaseous material can fall onto a central object.
Viscous spreading of a ring Mass moves inward A small amount of mass carries angular momentum to infinity Pringle 1981
Angular Momentum Transport
Red ring slows green due to viscosity Green loses angular momentum
Angular Momentum Transport Red ring slows green due to viscosity Green loses angular momentum Green ring slows blue Blue loses angular momentum
Angular Momentum Transport Each ring loses angular momentum to the next outer ring. Mass moves inward.
Viscosity Needed to enable angular momentum transport Molecular viscosity of gas is not enough Prime suspect: turbulence
Turbulent Viscosity Random movement of gas parcels couples adjacent streamlines Convection Gravitational instability Magneto-rotational instability (MRI)
Magneto-rotational Instability (Balbus & Hawley 1991) Weak polar magnetic field Idealized plasma (gas is ionized) Magnetic field acts as a spring linking adjacent gas parcels
Disk inner edge and Outflows Outflows carry away angular momentum, so inner edge of disk can accrete Collimated by magnetic fields Exactly how outflows are launched is uncertain Wood 2003
Outflows and Jets AGN: 3C175 Protoplanetary Disk: HH30 Neutron Star: Crab Nebula (NRAO)(Chandra, NASA/CXC/MSFC/M.Weissk opf et al.) (Hubble)
Crab Nebula, 11/00-4/01 Chandra Hubble
Disk Structure Viscosity acts like friction allowing angular momentum transport This friction also dissipates energy and heats the disk
Spectrum of a Disk
Eddington Limit Limit where radiation pressure overcomes gravity: Can relate this to a maximum accretion rate: (ε is the efficiency of converting mass into energy, ~0.08 for BH) Many AGN and X-ray binaries are close to Eddington, or even higher
Accretion Disk Properties AGNProtoplanetary DiskX-ray binary (WD/NS/BH) Central mass10 6 – M sun 0.1 – 2 M sun 0.6 – 1.4 – 10 M sun Disk mass~10 3 M star (bulge)0.01 – 0.1 M star ~1 M sun Disk size0.1 – 1 pc100 – 1000 AU~0.1 AU Accretion rate~ 1 M sun /yr10 -9 – M sun /yr – M sun /yr Temperatures10 3 – 10 5 K10 – 1000 K10 3 – 10 4 K WavelengthsUV, X-rayIR, radioUV, X-ray
My research Protoplanetary disks Passively accreting – well below Eddington (not a compact object) Primary heat source is stellar illumination beyond a few AU How do planets forming planets interact with disks?
Gap Opening by Planets Bate et al., 2003 Gap-opening threshold (Crida, et al 06) 1 M J 0.3 M J 0.1 M J 0.03 M J May 9, 2012Hannah Jang-Condell M crit = 1 M J
Aristarchus crater, the Moon Credit: NASA (Apollo 15) Shadowed Gap May 9, 2012Hannah Jang-Condell
No planet70 M Earth 200 M Earth Gap At 10 AU 1 μm 30 μm 100 um Jang-Condell & Turner, 2012 May 9, 2012Hannah Jang-Condell