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Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 1 T Tauri and Debris Disks Rene´ Liseau Stockholm Observatory, Sweden

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Presentation on theme: "Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 1 T Tauri and Debris Disks Rene´ Liseau Stockholm Observatory, Sweden"— Presentation transcript:

1 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 1 T Tauri and Debris Disks Rene´ Liseau Stockholm Observatory, Sweden

2 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 2 T Tauri and Debris Disks Recent excellent reviews include: Protostars & Planets IV, Mannings, Boss & Russell eds. B. Zuckerman, ARAA 2001, 39: 549 W-F Thi 2002, PhD thesis, Leiden G-J van Zadelhoff 2002, PhD thesis, Leiden

3 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 3 Disks in Time P.S. Laplace 1796, 1799 Exposition du systeme du monde Mechanique celeste I. Kant 1755 Allgemeine Naturgeschichte und Theorie des Himmels

4 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 4 Disks in Time JE Keeler 1895 ApJ 1: 416

5 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 5 Disks in Time T Tauri Disks: around young stars ( Myr) of half a solar mass ( Msun) at 150 pc distance ( pc) in and/or near molecular clouds ``accretion disks´´ Debris Disks: around young MS-stars ( Myr) of about a solar mass (1 - 2 Msun) at 20 pc distance ( pc) in the general field ``Vega-excess stellar disks`´ IRAS 1983ISO 1995HST 1993

6 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 6 Frequency of Disks High Rate of occurence around young stars NGC % Trapezium cluster 80% IC % Haisch et al BDs in Trapezium cluster 65% Muench et al. 2001

7 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 7 Disk Images

8 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 8 HH 30 in L 1551 (Taurus) T Tauri Disk with Jet

9 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 9 T Tauri Disks - Sizes R=7000 AU Fridlund et al (mm line data - single dish) White et al (mid- & far IR line + cont. - ISO) L 1551 IRS5 outflow source

10 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 10 T Tauri Disks - Sizes Size scale (AU)Tracer (mode)Reference 20000CS (1- 0) (S)Kaifu et al CO (1- 0) (S)Fridlund et al C 18 O (1- 0) (I)Sargent et al < mm (I)Woody et al mm, cm (I)Keene & Masson mm (I)Lay et al H 13 CO + (1- 0) (S)Mizuno et al mm (S)Ladd et al C 18, 17 O (2- 1) (S)Fuller et al CO (1- 0) (I)Ohashi et al H 13 CO + (1- 0) (I)Saito et al H 12, 13 CO + (1- 0) (S, I)Hogerheijde et al.1997, C 18 O + (1- 0) (I)Momose et al Fridlund et al Size depends on frequency/mode of observation

11 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 11 T Tauri Disks - Sizes Two Disks: separation = 40 AU & R = 5 AU Rodriguez et al (7 mm cont. - VLA Interferometer ) L 1551 IRS5 outflow source

12 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 12 T Tauri Disks - Sizes Summarising: T Tauri/HABE disks AUDust: mm-continuum interferometry AUDust: scattered stellar light 300 AUGas: CO lines (evidence for Kepler rotation) Silhouettte disks (``proplyds´´) up to 1000 AUDust: scattered stellar light

13 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 13 T Tauri Disks - Sizes & Masses

14 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 14 T Tauri Disks - Masses Lower limit: to 1 M Sun (mm/submm continuum) How good are these numbers? Do we understand disks?

15 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 15 T Tauri Disks - Masses Assume optically thin emission at long wavelengths (mm+) monochromatic flux F ~ T spherical dust grains in equilibrium with stellar radiation achieve T(a, R) = (h/k) p 1/(4+ ) (L/a R 2 ) 1/(4+ ) Q abs ( )/a = Q 0 p = (Q vis /Q 0 ) c 2 /( 32 2 h (3+ )! m m –(4+ ) ) i.e. T ~ R -2/(4+ ) = 0 => T ~ R = 1 => T ~ R = 2 => T ~ R ~

16 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 16 T Tauri Disks - Masses parameters 0 and require knowledge of grain chemical composition shape size size distribution... but a good diagnostic? Larsson et al. 2000, 2002 White et al. 2000

17 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 17 T Tauri Disks - Masses Beckwith et al Opacities Gas-to-dust 100?

18 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 18 T Tauri Disks - Structure Lynden-Bell & Pringle 1974

19 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 19 T Tauri Disks - Structure

20 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 20 T Tauri Disks - Structure D´Alessio et al SEDs

21 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 21 T Tauri Disks - Structure Steady Disks around Single Stars ESO-AO Brandeker et al VW Cha: tidally truncated disk: 60 AU

22 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 22 T Tauri Disks - Structure Steady Disks around Single Stars Boundary Conditions in : boundary layer, magnetosphere out: ?, interstellar turbulence? Viscosity MHD/rotation Hawley & Balbus 1995 Opacity, T,...) Models: Adams & Shu 1986 (flat) Kenyon & Hartmann 1987 (flared) Malbet & Bertout 1991 (vertical structure) D´Allessio et al. 1998, Aikawa & Herbst 1998 (chemistry) Nomura 2002 (2D)

23 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 23 T Tauri Disks - Make up T Tauri disks consist of gas and dust what components? in what proportions?

24 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 24 T Tauri Disks - Make up van Zadelhoff CO (1) HCO + (5) HCN (5) CO (200) HCO + (200) HCN (200 ) LkCa 15TW Hya

25 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 25 T Tauri Disks - Chemistry Molecular abundances (rel. H 2 ) Species LkCa 15TW Hya CO3.4(-7)5.7(-8) HCO + 5.6(-12)2.2(-11) H 13 CO + <2.6(-12)3.6(-13) DCO + ….7.8(-13) CN2.4(-10)1.2(-10) HCN3.1(-11)1.6(-11) H 13 CN….<8.4(-13) HNC….<2.6(-12) DCN….<7.1(-14) CS8.5(-11)…. H 2 CO4.1(-11)<7.1(-13) CH 3 OH<3.7(-10)<1.9(-11) N 2 H + <2.3(-11)<1.8(-11) H 2 D + <1.5(-11)<7.8(-12) Thi 2002

26 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 26 T Tauri Disks - Evolution Time scales (viscous accretion disk) t dyn ~ t therm ~ (H/R )2 t visc t dyn ~ 1/ Kepler and ~

27 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 27 T Tauri Disks - Evolution Disk dispersal and disk lifetimes Physical Mechanisms Hollenbach et al. 2000

28 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 28 T Tauri Disks - Evolution Disk dispersal and disk lifetimes Mass accretion evolution Calvet et al. 2000

29 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 29 T Tauri Disks to Debris Disks Spangler et al f d = L IR /L vs stellar age

30 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 30 T Tauri Disks to Debris Disks Spangler et al. 2001

31 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 31 Debris Disks - Images P. Kalas

32 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 32 Debris Disks - Properties debris (collision products) or particulate (gas free) percentage of Main Sequence stars (15%?) (observationally) biased towards Spectral Type A for (detectable) ages <400 Myr Habing et al. 1999, 2001 disk sizes 100 to 1000 AU disk masses >1 to 100 M Moon (small dust) Pre-IRAS Solar system Zodi US Navy Chaplain G. Jones 1855 AJ 4, 94 Vega Blackwell et al. 1983

33 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 33 THE Debris Disk – Pictoris Sp. TypeA5 V Hipparcos Input Catalogue 1992 Distance19.3(0.2) pc Hipparcos Catalogue 1997 Age15(5) Myr Song et al Metallicitysolar Holweger & Rentzsch-Holm 1995 Disk size1835 AU NE 1450 AU SW Larwood & Kalas 2001 Disk Mass dust: >0.44 M Earth Chini et al gas: see below

34 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 34 Pictoris New: gas disk extension to >300 AU in e.g. Na I D 2 Olofsson et al model model obser- vation VLT 2002 =>

35 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 35 Pic Disk Model: Gas Best fit model (self consistent photoionisation calculation) to EMMI data with observed emission line flux Na D erg s -1 cm -2 linerel. flux (line/Na D) [C I]370 m [C I]609 m [C II]157 m dominates the cooling [O I] 63 m [Si II] 35 m [Fe II] 26 m cf also Kamp & van Zadelhoff 2001, van Zadelhoff 2002

36 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 36

37 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 37 THE Debris Disk – Pictoris Presence of substantial amounts of H 2 debated Thi 2002 Presence of atomic gas – no doubt Olofsson et al new VLT data reveal disk flaring in e.g. CaII HK and... slit height 8´´

38 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 38 THE Debris Disk – Pictoris The VLT Disk Spectrum (340 – 390 nm) only permitted lines no Fe II, no H I Fe Imultiplets 4, 5, 40, 41 Ca IIH & K TbcNi I, Ti I, V II, Cr I, Co I, Mn I, Ru I, Ce II, Tm I

39 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 39 THE Debris Disk – Pictoris 1200 m (SEST) 850 m (JCMT)...and the ``Blob´´

40 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 40 THE Debris Disk – Pictoris SCUBA JCMT 850 mSIMBA SEST 1200 m Holland et al Peakposition+0.8, +0.7 arcsec (?) 0, 0 Peak flux58.3(6.5) mJy/beam 24.3(2.5) mJy/beam Deconvolved size22´´ x 11´´26´´ x 10´´ Blob position-21, -26 arcsec -26, -44 arcsec Position angle39.6 deg 31.5 deg Distance34´´52´´ Flux19.1(6.5) mJy/beam 9.7(2.3) mJy/beam Ratio3.0(1.1)2.50(0.65)

41 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 41 Debris Disks and Planets Disks have non-homogeneous structure – not simple power law distributions because of planet(s)? Pic Keck 18 m Wahhej et al Heap et al. 2000

42 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 42 Debris Disks and Planets Disks have non-homogeneous structure – not simple power law distributions because of planet(s)? Wilner et al Lyr 1.3 mm (PdB) Model: excentric ``Jupiter´´

43 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 43 Debris Disks and Planets Do ``Planet-Stars´´ have disks? 55 Cnc No! Jayawardhana et al CrBtbc Trilling et al HD tbc Eri a border case? Hatzes et al. 2000

44 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 44 Disks: Open Questions Grain growth: from micron to cm size from cm to 100 m+ size Time of (giant) planet formation termination of planet migration Processes/time scales of disk dispersal formation and evolution of debris disks Role of stellar multiplicity free-floating planets

45 Stockholm Observatory GENIE - workshop: Leiden, 3-6 June 2002 page 45 Disks and GENIE Angular resolution of order 2.5 ( m )/b 100m mas Debris disks generally at > 25 m Laureijs et al L-band (1000 K), N-band (300 K) L-band: min ( scat, abs ) T Tauri disk: 0.4 AU 3 mas Debris disk:1.2 AU60 mas N-band:hot telescope/sky T Tauri disk: 9 AU60 mas Debris disk:25 AU1.2 arcsec


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