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Scalable Storage Configuration for the Physics Database Services Luca Canali, CERN IT LCG Database Deployment and Persistency Workshop October, 2005.

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Presentation on theme: "Scalable Storage Configuration for the Physics Database Services Luca Canali, CERN IT LCG Database Deployment and Persistency Workshop October, 2005."— Presentation transcript:

1 Scalable Storage Configuration for the Physics Database Services Luca Canali, CERN IT LCG Database Deployment and Persistency Workshop October, 2005

2 Database Workshop, October 2005L.Canali, CERN2Outline In this talk I will discussIn this talk I will discuss –Storage configuration for scalable database services Main challenges Best practices –An implementation of scalable storage Impacts on DB logical to physical mapping Performance and resource allocations –How we can help you to size new database projects or to scale up existing applications Performance testing Benchmark data

3 Database Workshop, October 2005L.Canali, CERN3 Oracle Scalable Architecture Goal: A database infrastructure that provides the required system resources to the end-users and applications. How: A modular architecture that can scale up to a large number of components

4 Database Workshop, October 2005L.Canali, CERN4 RAID 1: HA Storage MirroringMirroring –2-Way mirroring (RAID 1) protects against single point of failures –Can be used to redistribute I/O load (performance)

5 Database Workshop, October 2005L.Canali, CERN5 RAID 0: Scalable Performances RAID 0 (Striping) automatically redistributes files across multiple disks.RAID 0 (Striping) automatically redistributes files across multiple disks. Performance and scalability are increasedPerformance and scalability are increased Error resiliency is decreasedError resiliency is decreased

6 Database Workshop, October 2005L.Canali, CERN6 Mechanical and Geometrical constraints The external part of the disk providesThe external part of the disk provides –More throughput –Less latency

7 Database Workshop, October 2005L.Canali, CERN7 S.A.M.E Strategy Goal: optimize storage I/O utilizationGoal: optimize storage I/O utilization S.A.M.E. (Stripe And Mirror Everything) StrategyS.A.M.E. (Stripe And Mirror Everything) Strategy –Built on the concepts of RAID –Proposed by J. Loaiza (Oracle) in 1999 –Replaces old recipes: manual balancing across volumes Need a Software or Hardware Volume ManagerNeed a Software or Hardware Volume Manager –ASM is Oracles solution with 10g S.A.M.E. out of the box –Other solutions available from different vendors require configuration

8 Database Workshop, October 2005L.Canali, CERN8 Storage Configuration Guidelines Use all available disk drivesUse all available disk drives Place frequently used data at outer half of diskPlace frequently used data at outer half of disk –Fastest transfer rate –Minimize seek time Stripe data at 1MB extentsStripe data at 1MB extents –Distribute the workload across disks –Eliminate hot spots –Optimum sequential bandwidth gained with1MB I/O Stripe redo logs across multiple drivesStripe redo logs across multiple drives –Maximize write throughput for small writes –Smaller stripe size (128KB) and/or dedicated disks Use cache on the controllerUse cache on the controller –Write-back cache –Battery-backed cache

9 Database Workshop, October 2005L.Canali, CERN9 Oracles ASM Main Features Mirror protection: –2-way and 3-way mirroring available. –Mirror on a per-file basis –Can mirror across storage arrays Data striping across the volume: –1MB and 128KB stripes available Supports clustering and single instance Dynamic data distribution –A solution to avoid hot spots –On-line add/drop disk with minimal data relocation –Automatic database file management Database File System with performance of RAW I/O

10 Database Workshop, October 2005L.Canali, CERN10 ASMs Configuration – Examples ASM is a volume manager, its output are disk groups (DG) that Oracle databases can mount to allocate their filesASM is a volume manager, its output are disk groups (DG) that Oracle databases can mount to allocate their files RECOVERY-DGDATA-DG Config 1: Disk groups created with dedicated disks Config 2: Disk groups created by horizontal slicing

11 Database Workshop, October 2005L.Canali, CERN11 Proposed Storage Configuration Proposed storage configuration:Proposed storage configuration: –High availability - Allows backups to disk –High performance - Allows clusterware mirroring (10.2) –DBs have dedicated resources Storage Arrays Oracle RAC Nodes Data DG-2Recovery DG-1Data DG-1Recovery DG-2 Disk Groups (ASM) DB N.1DB N.2

12 Database Workshop, October 2005L.Canali, CERN12 FAQ 1: Datafiles Do I need to worry on the number and names of the datafiles allocated for each tablespace?Do I need to worry on the number and names of the datafiles allocated for each tablespace? Traditional storage allocation across multiple volumes:Traditional storage allocation across multiple volumes: –Requires a careful allocation of multiple datafiles across logical volumes and/or filesystems –Datafile-to-filesystem and filesystem-to-physical storage mappings have to be frequently tuned S.A.M.E. storage, such as Oracle ASM, provides balanced I/O access across disksS.A.M.E. storage, such as Oracle ASM, provides balanced I/O access across disks –There is NO NEED, for performance reasons, to allocate multiple datafiles per tablespace. –10g new feature bigfile tablespace allows for tablespaces with a single datafile that can grow up to 32 TB (db_block_size=8k)

13 Database Workshop, October 2005L.Canali, CERN13 FAQ 2: Data and Index Tablespaces Do I need dedicated tablespaces for indexes and tables?Do I need dedicated tablespaces for indexes and tables? Separation of indexes and tables has often been advised to:Separation of indexes and tables has often been advised to: –Distribute I/O –Reduce fragmentation –Allow separate backup of tables and indexes S.A.M.E. storage, such as Oracle ASM, provides balanced I/O access across disksS.A.M.E. storage, such as Oracle ASM, provides balanced I/O access across disks –No performance gains are expected by using dedicated tablespaces for INDEXes and TABLEs. Additional Notes:Additional Notes: –Tablespaces fragmentation has little impact when using locally managed TBSs and automatic segment space management (9i and 10g) –Very large database can profit from using multiple tablespaces for admin purposes and logical separation of objects

14 Database Workshop, October 2005L.Canali, CERN14 FAQ 3: Sizing Storage Storage sizing for database should not take size as the first requirementStorage sizing for database should not take size as the first requirement –Bandwidth and performance metrics are bound to the number of disk spindles –Magnetic HD technology has improved the GByte/$ ratio –The rest of HD technology has not seen much improvements in the last 5 years (since 15K rpms HDs) Sizing for storage requirements shouldSizing for storage requirements should –Be based on stress test measurements –Past performance measurements on comparable systems –New projects can leverage benchmark data. Extra HD space is not wastedExtra HD space is not wasted –Can be used to strengthen the B&R policy with Disk Backups

15 Database Workshop, October 2005L.Canali, CERN15 IO Benchmark Measurements Benchmark data can be used forBenchmark data can be used for –Sizing of new projects and upgrades –Performance baseline, testing for new hardware The following metrics have been measured:The following metrics have been measured: –Sequential throughput (full scans) –Random access (indexed access) –I/O per second (indexed access) –Metrics are measured as a function of workload Other test detailsOther test details –Benchmark tool: Oracles ORION –Infortrend Storage array: 16 SATA x 400 GB disks, 1 controller and 1 GB cache

16 Database Workshop, October 2005L.Canali, CERN16 IO Benchmark Data Throughput: + 25%

17 Database Workshop, October 2005L.Canali, CERN17 IO Benchmark Data Latency: - 35%

18 Database Workshop, October 2005L.Canali, CERN18 IO Benchmark Data I/O /sec: +60%

19 Database Workshop, October 2005L.Canali, CERN19Conclusions The Database Services for Physics can provideThe Database Services for Physics can provide –Scalable Database services Scalable on CPU and Memory resources Scalable on Storage resources –Sizing for new projects or upgrades Stress/Performance testing Integration and Validation Testing Benchmark data for capacity planning

20 Database Workshop, October 2005L.Canali, CERN20 Additional Benchmark Data

21 Database Workshop, October 2005L.Canali, CERN21 Additional Benchmark Data

22 Database Workshop, October 2005L.Canali, CERN22 Additional Benchmark Data


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