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Everything You Wanted to Know About Storage, but Were Afraid to Ask

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1 Everything You Wanted to Know About Storage, but Were Afraid to Ask

2 Do you have a Cell phone, PDA or Smartphone?

3 Do you have a DIGITAL CAMERA?

4 Do you have a PC?

5 What do all of these devices have in common ?

6 How do you protect your data?

7 Digital Footprint Calculator

8 Are you familiar with RAID ?

9 RAID 0 Data is striped across the HDDs in a RAID set
The stripe size is specified at a host level for software RAID and is vendor specific for hardware RAID When the number of drives in the array increases, performance improves because more data can be read or written simultaneously Used in applications that need high I/O throughput Does not provide data protection and availability in the event of drive failures


11 RAID 1 Mirroring is a technique whereby data is stored on two different HDDs, yielding two copies of data. In addition to providing complete data redundancy, mirroring enables faster recovery from disk failure. Mirroring involves duplication of data — the amount of storage capacity needed is twice the amount of data being stored. Therefore, mirroring is considered expensive It is preferred for mission-critical applications that cannot afford data loss


13 Nested RAID Mirroring can be implemented with striped RAID by mirroring entire stripes of disks to stripes on other disks RAID 0+1 and RAID 1+0 combine the performance benefits of RAID 0 with the redundancy benefits of RAID 1 These types of RAID require an even number of disks, the minimum being four. RAID 0+1 is also called mirrored stripe. This means that the process of striping data across HDDs is performed initially and then the entire stripe is mirrored.


15 Nested RAID RAID 1+0 is also called striped mirror
The basic element of RAID 1+0 is that data is first mirrored and then both copies of data are striped across multiple HDDs in a RAID set Some applications that benefit from RAID 1+0 include the following: High transaction rate Online Transaction Processing (OLTP),Database applications that require high I/O rate, random access, and high availability



18 RAID 3 RAID 3 stripes data for high performance and uses parity for improved fault tolerance. Parity information is stored on a dedicated drive so that data can be reconstructed if a drive fails RAID 3 is used in applications that involve large sequential data access, such as video streaming.


20 RAID 4 Stripes data across all disks except the parity disk at the block level Parity information is stored on a dedicated disk Unlike RAID 3 , data disks can be accessed independently so that specific data elements can be read or written on a single disk without read or write of an entire stripe

21 RAID 5 RAID 5 is a very versatile RAID implementation
The difference between RAID 4 and RAID 5 is the parity location. RAID 4, parity is written to a dedicated drive, while In RAID 5, parity is distributed across all disks The distribution of parity in RAID 5 overcomes the write bottleneck. RAID 5 is preferred for messaging, medium-performance media serving, and relational database management system (RDBMS) implementations in which database administrators (DBAs) optimize data access


23 RAID 6 RAID 6 works the same way as RAID 5 except that RAID 6 includes a second parity element This enable survival in the event of the failure of two disks in a RAID group. RAID-6 protects against two disk failures by maintaining two parities Horizontal parity which is the same as RAID-5 parity – Diagonal parity is calculated by taking diagonal sets of data blocks from the RAID set members

24 Hot Spare A hot spare refers to a spare HDD in a RAID array that temporarily replaces a failed HDD of a RAID set. When the failed HDD is replaced with a new HDD, The hot spare replaces the new HDD permanently, and a new hot spare must be configured on the array, or data from the hot spare is copied to it, and the hot spare returns to its idle state, ready to replace the next failed drive. A hot spare should be large enough to accommodate data from a failed drive. Some systems implement multiple hot spares to improve data availability. A hot spare can be configured as automatic or user initiated, which specifies how it will be used in the event of disk failure


26 What is an Intelligent Storage System
Intelligent Storage Systems are RAID arrays that are: Highly optimized for I/O processing Have large amounts of cache for improving I/O performance Have operating environments that provide: – Intelligence for managing cache – Array resource allocation – Connectivity for heterogeneous hosts – Advanced array based local and remote replication options

27 Components of an Intelligent Storage System
An intelligent storage system consists of four key components: front end, cache, back end, and physical disks. An I/O request received from the host at the front-end port is processed through cache and the back end, to enable storage and retrieval of data from the physical disk. A read request can be serviced directly from cache if the requested data is found in cache.

28 Components of an Intelligent Storage System
The front end provides the interface between the storage system and the host. It consists of two components: front-end ports and front-end controllers The front-end ports enable hosts to connect to the intelligent storage system, and has processing logic that executes the appropriate transport protocol, such as SCSI, Fibre Channel, or iSCSI, for storage connections Front-end controllers route data to and from cache via the internal data bus. When cache receives write data, the controller sends an acknowledgment

29 Components of an Intelligent Storage System
Controllers optimize I/O processing by using command queuing algorithms Command queuing is a technique implemented on front-end controllers It determines the execution order of received commands and can reduce unnecessary drive head movements and improve disk performance The most commonly used command queuing algorithms are as follows: •First In First Out (FIFO): This is a default algorithm where commands are executed in the order in which they are received. There is no reordering of requests for optimization; therefore, it is inefficient in terms of performance. •Seek Time Optimization: Commands are executed based on optimizing read/write head movements, which may result in reordering of commands. Without seek time optimization, the commands are executed in the order they are received. For example, as shown in Figure, the commands are executed in the order A, B, C and D. The radial movement required by the head to execute C immediately after A is less than what would be required to execute B. With seek time optimization, the command execution sequence would be A, C, B and D, as shown in Figure. •Access Time Optimization: Commands are executed based on the combination of seek time optimization and an analysis of rotational latency for optimal performance.

30 Intelligent Storage System: Cache
Cache is an important component that enhances the I/O performance in an intelligent storage system. Cache improves storage system performance by isolating hosts from the mechanical delays associated with physical disks, which are the slowest components of an intelligent storage system. Accessing data from a physical disk usually takes a few milliseconds Accessing data from cache takes less than a millisecond. Write data is placed in cache and then written to disk

31 Cache Data Protection Cache mirroring: Each write to cache is held in two different memory locations on two independent memory cards Cache vaulting: Cache is exposed to the risk of uncommitted data loss due to power failure using battery power to write the cache content to the disk storage vendors use a set of physical disks to dump the contents of cache during power failure Reads are staged from the disk to the cache; therefore, in the event of a cache failure, the data can still be accessed from the disk. As only writes are mirrored, this method results in better utilization of the available cache. In cache mirroring approaches, the problem of maintaining cache coherency is introduced. Cache coherency means that data in two different cache locations must be identical at all times. It is the responsibility of the array operating environment to ensure coherency. This problem can be addressed in various ways: powering the memory with a battery until AC power is restored or

32 Intelligent Storage System: Back End
It consists of two components: back-end ports and back-end controllers Physical disks are connected to ports on the back end. The back end controller communicates with the disks when performing reads and writes and also provides additional, but limited, temporary data storage. The algorithms implemented on back-end controllers provide error detection and correction, along with RAID functionality. Controller Multiple controllers also facilitate load balancing The back end provides an interface between cache and the physical disk For high data protection and availability, storage systems are configured with dual controllers with multiple ports. Such configurations provide an alternate path to physical disks in the event of a controller or port failure. This reliability is further enhanced if the disks are also dual-ported. In that case, each disk port can connect to a separate

33 Intelligent Storage System: Physical Disks
Disks are connected to the back-end with either SCSI or a Fibre Channel interface

34 What is LUNs Physical drives or groups of RAID protected drives can be logically split into volumes known as logical volumes, commonly referred to as Logical Unit Numbers (LUNs)

35 High-end Storage Systems
High-end storage systems, referred to as active-active arrays, are generally aimed at large enterprises for centralizing corporate data These arrays are designed with a large number of controllers and cache memory An active-active array implies that the host can perform I/Os to its LUNs across any of the available Paths

36 Midrange Storage Systems
Also referred as Active-passive arrays Host can perform I/Os to LUNs only through active paths Other paths remain passive till active path fails Midrange array have two controllers, each with cache, RAID controllers and disks drive interfaces Designed for small and medium enterprises Less scalable as compared to high-end array

37 CLARiiON Whiteboard Video

38 DAS

39 DAS Direct-Attached Storage (DAS) storage connects directly to servers
applications access data from DAS using block-level access protocols Examples: internal HDD of a host, tape libraries, and directly connected external HDD

40 DAS Direct-Attached Storage (DAS)
DAS is classified as internal or external, based on the location of the storage device with respect to the host. Internal DAS: storage device internally connected to the host by a serial or parallel bus distance limitations for high-speed connectivity can support only a limited number of devices, and occupy a large amount of space inside the host

41 DAS Direct-Attached Storage (DAS)
External DAS: server connects directly to the external storage device usually communication via SCSI or FC protocol. overcomes the distance and device count limitations of internal DAS, and provides centralized management of storage devices.

42 DAS Benefits Ideal for local data provisioning
Quick deployment for small environments Simple to deploy Reliability Low capital expense Low complexity

43 DAS Connectivity Options
host  storage device communication via protocols ATA/IDE and SATA – Primarily for internal bus SCSI – Parallel (primarily for internal bus) – Serial (external bus) FC – High speed network technology

44 DAS Connectivity Options
protocols are implemented on the HDD controller a storage device is also known by the name of the protocol it supports

45 DAS Management LUN creation, filesystem layout, and data addressing
Internal – Host (or 3rd party software) provides: Disk partitioning (Volume management) File system layout

46 DAS Management External – Array based management
– Lower TCO for managing data and storage Infrastructure

47 DAS Challenges limited scalability
Number of connectivity ports to hosts Number of addressable disks Distance limitations For internal DAS, maintenance requires downtime Limited ability to share resources (unused resources cannot be easily re-allocated) – Array front-end port, storage space – Resulting in islands of over and under utilized storage pools

48 Introduction to SCSI SCSI–3 is the latest version of SCSI

49 Primary commands common to all devices
SCSI Architecture Primary commands common to all devices

50 Standard rules for device communication and information sharing
SCSI Architecture Standard rules for device communication and information sharing

51 SCSI Architecture Interface details such as electrical signaling methods and data transfer modes

52 SCSI Device Model SCSI initiator device
– Issues commands to SCSI target devices – Example: SCSI host adaptor

53 SCSI Device Model SCSI target device
– Executes commands issued by initiators – Examples: SCSI peripheral devices

54 SCSI Device Model Device requests contain
Command Descriptor Block (CDB)

55 SCSI Device Model CDB structure – 8 bit structure
– defines the command to be executed – contains operation code, command specific parameter and control parameter

56 a number from 0 to 15 with the most common value being 7
SCSI Addressing a number from 0 to 15 with the most common value being 7

57 SCSI Addressing a number from 0 to 15

58 a number that specifies a device addressable through a target
SCSI Addressing a number that specifies a device addressable through a target

59 SCSI Addressing Example
controller target device

60 Areas Where DAS Fails Just-in-time information to business users
Integration of information infrastructure with business processes Flexible and resilient storage architecture

61 The Solution? Storage Networking FC SAN NAS IP SAN

62 What is a SAN ? Dedicated high speed network of servers and shared storage devices Provide block level data access

63 What is a SAN ? Resource Consolidation – Centralized storage and management Scalability – Theoretical limit: Appx. 15 million devices Secure Access

64 Fibre Channel Latest FC implementations support 8Gb/s

65 Fibre Channel a high-speed network technology that runs on high-speed optical fiber cables (for front-end SAN connectivity)

66 and serial copper cables (for back-end disk connectivity)
Fibre Channel and serial copper cables (for back-end disk connectivity)

67 FC SAN Evolution

68 Components of SAN three basic components: servers,
network infrastructure, and storage, can be further broken down into the following key elements: node ports, cabling, interconnecting devices (such as FC switches or hubs), storage arrays, and SAN management software

69 Components of SAN: Node ports
Examples of nodes – Hosts, storage and tape library Ports are available on: – HBA in host– Front-end adapters in storage – Each port has transmit (Tx) link and receive (Rx) link HBAs perform low-level interface functions automatically to minimize impact on host performance

70 Components of SAN: Cabling
Copper cables for short distance Optical fiber cables for long distance – Single-mode Can carry single beams of light Distance up to 10 KM – Multi-mode Can carry multiple beams of light simultaneously Distance up to 500 meters

71 Components of SAN: Cabling

72 Components of SAN: Cabling (connectors)
Node Connectors: SC Duplex Connectors LC Duplex Connectors Patch panel Connectors: ST Simplex Connectors

73 Components of SAN: Interconnecting devices
– Hubs – Switches and – Directors

74 Components of SAN: Storage array
storage consolidation and centralization provides – High Availability/Redundancy – Performance – Business Continuity – Multiple host connect

75 Components of SAN: SAN management software
A suite of tools used in a SAN to manage the interface between host and storage arrays Provides integrated management of SAN environment Web based GUI or CLI

76 SAN Interconnectivity Options: FC-AL
Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL) – Devices must arbitrate to gain control – Devices are connected via hubs – Supports up to 127 devices

77 SAN Interconnectivity Options: FC-SW
Fabric connect (FC-SW) – Dedicated bandwidth between devices – Support up to 15 million devices – Higher availability than hubs

78 Network-Attached Storage

79 Think "File Sharing"

80 Sharing Files

81 Sharing Files

82 2.2 GB

83 4 GB

84 Sharing Files


86 Sharing Files

87 Sharing Files

88 What is NAS?

89 What is NAS? IP-based file sharing device attached to LAN
Server consolidation File-level data access and sharing

90 Why NAS? dedicated to file-serving

91 Benefits of NAS Support comprehensive access to information
Improves efficiency and flexibility Centralizes storage Simplifies management Scalability High availability – through native clustering Provides security integration to environment (user authentication and authorization)

92 CPU and Memory NICs file sharing protocols IP network NAS OS storage protocols (ATA, SCSI, or FC)


94 Benefits: Increases performance throughput (service level) to end users Minimizes investment in additional servers Provides storage pooling Provides heterogeneous file servings Uses existing infrastructure, tools, and processes


96 Benefits: Provides continuous availability to files
Heterogeneous file sharing Reduces cost for additional OS dependent servers Adds storage capacity non- disruptively Consolidates storage management Lowers Total Cost of Ownership


98 Celerra Whiteboard Video

99 Driver for IP SAN In FC SAN transfer of block level data takes place over Fibre Channel Emerging technologies provide for the transfer of block-level data over an existing IP network infrastructure

100 Why IP? Easier management
Existing network infrastructure can be leveraged Reduced cost compared to new SAN hardware and software Supports multi-vendor interoperability Many long-distance disaster recovery solutions already leverage IP-based networks Many robust and mature security options are available for IP networks

101 Block Storage over IP - iSCSI
SCSI over IP IP encapsulation Ethernet NIC card iSCSI HBA Hardware-based gateway to Fibre Channel storage Used to connect servers

102 Block Storage over IP - FCIP
Fibre Channel-to- IP bridge / tunnel (point to point) Fibre Channel end points Used in DR implementations

103 iSCSI ? IP based protocol used to connect host and storage
Carries block-level data over IP-based network Encapsulate SCSI commands and transport as TCP/IP packet

104 Components of iSCSI iSCSI host initiators iSCSI targets
– Host computer using a NIC or iSCSI HBA to connect to storage – iSCSI initiator software may need to be installed iSCSI targets – Storage array with embedded iSCSI capable network port – FC-iSCSI bridge LAN for IP storage network – Interconnected Ethernet switches and/or routers

105 No FC components Each iSCSI port on the array is configured with an IP address and port number – iSCSI Initiators Connect directly to the Array

106 Bridge device translates iSCSI/IP to FCP
– Standalone device – Integrated into FC switch (multi-protocol router) iSCSI initiator/host configured with bridge as target Bridge generates virtual FC initiator

107 Array provides FC and iSCSI connectivity natively
No bridge devices needed

108 FCIP (Fibre Channel over IP)?
FCIP is an IP-based storage networking technology Combines advantages of Fibre Channel and IP Creates virtual FC links that connect devices in a different fabric FCIP is a distance extension solution – Used for data sharing over geographically dispersed SAN

109 FCIP (Fibre Channel over IP)?

110 FCoE Whiteboard Video

111 What was EMC’s revenue in 2009?
Question 1 What was EMC’s revenue in 2009? A. 60 Billion B Billion C. 14 Billion D. 9 Billion Ask a Colleague 50:50 Ask the Audience Ask the Audience

112 EMC Corporation 2009 At a Glance
Revenues $14 billion Net Income $1.9 billion Employees ~41,500 Countries where EMC does business >80 R&D Investment ~$1.5 billion Operating Cash Flow $3.3 billion Free Cash Flow $2.6 billion Founded 1979 Show of hands – How many of you have heard of EMC? <Stability, Size, and R&D> Revenue was 14.9B for 2010 we are targeted for 16.6B and 2.5B non GAPP EMC’s vision begins with Information (pause) the core of any business. You can see that EMC focuses on where information lives. This has been our tag line for a very long time. Where – EMC has always focused on where the information resides with our hardware. Lives – now we are focusing on where the information lives; how it moves through the infrastructure. 112

113 IDC Digital Universe Study
IDC – May 2010

114 How much digital information was created worldwide in 2009?
Question 2 How much digital information was created worldwide in 2009? A. 846 Terabytes B Petabytes C. .8 Zettabytes D Exabytes Ask a Colleague 50:50 Ask the Audience Ask the Audience

115 The Digital Universe 2009-2020 Growing by a Factor of 44
In 2008, it was 486 Exabytes. The amount of digital information created annually will grow by a factor of 44 from 2009 to 2020, as all major forms of media – voice, TV, radio, print – complete the journey from analog to digital. In 2009, during a difficult time for the traditional economy, the information economy continued to boom: The amount of information created and copied in the world grew by 62% On May 4, 2010, IDC and EMC released the annual update on just how much information we're all collectively generating and using -- and how much we should expect in the future. Titled "A Digital Universe Decade -- Are You Ready?", it's a sobering look at the far-reaching implications of the transition we're making towards an information-based economy. Much like traditional economists track GDP and other useful financial statistics, as players in the information economy we want to be able to do the same for our new currency -- information. What does the relentless growth of the Digital Universe mean to your organization? The Digital Universe study measures the amount of all digital information, including copies, that is created and replicated in the world in a given year. This unprecedented explosion of data, its increasing criticality, and business dependency on digital information are leading to larger and more complex information storage environments that are increasingly challenging to manage. From the perspective of data availability and protection, information storage infrastructure is the most critical component of an overall IT infrastructure. It plays a crucial role in making applications work efficiently, both locally and across multiple sites. Growing by a Factor of 44 2009: 0.8 ZB 2020: 35.2 Zettabytes One Zettabyte (ZB) = 1 trillion gigabytes Source: IDC Digital Universe Study, sponsored by EMC, May 2010

116 75 Billion Fully Loaded 16GB iPads
1.2 ZB in 2010 is Equal to . . . 75 Billion Fully Loaded 16GB iPads

117 What is Driving the Digital Explosion?
Web 2.0 Applications Ubiquitous Content-Generating Devices 3G/4G Secure Collaboration Longer Data Retention Periods Data Center Remote Site Data 3 1 5 6 Copy for archiving Remote Copies Local Copies Backup copy 4 2 50 billion photos taken every year 4.7 billion video streams monthly on YouTube 3 Terabytes of photos are being uploaded to Facebook every day Web 2.0 applications These include, but are not limited to, social networking sites, like Facebook, video sites, like YouTube, blogs, wikis, file sharing, photo sharing, like Flickr. All of which are driving more content. As one example, Facebook recently announced a milestone – members of the social media site have uploaded 10 billion photos resulting in over a petabyte of storage and growing at an additional 2-3 terabytes of uploads daily. Ubiquitous content-generating devices Digital content is being generated by more users, employing a much wider array of devices, not just typical computers. Examples include cell phones, digital cameras, and 3G/4G-compatible devices, all of which are capable of generating content anywhere, anytime. Longer data retention periods Increased business and regulatory requirements like HIPAA and Sarbanes-Oxley require that data be kept available – meaning stored and readily accessible – for longer periods of time. This creates a burden of not only long-term retention, but also rapid recovery and availability of information. Secure collaboration Given the speed of business, access to information needs to be virtually instantaneous – whether from headquarters, a remote office, the home office, or even an airport. Ensuring that data remains available and accessible is critical. SEC 17a-4 Freedom of Information Act HIPAA Sarbanes-Oxley Regulation Landscape

118 Question 3 What percentage of the .8 zettabytes of digital information is created by individuals? A. 30% B. 50% C. 70% D. 90% Ask a Colleague 50:50 Ask the Audience Ask the Audience

119 The Digital Information World
Title Month Year The Digital Information World Individuals create data …companies manage it! Corp. Of the digital universe will be the responsibility of companies to manage and secure 85% Individuals as publisher and companies as custodians. While nearly 70% of the digital universe will be created by individuals, organizations (businesses of all sizes, agencies, governments, associations, etc.) will be responsible for the security, privacy, reliability, and compliance of at least 85% of that same digital universe. Most user-generated content will be touched by an organization along the way – on a network, in the data center, at a hosting site, in a PBX, at an Internet switch, or a back-up system. Budgets and staff growth will be far behind not only the growth of digital information, but also the increased responsibilities of enterprise IT. While more than 70% of the information in the Digital Universe in 2012 will be created by individuals (consumers and information worker, organizations (businesses, government agencies, non-profits) will have responsibility or liability for 85% of the same information. Case Study/Discussion: Incredible growth of information is a management nightmare… How do you take care of 10,000 iPods worth of information? When one breaks, how do you know where it is? Are they all running at their peak performance? What if the information on an iPod is stolen? Is all the information needed? Is any redundant? How do I protect all of this information in case of disaster? Ind. Of the digital universe will be created by individuals 70% Create Manage Source: IDC Digital Universe Study, sponsored by EMC, May 2010 119 119 119

120 Question 4 How much storage capacity was available on the first Symmetrix 4200 that EMC shipped in 1990? A. 24 Gigabytes B Gigabytes C. 24 Terabytes D Exabytes Ask a Colleague 50:50 Ask the Audience Ask the Audience

121 EMC’s Tiered Storage Platforms
Broadest Range of Function, Performance, and Connectivity iSCSI Fibre Channel IP FICON SAN NAS CAS ADIC Scalar family EMC Disk Library DL4400 DL4100 DL4200 DL210 EMC Disk Library DL710 DL720 DL740 DL210 EMC Centera CLARiiON CX3 UltraScale Series AX150 Celerra Rainfinity Global File Virtualization NS350 NS40G NSX NS80G NS40 NS80 Celerra Rainfinity Global File Virtualization NS500G NS700G NS500 NS700 NS704 NSX NS704G NS350 Invista Connectrix Symmetrix Symmetrix DMX1000 DMX-3 DMX800 iSCSI FC & iSCSI DMX-3 950 DMX-3 EMC Centera 4-Node Low-cost Fibre Channel 500 GB 7,200 rpm Refrigerator-sized products… DMX-3 is actually like 10 refrigerators bolted together… Wind, heat generated by products… Did you know that there is more storage capacity on your iPod than was on the first Symmetrix storage system EMC first shipped. The Symmetrix 4200 contained 24 GB’s of capacity when introduced in 1990. SATA 250 GB 7,200 rpm SATA 500 GB 7,200 rpm Fibre Channel 73 GB 10k/15k rpm Fibre Channel 146 GB 10k/15k rpm Fibre Channel 300 GB 10k rpm 1990 2009 Symmetrix 4200 Integrated Cached Disk Array introduced with a capacity of 24 gigabytes. Symmetrix V-Max Systems are available with up to 2 petabytes of usable storage in a single system.

122 Managing Information Storage Trends, Challenges and Options
EMC Education Services conducts an annual survey of IT hiring managers to gain insight into how this proliferation of digital data is impacting their strategy, direction, and day-to-day operations. The most recent study (published May 2010) included: 1,400+ IT managers and storage professionals North America, Europe, and Asia-Pacific EMC users and users of other storage vendors Data centers of large enterprise and small & medium enterprises Conducted – Dec’09–Jan‘10 ** The study resulted in a white paper available on the Academic Alliance website – Managing Information Storage: Trends, Challenges & Options ** This research will assist IT/storage managers in comparing and correlating their environments and plans with overall industry trends and the impact of emerging technologies such as storage virtualization and cloud computing. EMC –

123 Question 6 What is the number 1 challenge identified by IT and storage managers? A. Storage consolidation B. Designing & deploying multi-site environments C. Managing storage growth x D. Making informed strategic / big picture decisions Ask a Colleague 50:50 Ask the Audience Ask the Audience

124 Digital Information Storage Challenges
Most important activities/constraints identified as challenges by IT/storage managers Managing Storage Growth Designing, deploying, and managing backup and recovery Designing, deploying, and managing storage in a virtualized server environment Designing, deploying, and managing disaster recovery solutions Storage consolidation Making informed strategic / big-picture decisions Integrating storage in application environments (such as Oracle, Exchange, etc.) Designing and deploying multi-site environments Lack of skilled storage professionals With the increasing complexity and criticality of storage, highly skilled and focused storage groups are as mission-critical as the technology being deployed. A very significant part of infrastructure budgets is allocated to storage-related products and services. IT managers and storage managers must ensure that: • Formalized storage groups are built and adequately staffed • Skills assessments and development of storage professionals are top priorities • Storage teams include specialists for each of the deployed storage technology segments • Application, systems, database, and network administration groups learn storage technology concepts and principles, and work closely with the storage group The incredible growth of data represents an untapped opportunity for students and universities to help businesses take control of managing the data. The serious shortage of skilled storage professionals also creates attractive opportunities for the next generation of IT professionals and for those looking for a different career in a challenging, high-growth, dynamic industry. Managing Information Storage: Trends, Challenges and Options *Source Input from over 1,450 storage professionals worldwide 

125 Building an Effective Storage Mgmt Organization
Hire an additional 22%+ storage professionals . . . According to our 2010 Managing Storage industry survey, managers plan to hire more people, but there is a shortage of storage-educated work force in the industry: A well structured storage group of highly skilled professionals is critical to building and maintaining high-performance, highly available storage infrastructures. 22%+ growth in 2010 for storage professionals up from 17% in 2009 Over 70% of companies represented have a formal storage management groups 70% existing professionals require additional skill Lack of Formal Education on Storage Technology Based on EMC study ‘ Managing Information Storage: Trends, Challenges & Options ( )’

126 Where Managers Plan to Find Storage Expertise
The majority of managers prefer to hire experienced professionals to reduce the learning period and risks associated with hiring new employees followed by internal transfers or appointments. The next-best alternative is to hire well-trained and certified individuals. There appears to be an increase in engaging external consultants (from 56% in to 62% in ). The interest in hiring fresh college graduates has gone up from approximately 50 percent in to 61 percent over the last two years. So a combination of factors contribute to making information storage a very attractive specialty: * exponential growth of data with no signs of slowing means storage roles will be required regardless of economic conditions * previous lack of formalized education created a knowledge gap that still needs to be filled, creating opportunity for new entrants to the field * specialized nature of storage skills generally leads to favorable salaries in the industry Based on EMC study ‘ Managing Information Storage: Trends, Challenges & Options ( )’

127 Top IT Certifications by Salary
Over 40,000 IT professionals from 150+ countries responded Source: Certification Magazine, December 2009

128 Storage Role Across IT Disciplines
Leverage the functionalities of storage technology products to….. Systems Architects/Administrators Maximize performance, increase availability, and avoid costly server upgrades. Network Administrators Maximize performance of your network and to help you plan in advance. Database Administrators Maximize performance, increase availability, and realize faster recoverability of your database. Application Architect Increase the performance and availability of your application IT Project Managers Plan & execute your IT Projects, which involve or are impacted by Storage technology components In addition to need for skilled storage professionals, the IT industry also benefits from specialists in the other pillars having a foundation storage knowledge. Whether a database architect, network administrator, or IT project manager, understanding storage technologies gives IT professionals a more well-rounded background and ability to make decisions that take into account the “big picture”, recognizing implications of actions and decisions across the infrastructure.

129 EMC Academic Alliance

130 Pillars of Information Technology
Key Pillars of IT Businesses IT perspective on the data center in the last 20 years have focused on 4 pillars of Information Technology: operating systems, databases, networking, and software application development Based on today’s IT infrastructure, Information Storage is the 5th pillar of IT! Pillars of Information Technology To deal with this explosion of the digital universe in size and complexity, IT organizations will need to transform their existing relationships with the business units and expand their definition of the key pillars of IT. Likewise, traditional computer science and information technology programs at colleges and universities focused on these 4 pillars Now many in the industry consider these to be commodities Because of its complexity, if you look at today’s IT infrastructure, Information Storage should be considered the 5th pillar of IT. OS, RDBMS, Networks, Applications and Information Storage are integrated together to form the 5 pillars of IT. Information Storage is integral to IT scalability, disaster recovery, security, and adhering to new rules and regulations. Information Storage knowledge increases the effectiveness of IT professionals who specialize in the other four pillars, by broadening their perspective on implications to the infrastructure.

131 Question 7 What is the name of the EMC authored booked that was released in May 2009? A. Storage Area Networks for Dummies B. Storage Networks Explained C. Administering Data Centers x D. Information Storage and Management Ask a Colleague 50:50 Ask the Audience Ask the Audience

132 Information Storage and Management (ISM)
Modules Section 1. Storage System Section 2. Storage Networking Technologies & Virtualization Section 3. Business Continuity Section 4. Storage Security & Management The ISM book fills the need for a central reference resource that addresses the fastest growing segment of IT. The book’s ‘open’ approach covers concepts, principles, and deployment considerations - rather than product specifics - across all technologies used for information storage and management. Topics covered: Challenges and solutions for data storage and data management Intelligent storage systems Storage networking (FC-SAN, IP-SAN, NAS) Backup, recovery and archive (including CAS) Business continuity and disaster recovery Security and virtualization Managing and monitoring key areas of the data center

133 Information Storage and Mgmt (ISM)
Section 1. Storage System Student Profiles Experienced Aspiring KEY CONCEPT COVERAGE Data and Information Structured and Unstructured Data Storage Technology Architectures Core Elements of a Data Center Information Management Information Lifecycle Management Host, Connectivity, and Storage Block-Level and File Level Access File System and Volume Manager Storage Media and Devices Disk Components Zoned Bit Recording Logical Block Addressing Little’s Law and the Utilization Law Hardware and Software RAID Striping, Mirroring, and Parity RAID Write Penalty Hot Spares Intelligent Storage System Front-End Command Queuing Cache Mirroring and Vaulting Logical Unit Number (LUN) LUN Masking High-end Storage System Midrange Storage System ‘Open’ Section 1. Section 2. Section 3. Section 4. Key concepts for both experienced and aspiring information storage professionals. - Experienced professionals may be too embarrassed to acknowledge the gaps in their conceptual understanding - Aspiring professionals have the opportunity for building a solid fundamental understanding of technology principles and concepts that are applicable across many IT infrastructure environments regardless of vendor origin.

134 Information Storage and Mgmt (ISM)
Section 2. Storage Networking Technologies and Virtualization Key initiatives for all companies Consolidation Virtualization Physical / Smaller Footprint Logical / Greater Flexibility + KEY CONCEPT COVERAGE Internal and External DAS SCSI Architecture SCSI Addressing Storage Consolidation Fibre Channel (FC) Architecture Fibre Channel Protocol Stack Fibre Channel Ports Fibre Channel Addressing World Wide Names (WWN) Zoning Fibre Channel Topologies NAS Device Remote File Sharing NAS Connectivity and Protocols NAS Performance and Availability MTU and Jumbo Frames Fixed Content and Archives Single-Instance Storage Object Storage and Retrieval Content Authenticity ‘Open’ Section 1. Section 2. Section 3. Section 4. iSCSI Protocol Native and Bridged iSCSI FCIP Protocol Key to being a successful information storage professional is to have the understanding across all segments of storage networking technologies. Build a short story of Enterprise, SME, SMB data center environments being taken over by two to four different types of storage networking technologies. Over the course of last 10 years, companies have gone through phases of centralization / de-centralization, then targeted consolidation. Now, companies small and large are deploying ‘virtualization’ technologies to achieve better flexibility while achieving denser consolidation factor. All the key concepts discussed in Section 2 would likely become staple for ‘informed decision making’. Memory Virtualization Storage Virtualization Network Virtualization In-Band and Out-of-Band Implementations Server Virtualization Block-Level and File Level Virtualization

135 Information Storage and Mgmt (ISM)
Section 3. Business Continuity Always available / Never lost Data Center Remote Site Maximize Data Availability Minimize chances of data loss Customer / Business Data 3 1 5 6 Copy for archiving + Remote Copies Local Copies Backup copy 4 2 KEY CONCEPT COVERAGE Business Continuity Information Availability Disaster Recovery BC Planning Business Impact Analysis Operational Backup Archival Retention Period Bare-Metal Recovery Backup Architecture Backup Topologies Virtual Tape Library Data Consistency Host-Based Local Replication Array-Based Local Replication Copy on First Access (CoFA) Copy on First Write (CoFW) Restore and Restart Synchronous and Asynchronous Replication LVM-Based Replication Host-Based Log Shipping Disk-Buffered Replication Three-Site Replication Data Consistency ‘Open’ Section 1. Section 2. Section 3. Section 4. Regardless of company size, business continuity needs to be an integral part of IT infrastructure. It is important not only to understand the concept but also to be able to articulate the value (or risk) associated with business continuity (or lack there of). As pervasive virtualization continues in your customer’s IT environment, IT professionals must ensure that every virtualized server node has appropriate degree of business continuity and/or disaster recovery solutions applied. At the end of the day, DOWNTIME has become very expensive to companies any size, in any industry. Just think about your not being available for several hours… These concepts along with real-world case studies will prepare both experienced and aspiring information storage professionals to lead the business continuity and disaster recovery discussions and decision-making.

136 Information Storage and Mgmt (ISM)
Section 4. Storage Security and Management Is my data secure? Data storage security considerations Consolidated Virtualized KEY CONCEPT COVERAGE Storage Security Framework The Risk Triad Security Domain Infrastructure Right Management Access Control Alerts Management Platform Standards Internal Chargeback ‘Open’ Section 1. Section 2. Section 3. Section 4. and in the Cloud

137 EMC Academic Alliance Developing tomorrow’s Information Storage Professionals…today! Partnering with leading Institutes of Higher Education worldwide to bridge the storage knowledge gap in Industry Providing EMC, Customers and Partners with source to hire storage educated graduates Hundreds of institutions globally, educating thousands of students Offering unique ‘open’ course on Information Storage and Management Focus on concepts and principles Opportunity for EMC to give back as the industry leader For the latest list of participating institutions and to introduce us to your Alma Mater, visit To help address the widening knowledge gap in the industry, the EMC Academic Alliance program was introduced to enable university students to take advantage of an ‘open’ information storage and management curriculum to build a successful career in this high-growth industry, and to help build a highly skilled pool of future storage managers and professionals. As of May 2010 over 400 institutes have educated over 25,000 students worldwide in 20 countries such as Brazil, Russia, India, China, United States, Mexico, Columbia, UK, Ireland, Germany, Switzerland, Singapore, Philippines, Poland, Thailand, Australia, South Korea and South Africa. Calls to Action: Ways EMC Academic Alliance can help EMC customers, partners, internals, and industry-at-large Hire students from Universities and Colleges in the program: Reduce time to readiness Encourage more students to opt for Information storage as a career Encourage Customers and Partners to hire Take advantage of the qualified pool of students Help customers meet their hiring and Storage management challenges Help identify and ‘recruit’ top Colleges and Universities Broaden awareness of the Academic Alliance program across EMC and in the industry Position EMC as technology and thought Leader Promote Academic-EMC interactions Encourage EMC experts to facilitate lectures, workshops in colleges – Give back to the Community! Promote customers and Academic Alliance interactions Introduce faculty interaction day, invite customers and employees, evangelize new technologies and innovations like Cloud Computing, Green IT, Information Security. Involve Faculty in Marketing Events- to bring the Academia perspective.

138 Becoming an Academic Partner Required Steps . . .
Institution enrolls via the EAA online application. Institution identifies faculty to teach course and administer the program. Institution identifies faculty to attend the 5 day ISM Faculty Readiness Seminar (FRS) and clear ISM certification exam. Institution accesses secure Faculty website to download teaching aids such as chapter PowerPoints, quizzes, simulators, etc. Institution promotes ISM course to students. Institution schedules and begins teaching the ISM course. Administration tasks include providing program information to EMC and serving as Institution point of contact.

139 Summary Information storage is one of the fastest growing sectors within IT. Information growth and complexity creates challenges and career opportunities Business and industry are looking for IT professionals who know all 5 pillars. Those who obtain the skills through formal education and industry qualification have an advantage.

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