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Everything You Wanted to Know About Storage, but Were Afraid to Ask.

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1 Everything You Wanted to Know About Storage, but Were Afraid to Ask

2 Do you have a Cell phone, PDA or Smartphone?

3 Do you have a DIGITAL CAMERA?

4 Do you have a PC?

5 What do all of these devices have in common ?

6 How do you protect your data?

7 Digital Footprint Calculator

8 Are you familiar with RAID ?

9 RAID 0 Data is striped across the HDDs in a RAID set The stripe size is specified at a host level for software RAID and is vendor specific for hardware RAID When the number of drives in the array increases, performance improves because more data can be read or written simultaneously Used in applications that need high I/O throughput Does not provide data protection and availability in the event of drive failures


11 RAID 1 Mirroring is a technique whereby data is stored on two different HDDs, yielding two copies of data. In addition to providing complete data redundancy, mirroring enables faster recovery from disk failure. Mirroring involves duplication of data the amount of storage capacity needed is twice the amount of data being stored. Therefore, mirroring is considered expensive It is preferred for mission-critical applications that cannot afford data loss


13 Nested RAID Mirroring can be implemented with striped RAID by mirroring entire stripes of disks to stripes on other disks RAID 0+1 and RAID 1+0 combine the performance benefits of RAID 0 with the redundancy benefits of RAID 1 These types of RAID require an even number of disks, the minimum being four. RAID 0+1 is also called mirrored stripe. This means that the process of striping data across HDDs is performed initially and then the entire stripe is mirrored.


15 Nested RAID RAID 1+0 is also called striped mirror The basic element of RAID 1+0 is that data is first mirrored and then both copies of data are striped across multiple HDDs in a RAID set Some applications that benefit from RAID 1+0 include the following: High transaction rate Online Transaction Processing (OLTP),Database applications that require high I/O rate, random access, and high availability



18 RAID 3 RAID 3 stripes data for high performance and uses parity for improved fault tolerance. Parity information is stored on a dedicated drive so that data can be reconstructed if a drive fails RAID 3 is used in applications that involve large sequential data access, such as video streaming.


20 RAID 4 Stripes data across all disks except the parity disk at the block level Parity information is stored on a dedicated disk Unlike RAID 3, data disks can be accessed independently so that specific data elements can be read or written on a single disk without read or write of an entire stripe

21 RAID 5 RAID 5 is a very versatile RAID implementation The difference between RAID 4 and RAID 5 is the parity location. RAID 4, parity is written to a dedicated drive, while In RAID 5, parity is distributed across all disks The distribution of parity in RAID 5 overcomes the write bottleneck. RAID 5 is preferred for messaging, medium-performance media serving, and relational database management system (RDBMS) implementations in which database administrators (DBAs) optimize data access


23 RAID 6 RAID 6 works the same way as RAID 5 except that RAID 6 includes a second parity element This enable survival in the event of the failure of two disks in a RAID group. RAID-6 protects against two disk failures by maintaining two parities

24 Hot Spare A hot spare refers to a spare HDD in a RAID array that temporarily replaces a failed HDD of a RAID set. When the failed HDD is replaced with a new HDD, The hot spare replaces the new HDD permanently, and a new hot spare must be configured on the array, or data from the hot spare is copied to it, and the hot spare returns to its idle state, ready to replace the next failed drive. A hot spare should be large enough to accommodate data from a failed drive. Some systems implement multiple hot spares to improve data availability. A hot spare can be configured as automatic or user initiated, which specifies how it will be used in the event of disk failure


26 What is an Intelligent Storage System Intelligent Storage Systems are RAID arrays that are: Highly optimized for I/O processing Have large amounts of cache for improving I/O performance Have operating environments that provide: – Intelligence for managing cache – Array resource allocation – Connectivity for heterogeneous hosts – Advanced array based local and remote replication options

27 Components of an Intelligent Storage System An intelligent storage system consists of four key components: front end, cache, back end, and physical disks.

28 Components of an Intelligent Storage System The front end provides the interface between the storage system and the host. It consists of two components: front-end ports and front-end controllers The front-end ports enable hosts to connect to the intelligent storage system, and has processing logic that executes the appropriate transport protocol, such as SCSI, Fibre Channel, or iSCSI, for storage connections Front-end controllers route data to and from cache via the internal data bus. When cache receives write data, the controller sends an acknowledgment

29 Components of an Intelligent Storage System Controllers optimize I/O processing by using command queuing algorithms Command queuing is a technique implemented on front-end controllers It determines the execution order of received commands and can reduce unnecessary drive head movements and improve disk performance

30 Intelligent Storage System: Cache Cache is an important component that enhances the I/O performance in an intelligent storage system. Cache improves storage system performance by isolating hosts from the mechanical delays associated with physical disks, which are the slowest components of an intelligent storage system. Accessing data from a physical disk usually takes a few milliseconds Accessing data from cache takes less than a millisecond. Write data is placed in cache and then written to disk

31 Cache Data Protection Cache mirroring: Each write to cache is held in two different memory locations on two independent memory cards Cache vaulting: Cache is exposed to the risk of uncommitted data loss due to power failure using battery power to write the cache content to the disk storage vendors use a set of physical disks to dump the contents of cache during power failure

32 Intelligent Storage System: Back End It consists of two components: back-end ports and back-end controllers Physical disks are connected to ports on the back end. The back end controller communicates with the disks when performing reads and writes and also provides additional, but limited, temporary data storage. The algorithms implemented on back-end controllers provide error detection and correction, along with RAID functionality. Controller Multiple controllers also facilitate load balancing

33 Intelligent Storage System: Physical Disks Disks are connected to the back-end with either SCSI or a Fibre Channel interface

34 What is LUNs Physical drives or groups of RAID protected drives can be logically split into volumes known as logical volumes, commonly referred to as Logical Unit Numbers (LUNs)

35 High-end Storage Systems High-end storage systems, referred to as active-active arrays, are generally aimed at large enterprises for centralizing corporate data These arrays are designed with a large number of controllers and cache memory An active-active array implies that the host can perform I/Os to its LUNs across any of the available Paths

36 Midrange Storage Systems Also referred as Active-passive arrays Host can perform I/Os to LUNs only through active paths Other paths remain passive till active path fails Midrange array have two controllers, each with cache, RAID controllers and disks drive interfaces Designed for small and medium enterprises Less scalable as compared to high-end array

37 CLARiiON Whiteboard Video

38 DAS

39 Direct-Attached Storage (DAS) storage connects directly to servers applications access data from DAS using block-level access protocols Examples: internal HDD of a host, tape libraries, and directly connected external HDD

40 DAS Direct-Attached Storage (DAS) DAS is classified as internal or external, based on the location of the storage device with respect to the host. Internal DAS: storage device internally connected to the host by a serial or parallel bus distance limitations for high-speed connectivity can support only a limited number of devices, and occupy a large amount of space inside the host

41 DAS Direct-Attached Storage (DAS) External DAS: server connects directly to the external storage device usually communication via SCSI or FC protocol. overcomes the distance and device count limitations of internal DAS, and provides centralized management of storage devices.

42 DAS Benefits Ideal for local data provisioning Quick deployment for small environments Simple to deploy Reliability Low capital expense Low complexity

43 DAS Connectivity Options host storage device communication via protocols ATA/IDE and SATA – Primarily for internal bus SCSI – Parallel (primarily for internal bus) – Serial (external bus) FC – High speed network technology

44 DAS Connectivity Options protocols are implemented on the HDD controller a storage device is also known by the name of the protocol it supports

45 DAS Management LUN creation, filesystem layout, and data addressing Internal – Host (or 3 rd party software) provides: Disk partitioning (Volume management) File system layout

46 DAS Management External – Array based management – Lower TCO for managing data and storage Infrastructure

47 DAS Challenges limited scalability Number of connectivity ports to hosts Number of addressable disks Distance limitations For internal DAS, maintenance requires downtime Limited ability to share resources (unused resources cannot be easily re-allocated) – Array front-end port, storage space – Resulting in islands of over and under utilized storage pools

48 Introduction to SCSI SCSI–3 is the latest version of SCSI

49 SCSI Architecture Primary commands common to all devices

50 SCSI Architecture Standard rules for device communication and information sharing

51 SCSI Architecture Interface details such as electrical signaling methods and data transfer modes

52 SCSI Device Model SCSI initiator device – Issues commands to SCSI target devices – Example: SCSI host adaptor

53 SCSI Device Model SCSI target device – Executes commands issued by initiators – Examples: SCSI peripheral devices

54 SCSI Device Model Device requests contain Command Descriptor Block (CDB)

55 SCSI Device Model CDB structure – 8 bit structure – defines the command to be executed – contains operation code, command specific parameter and control parameter

56 SCSI Addressing a number from 0 to 15 with the most common value being 7

57 SCSI Addressing a number from 0 to 15

58 SCSI Addressing a number that specifies a device addressable through a target

59 SCSI Addressing Example controllerdevicetarget

60 Areas Where DAS Fails Just-in-time information to business users Integration of information infrastructure with business processes Flexible and resilient storage architecture

61 The Solution? Storage Networking FC SAN NAS IP SAN

62 What is a SAN ? Dedicated high speed network of servers and shared storage devices Provide block level data access

63 What is a SAN ? Resource Consolidation – Centralized storage and management Scalability – Theoretical limit: Appx. 15 million devices Secure Access

64 Fibre Channel Latest FC implementations support 8Gb/s

65 Fibre Channel a high-speed network technology that runs on high-speed optical fiber cables (for front- end SAN connectivity)

66 Fibre Channel and serial copper cables (for back-end disk connectivity)

67 FC SAN Evolution

68 Components of SAN three basic components: servers, network infrastructure, and storage, can be further broken down into the following key elements: node ports, cabling, interconnecting devices (such as FC switches or hubs), storage arrays, and SAN management software

69 Components of SAN: Node ports Examples of nodes – Hosts, storage and tape library Ports are available on: – HBA in host– Front-end adapters in storage – Each port has transmit (Tx) link and receive (Rx) link HBAs perform low- level interface functions automatically to minimize impact on host performance

70 Components of SAN: Cabling Copper cables for short distance Optical fiber cables for long distance – Single-mode Can carry single beams of light Distance up to 10 KM – Multi-mode Can carry multiple beams of light simultaneously Distance up to 500 meters

71 Components of SAN: Cabling

72 Components of SAN: Cabling (connectors) Node Connectors: SC Duplex Connectors LC Duplex Connectors Patch panel Connectors: ST Simplex Connectors

73 Components of SAN: Interconnecting devices – Hubs – Switches and – Directors

74 Components of SAN: Storage array storage consolidation and centralization provides – High Availability/Redundancy – Performance – Business Continuity– Multiple host connect

75 Components of SAN: SAN management software A suite of tools used in a SAN to manage the interface between host and storage arrays Provides integrated management of SAN environment Web based GUI or CLI

76 SAN Interconnectivity Options: FC-AL – Devices must arbitrate to gain control – Devices are connected via hubs – Supports up to 127 devices Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL)

77 SAN Interconnectivity Options: FC-SW – Dedicated bandwidth between devices – Support up to 15 million devices – Higher availability than hubs Fabric connect (FC-SW)

78 Network-Attached Storage

79 Think "File Sharing"

80 Sharing Files


82 2.2 GB

83 4 GB

84 Sharing Files




88 What is NAS?

89 IP-based file sharing device attached to LAN Server consolidation File-level data access and sharing

90 Why NAS? dedicated to file-serving

91 Support comprehensive access to information Improves efficiency and flexibility Centralizes storage Simplifies management Scalability High availability – through native clustering Provides security integration to environment (user authentication and authorization) Benefits of NAS

92 CPU and Memory NICs NAS OS file sharing protocols storage protocols (ATA, SCSI, or FC) IP network


94 Benefits: Increases performance throughput (service level) to end users Minimizes investment in additional servers Provides storage pooling Provides heterogeneous file servings Uses existing infrastructure, tools, and processes


96 Benefits: Provides continuous availability to files Heterogeneous file sharing Reduces cost for additional OS dependent servers Adds storage capacity non- disruptively Consolidates storage management Lowers Total Cost of Ownership


98 Celerra Whiteboard Video

99 In FC SAN transfer of block level data takes place over Fibre Channel Emerging technologies provide for the transfer of block-level data over an existing IP network infrastructure Driver for IP SAN

100 Easier management Existing network infrastructure can be leveraged Reduced cost compared to new SAN hardware and software Supports multi-vendor interoperability Many long-distance disaster recovery solutions already leverage IP-based networks Many robust and mature security options are available for IP networks Why IP?

101 Block Storage over IP - iSCSI SCSI over IP IP encapsulation Ethernet NIC card iSCSI HBA Hardware-based gateway to Fibre Channel storage Used to connect servers

102 Block Storage over IP - FCIP Fibre Channel-to- IP bridge / tunnel (point to point) Fibre Channel end points Used in DR implementations

103 IP based protocol used to connect host and storage Carries block-level data over IP-based network Encapsulate SCSI commands and transport as TCP/IP packet iSCSI ?

104 iSCSI host initiators – Host computer using a NIC or iSCSI HBA to connect to storage – iSCSI initiator software may need to be installed iSCSI targets – Storage array with embedded iSCSI capable network port – FC-iSCSI bridge LAN for IP storage network – Interconnected Ethernet switches and/or routers Components of iSCSI

105 No FC components Each iSCSI port on the array is configured with an IP address and port number – iSCSI Initiators Connect directly to the Array

106 Bridge device translates iSCSI/IP to FCP – Standalone device – Integrated into FC switch (multi-protocol router) iSCSI initiator/host configured with bridge as target Bridge generates virtual FC initiator

107 Array provides FC and iSCSI connectivity natively No bridge devices needed

108 FCIP is an IP-based storage networking technology Combines advantages of Fibre Channel and IP Creates virtual FC links that connect devices in a different fabric FCIP is a distance extension solution – Used for data sharing over geographically dispersed SAN FCIP (Fibre Channel over IP)?


110 FCoE Whiteboard Video

111 Question 1 What was EMCs revenue in 2009? A. 60 BillionB BillionD. 9 BillionC. 14 Billion Ask a Colleague 50:50 Ask the Audience

112 EMC Corporation 2009 At a Glance 112 Revenues $14 billion Net Income $1.9 billion Employees ~41,500 Countries where EMC does business >80 R&D Investment ~$1.5 billion Operating Cash Flow $3.3 billion Free Cash Flow $2.6 billion Founded 1979

113 IDC Digital Universe Study IDC – May 2010

114 Question 2 How much digital information was created worldwide in 2009? A. 846 TerabytesB. 686 PetabytesD ExabytesC..8 Zettabytes 50:50 Ask the Audience Ask a Colleague

115 2009: 0.8 ZB Growing by a Factor of 44 Source: IDC Digital Universe Study, sponsored by EMC, May : 35.2 Zettabytes The Digital Universe One Zettabyte (ZB) = 1 trillion gigabytes

116 75 Billion Fully Loaded 16GB iPads 1.2 ZB in 2010 is Equal to...

117 What is Driving the Digital Explosion? Web 2.0 ApplicationsUbiquitous Content-Generating Devices Longer Data Retention Periods Secure Collaboration 3G/4G SEC 17a-4 Sarbanes-Oxley HIPAA Freedom of Information Act Regulation Landscape Data CenterRemote Site Data Copy for archiving Remote Copies Local Copies Backup copy 4 2

118 Question 3 What percentage of the.8 zettabytes of digital information is created by individuals? A. 30%B. 50%D. 90%C. 70% 50:50 Ask the Audience Ask a Colleague

119 Individuals create data …companies manage it! Create Ind. Of the digital universe will be created by individuals Ind. Manage Corp. Of the digital universe will be the responsibility of companies to manage and secure The Digital Information World Source: IDC Digital Universe Study, sponsored by EMC, May 2010

120 Question 4 How much storage capacity was available on the first Symmetrix 4200 that EMC shipped in 1990? A. 24 GigabytesB. 240 GigabytesD ExabytesC. 24 Terabytes 50:50 Ask the Audience Ask a Colleague

121 Invista Celerra Rainfinity Global File Virtualization NS500G NS700G NS500 NS700 NS704 NSX NS704G NS350 EMC Disk Library DL710 DL720 DL740 DL210 CLARiiON CX3 UltraScale Series AX150 Symmetrix DMX1000 DMX-3 DMX800 EMCs Tiered Storage Platforms SATA 250 GB 7,200 rpm Fibre Channel 73 GB 10k/15k rpm Fibre Channel 300 GB 10k rpm Fibre Channel 146 GB 10k/15k rpm SATA 500 GB 7,200 rpm Low-cost Fibre Channel 500 GB 7,200 rpm iSCSI Fibre Channel IPFICONSANNASCAS Connectrix ADIC Scalar family EMC Centera iSCSI EMC Centera 4-Node Symmetrix DMX-3 DMX Celerra Rainfinity Global File Virtualization NS350 NS40G NSX NS80G NS40 NS80 FC & iSCSI EMC Disk Library DL4400 DL4100 DL4200 DL210 Symmetrix 4200 Integrated Cached Disk Array introduced with a capacity of 24 gigabytes. Symmetrix V-Max Systems are available with up to 2 petabytes of usable storage in a single system Broadest Range of Function, Performance, and Connectivity

122 Managing Information Storage Trends, Challenges and Options EMC –

123 Question 6 What is the number 1 challenge identified by IT and storage managers? A. Storage consolidation 50:50 Ask the Audience B. Designing & deploying multi-site environments C. Managing storage growth x D. Making informed strategic / big picture decisions Ask a Colleague

124 Digital Information Storage Challenges 1.Managing Storage Growth 2.Designing, deploying, and managing backup and recovery 3.Designing, deploying, and managing storage in a virtualized server environment 4.Designing, deploying, and managing disaster recovery solutions 5.Storage consolidation 6.Making informed strategic / big-picture decisions 7.Integrating storage in application environments (such as Oracle, Exchange, etc.) 8.Designing and deploying multi-site environments 9.Lack of skilled storage professionals Most important activities/constraints identified as challenges by IT/storage managers Managing Information Storage: Trends, Challenges and Options *Source Input from over 1,450 storage professionals worldwide

125 Building an Effective Storage Mgmt Organization Based on EMC study Managing Information Storage: Trends, Challenges & Options ( ) Hire an additional 22%+ storage professionals...

126 Where Managers Plan to Find Storage Expertise Based on EMC study Managing Information Storage: Trends, Challenges & Options ( )

127 Top IT Certifications by Salary Source: Certification Magazine, December 2009

128 Storage Role Across IT Disciplines Leverage the functionalities of storage technology products to….. Systems Architects/Administrators –Maximize performance, increase availability, and avoid costly server upgrades. Network Administrators –Maximize performance of your network and to help you plan in advance. Database Administrators –Maximize performance, increase availability, and realize faster recoverability of your database. Application Architect –Increase the performance and availability of your application IT Project Managers –Plan & execute your IT Projects, which involve or are impacted by Storage technology components

129 EMC Academic Alliance

130 Key Pillars of IT Businesses IT perspective on the data center in the last 20 years have focused on 4 pillars of Information Technology: operating systems, databases, networking, and software application development Based on todays IT infrastructure, Information Storage is the 5th pillar of IT!

131 Question 7 What is the name of the EMC authored booked that was released in May 2009? A. Storage Area Networks for Dummies 50:50 Ask the Audience B. Storage Networks Explained C. Administering Data Centers x D. Information Storage and Management Ask a Colleague

132 Information Storage and Management (ISM) Modules Section 1. Storage System Section 2. Storage Networking Technologies & Virtualization Section 3. Business Continuity Section 4. Storage Security & Management

133 Information Storage and Mgmt (ISM) Section 1. Storage System KEY CONCEPT COVERAGE Data and Information Structured and Unstructured Data Storage Technology Architectures Core Elements of a Data Center Information Management Information Lifecycle Management Host, Connectivity, and Storage Block-Level and File Level Access File System and Volume Manager Storage Media and Devices Disk Components Zoned Bit Recording Logical Block Addressing Littles Law and the Utilization Law Hardware and Software RAID Striping, Mirroring, and Parity RAID Write Penalty Hot Spares Intelligent Storage System Front-End Command Queuing Cache Mirroring and Vaulting Logical Unit Number (LUN) LUN Masking High-end Storage System Midrange Storage System Open Section 1.Section 2. Section 3.Section 4. Student Profiles ExperiencedAspiring

134 Information Storage and Mgmt (ISM) Section 2. Storage Networking Technologies and Virtualization KEY CONCEPT COVERAGE Internal and External DAS SCSI Architecture SCSI Addressing Storage Consolidation Fibre Channel (FC) Architecture Fibre Channel Protocol Stack Fibre Channel Ports Fibre Channel Addressing World Wide Names (WWN) Zoning Fibre Channel Topologies NAS Device Remote File Sharing NAS Connectivity and Protocols NAS Performance and Availability MTU and Jumbo Frames iSCSI Protocol Native and Bridged iSCSI FCIP Protocol Fixed Content and Archives Single-Instance Storage Object Storage and Retrieval Content Authenticity Memory Virtualization Storage Virtualization Network Virtualization In-Band and Out- of-Band Implementations Server Virtualization Block-Level and File Level Virtualization Open Section 1.Section 2. Section 3.Section 4. Key initiatives for all companies ConsolidationVirtualization Physical / Smaller Footprint Logical / Greater Flexibility

135 Information Storage and Mgmt (ISM) Section 3. Business Continuity KEY CONCEPT COVERAGE Business Continuity Information Availability Disaster Recovery BC Planning Business Impact Analysis Operational Backup Archival Retention Period Bare-Metal Recovery Backup Architecture Backup Topologies Virtual Tape Library Data Consistency Host-Based Local Replication Array-Based Local Replication Copy on First Access (CoFA) Copy on First Write (CoFW) Restore and Restart Synchronous and Asynchronous Replication LVM-Based Replication Host-Based Log Shipping Disk-Buffered Replication Three-Site Replication Data Consistency Open Section 1.Section 2. Section 3.Section 4. Always available / Never lost Data CenterRemote Site Maximize Data AvailabilityMinimize chances of data loss Customer / Business Data Copy for archiving Remote Copies Local Copies Backup copy 4 2

136 Information Storage and Mgmt (ISM) Section 4. Storage Security and Management KEY CONCEPT COVERAGE Storage Security Framework The Risk Triad Security Domain Infrastructure Right Management Access Control Alerts Management Platform Standards Internal Chargeback Open Section 1.Section 2. Section 3. Section 4. Is my data secure? Data storage security considerations Consolidated Virtualized and in the Cloud

137 EMC Academic Alliance Partnering with leading Institutes of Higher Education worldwide to bridge the storage knowledge gap in Industry Providing EMC, Customers and Partners with source to hire storage educated graduates Hundreds of institutions globally, educating thousands of students Offering unique open course on Information Storage and Management Focus on concepts and principles Opportunity for EMC to give back as the industry leader For the latest list of participating institutions and to introduce us to your Alma Mater, visit Developing tomorrows Information Storage Professionals…today!

138 Becoming an Academic Partner Required Steps... 1.Institution enrolls via the EAA online application. 2.Institution identifies faculty to teach course and administer the program. 3.Institution identifies faculty to attend the 5 day ISM Faculty Readiness Seminar (FRS) and clear ISM certification exam. 4.Institution accesses secure Faculty website to download teaching aids such as chapter PowerPoints, quizzes, simulators, etc. 5.Institution promotes ISM course to students. 6.Institution schedules and begins teaching the ISM course.

139 Summary Information storage is one of the fastest growing sectors within IT. Information growth and complexity creates challenges and career opportunities Business and industry are looking for IT professionals who know all 5 pillars. Those who obtain the skills through formal education and industry qualification have an advantage.

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