9RAID 0 Data is striped across the HDDs in a RAID set The stripe size is specified at a host level for software RAID and is vendor specific for hardware RAIDWhen the number of drives in the array increases, performance improves because more data can be read or written simultaneouslyUsed in applications that need high I/O throughputDoes not provide data protection and availability in the event of drive failures
11RAID 1Mirroring is a technique whereby data is stored on two different HDDs, yielding two copies of data.In addition to providing complete data redundancy, mirroring enables faster recovery from disk failure.Mirroring involves duplication of data — the amount of storage capacity needed is twice the amount of data being stored. Therefore, mirroring is considered expensiveIt is preferred for mission-critical applications that cannot afford data loss
13Nested RAIDMirroring can be implemented with striped RAID by mirroring entire stripes of disks to stripes on other disksRAID 0+1 and RAID 1+0 combine the performance benefits of RAID 0 with the redundancy benefits of RAID 1These types of RAID require an even number of disks, the minimum being four.RAID 0+1 is also called mirrored stripe.This means that the process of striping data across HDDs is performed initially and then the entire stripe is mirrored.
15Nested RAID RAID 1+0 is also called striped mirror The basic element of RAID 1+0 is that data is first mirrored and then both copies of data are striped across multiple HDDs in a RAID setSome applications that benefit from RAID 1+0 include the following:High transaction rate Online Transaction Processing (OLTP),Database applications that require high I/O rate, random access, and high availability
18RAID 3RAID 3 stripes data for high performance and uses parity for improved fault tolerance.Parity information is stored on a dedicated drive so that data can be reconstructed if a drive failsRAID 3 is used in applications that involve large sequential data access, such as video streaming.
20RAID 4Stripes data across all disks except the parity disk at the block levelParity information is stored on a dedicated diskUnlike RAID 3 , data disks can be accessed independently so that specific data elements can be read or written on a single disk without read or write of an entire stripe
21RAID 5 RAID 5 is a very versatile RAID implementation The difference between RAID 4 and RAID 5 is the parity location.RAID 4, parity is written to a dedicated drive, while In RAID 5, parity is distributed across all disksThe distribution of parity in RAID 5 overcomes the write bottleneck.RAID 5 is preferred for messaging, medium-performance media serving, and relational database management system (RDBMS) implementations in which database administrators (DBAs) optimize data access
23RAID 6RAID 6 works the same way as RAID 5 except that RAID 6 includes a second parity elementThis enable survival in the event of the failure of two disks in a RAID group.RAID-6 protects against two disk failures by maintaining two paritiesHorizontal parity which is the same as RAID-5 parity– Diagonal parity is calculated by taking diagonal sets of data blocks from the RAID set members
24Hot SpareA hot spare refers to a spare HDD in a RAID array that temporarily replaces a failed HDD of a RAID set.When the failed HDD is replaced with a new HDD, The hot spare replaces the new HDD permanently, and a new hot spare must be configured on the array, or data from the hot spare is copied to it, and the hot spare returns to its idle state, ready to replace the next failed drive.A hot spare should be large enough to accommodate data from a failed drive.Some systems implement multiple hot spares to improve data availability.A hot spare can be configured as automatic or user initiated, which specifies how it will be used in the event of disk failure
26What is an Intelligent Storage System Intelligent Storage Systems are RAID arrays that are:Highly optimized for I/O processingHave large amounts of cache for improving I/OperformanceHave operating environments that provide:– Intelligence for managing cache– Array resource allocation– Connectivity for heterogeneous hosts– Advanced array based local and remote replication options
27Components of an Intelligent Storage System An intelligent storage system consists of four key components: front end, cache, back end, and physical disks.An I/O request received from the host at the front-end port is processed through cache and the back end, to enable storage andretrieval of data from the physical disk. A read request can be serviced directly from cache if the requested data is found in cache.
28Components of an Intelligent Storage System The front end provides the interface between the storage system and the host.It consists of two components: front-end ports and front-end controllersThe front-end ports enable hosts to connect to the intelligent storage system, and has processing logic that executes the appropriate transport protocol, such as SCSI, Fibre Channel, or iSCSI, for storage connectionsFront-end controllers route data to and from cache via the internal data bus. When cache receives write data, the controller sends an acknowledgment
29Components of an Intelligent Storage System Controllers optimize I/O processing by using command queuing algorithmsCommand queuing is a technique implemented on front-end controllersIt determines the execution order of received commands and can reduce unnecessary drive head movements and improve disk performanceThe most commonly used command queuing algorithms are as follows:•First In First Out (FIFO): This is a default algorithm where commands are executed in the order in which theyare received. There is no reordering of requests for optimization; therefore, it is inefficient in terms ofperformance.•Seek Time Optimization: Commands are executed based on optimizing read/write head movements, whichmay result in reordering of commands. Without seek time optimization, the commands are executed in the orderthey are received. For example, as shown in Figure, the commands are executed in the order A, B, C and D. Theradial movement required by the head to execute C immediately after A is less than what would be required toexecute B. With seek time optimization, the command execution sequence would be A, C, B and D, as shown inFigure.•Access Time Optimization: Commands are executed based on the combination of seek time optimization andan analysis of rotational latency for optimal performance.
30Intelligent Storage System: Cache Cache is an important component that enhances the I/O performance in an intelligent storage system.Cache improves storage system performance by isolating hosts from the mechanical delays associated with physical disks, which are the slowest components of an intelligent storage system. Accessing data from a physical disk usually takes a few millisecondsAccessing data from cache takes less than a millisecond. Write data is placed in cache and then written to disk
31Cache Data ProtectionCache mirroring: Each write to cache is held in two different memory locations on two independent memory cardsCache vaulting: Cache is exposed to the risk of uncommitted data loss due to power failureusing battery power to write the cache content to the disk storage vendors use a set of physical disks to dump the contents of cache during power failureReads are staged from the disk to the cache; therefore, in the event of a cache failure, thedata can still be accessed from the disk. As only writes are mirrored, this method results in better utilization ofthe available cache. In cache mirroring approaches, the problem of maintaining cache coherency is introduced.Cache coherency means that data in two different cache locations must be identical at all times. It is theresponsibility of the array operating environment to ensure coherency.This problem can be addressed in various ways: powering the memory with a battery until AC power is restored or
32Intelligent Storage System: Back End It consists of two components: back-end ports and back-end controllersPhysical disks are connected to ports on the back end.The back end controller communicates with the disks when performing reads and writes and also provides additional, but limited, temporary data storage.The algorithms implemented on back-end controllers provide error detection and correction, along with RAID functionality. ControllerMultiple controllers also facilitate load balancingThe back end provides an interface between cache and the physical disk For high data protection and availability, storage systems are configured with dual controllers with multiple ports. Such configurations providean alternate path to physical disks in the event of a controller or port failure. This reliability is furtherenhanced if the disks are also dual-ported. In that case, each disk port can connect to a separate
33Intelligent Storage System: Physical Disks Disks are connected to the back-end with either SCSI or a Fibre Channel interface
34What is LUNsPhysical drives or groups of RAID protected drives can be logically split into volumes known as logical volumes, commonly referred to as Logical Unit Numbers (LUNs)
35High-end Storage Systems High-end storage systems, referred to as active-active arrays, are generally aimed at large enterprises for centralizing corporate dataThese arrays are designed with a large number of controllers and cache memoryAn active-active array implies that the host can perform I/Os to its LUNs across any of the available Paths
36Midrange Storage Systems Also referred as Active-passive arraysHost can perform I/Os to LUNs only through active pathsOther paths remain passive till active path failsMidrange array have two controllers, each with cache, RAID controllers and disks drive interfacesDesigned for small and medium enterprisesLess scalable as compared to high-end array
39DAS Direct-Attached Storage (DAS) storage connects directly to servers applications access data from DAS using block-level access protocolsExamples:internal HDD of a host,tape libraries, anddirectly connected external HDD
40DAS Direct-Attached Storage (DAS) DAS is classified as internal or external, based on the location of the storage device with respect to the host.Internal DAS: storage device internally connected to the host by a serial or parallel busdistance limitations for high-speed connectivitycan support only a limited number of devices, andoccupy a large amount of space inside the host
41DAS Direct-Attached Storage (DAS) External DAS: server connects directly to the external storage deviceusually communication via SCSI or FC protocol.overcomes the distance and device count limitations of internal DAS, andprovides centralized management of storage devices.
42DAS Benefits Ideal for local data provisioning Quick deployment for small environmentsSimple to deployReliabilityLow capital expenseLow complexity
43DAS Connectivity Options host storage device communication via protocolsATA/IDE and SATA – Primarily for internal busSCSI– Parallel (primarily for internal bus)– Serial (external bus)FC – High speed network technology
44DAS Connectivity Options protocols are implemented on the HDD controllera storage device is also known by the name of the protocol it supports
45DAS Management LUN creation, filesystem layout, and data addressing Internal – Host (or 3rd party software) provides:Disk partitioning (Volume management)File system layout
46DAS Management External – Array based management – Lower TCO for managing data and storage Infrastructure
47DAS Challenges limited scalability Number of connectivity ports to hostsNumber of addressable disksDistance limitationsFor internal DAS, maintenance requires downtimeLimited ability to share resources (unused resources cannot be easily re-allocated)– Array front-end port, storage space– Resulting in islands of over and under utilized storage pools
48Introduction to SCSISCSI–3 is the latest version of SCSI
49Primary commands common to all devices SCSI ArchitecturePrimary commands common to all devices
50Standard rules for device communication and information sharing SCSI ArchitectureStandard rules for device communication and information sharing
51SCSI ArchitectureInterface details such as electrical signaling methods and data transfer modes
52SCSI Device Model SCSI initiator device – Issues commands to SCSI target devices– Example: SCSI host adaptor
53SCSI Device Model SCSI target device – Executes commands issued by initiators– Examples: SCSI peripheral devices
54SCSI Device Model Device requests contain Command Descriptor Block (CDB)
55SCSI Device Model CDB structure – 8 bit structure – defines the command to be executed– contains operation code, command specific parameter and control parameter
56a number from 0 to 15 with the most common value being 7 SCSI Addressinga number from 0 to 15 with the most common value being 7
68Components of SAN three basic components: servers, network infrastructure, andstorage,can be further broken down into the following key elements:node ports,cabling,interconnecting devices (such as FC switches or hubs),storage arrays, andSAN management software
69Components of SAN: Node ports Examples of nodes– Hosts, storage and tape libraryPorts are available on:– HBA in host– Front-end adapters in storage– Each port has transmit (Tx) link and receive (Rx) linkHBAs perform low-level interface functions automatically to minimize impact on host performance
70Components of SAN: Cabling Copper cables for short distanceOptical fiber cables for long distance– Single-modeCan carry single beams of lightDistance up to 10 KM– Multi-modeCan carry multiple beams of light simultaneouslyDistance up to 500 meters
91Benefits of NAS Support comprehensive access to information Improves efficiency and flexibilityCentralizes storageSimplifies managementScalabilityHigh availability – through native clusteringProvides security integration to environment (user authentication and authorization)
92CPU and MemoryNICsfile sharing protocolsIP networkNAS OSstorage protocols (ATA, SCSI, or FC)
96Benefits: Provides continuous availability to files Heterogeneous file sharingReduces cost for additional OS dependent serversAdds storage capacity non- disruptivelyConsolidates storage managementLowers Total Cost of Ownership
99Driver for IP SANIn FC SAN transfer of block level data takes place over Fibre ChannelEmerging technologies provide for the transfer of block-level data over an existing IP network infrastructure
100Why IP? Easier management Existing network infrastructure can be leveragedReduced cost compared to new SAN hardware and softwareSupports multi-vendor interoperabilityMany long-distance disaster recovery solutions already leverage IP-based networksMany robust and mature security options are available for IP networks
101Block Storage over IP - iSCSI SCSI over IPIP encapsulationEthernet NIC cardiSCSI HBAHardware-based gateway to Fibre Channel storageUsed to connect servers
102Block Storage over IP - FCIP Fibre Channel-to- IP bridge / tunnel (point to point)Fibre Channel end pointsUsed in DR implementations
103iSCSI ? IP based protocol used to connect host and storage Carries block-level data over IP-based networkEncapsulate SCSI commands and transport as TCP/IP packet
104Components of iSCSI iSCSI host initiators iSCSI targets – Host computer using a NIC or iSCSI HBA to connect to storage– iSCSI initiator software may need to be installediSCSI targets– Storage array with embedded iSCSI capable network port– FC-iSCSI bridgeLAN for IP storage network– Interconnected Ethernet switches and/or routers
105No FC componentsEach iSCSI port on the array is configured with an IP address and port number– iSCSI Initiators Connect directly to the Array
106Bridge device translates iSCSI/IP to FCP – Standalone device– Integrated into FC switch (multi-protocol router)iSCSI initiator/host configured with bridge as targetBridge generates virtual FC initiator
107Array provides FC and iSCSI connectivity natively No bridge devices needed
108FCIP (Fibre Channel over IP)? FCIP is an IP-based storage networking technologyCombines advantages of Fibre Channel and IPCreates virtual FC links that connect devices in a different fabricFCIP is a distance extension solution– Used for data sharing over geographically dispersed SAN
111What was EMC’s revenue in 2009? Question 1What was EMC’s revenue in 2009?A. 60 BillionB BillionC. 14 BillionD. 9 BillionAsk a Colleague50:50Ask the AudienceAsk the Audience
112EMC Corporation 2009 At a Glance Revenues$14 billionNet Income$1.9 billionEmployees~41,500Countries where EMC does business>80R&D Investment~$1.5 billionOperating Cash Flow$3.3 billionFree Cash Flow$2.6 billionFounded1979Show of hands – How many of you have heard of EMC? <Stability, Size, and R&D>Revenue was 14.9B for 2010 we are targeted for 16.6B and 2.5B non GAPPEMC’s vision begins with Information (pause) the core of any business.You can see that EMC focuses on where information lives. This has been our tag line for a very long time. Where – EMC has always focused on where the information resides with our hardware. Lives – now we are focusing on where the information lives; how it moves through the infrastructure.112
114How much digital information was created worldwide in 2009? Question 2How much digital information was created worldwide in 2009?A. 846 TerabytesB PetabytesC. .8 ZettabytesD ExabytesAsk a Colleague50:50Ask the AudienceAsk the Audience
115The Digital Universe 2009-2020 Growing by a Factor of 44 In 2008, it was 486 Exabytes.The amount of digital information created annually will grow by a factor of 44 from 2009 to 2020, as all major forms of media – voice, TV, radio, print – complete the journey from analog to digital.In 2009, during a difficult time for the traditional economy, the information economy continued to boom: The amount of information created and copied in the world grew by 62%On May 4, 2010, IDC and EMC released the annual update on just how much information we're all collectively generating and using -- and how much we should expect in the future. Titled "A Digital Universe Decade -- Are You Ready?", it's a sobering look at the far-reaching implications of the transition we're making towards an information-based economy. Much like traditional economists track GDP and other useful financial statistics, as players in the information economy we want to be able to do the same for our new currency -- information.What does the relentless growth of the Digital Universe mean to your organization?The Digital Universe study measures the amount of all digital information, including copies, that is created and replicated in the world in a given year.This unprecedented explosion of data, its increasing criticality, and business dependency on digital information are leading to larger and more complex information storage environments that are increasingly challenging to manage. From the perspective of data availability and protection, information storage infrastructure is the most critical component of an overall IT infrastructure. It plays a crucial role in making applications work efficiently, both locally and across multiple sites.Growing by a Factor of 442009: 0.8 ZB2020: 35.2 ZettabytesOne Zettabyte (ZB) = 1 trillion gigabytesSource: IDC Digital Universe Study, sponsored by EMC, May 2010
11675 Billion Fully Loaded 16GB iPads 1.2 ZB in 2010 is Equal to . . .75 Billion Fully Loaded 16GB iPads
117What is Driving the Digital Explosion? Web 2.0 ApplicationsUbiquitous Content-Generating Devices3G/4GSecure CollaborationLonger Data Retention PeriodsData CenterRemote SiteData3156Copy for archivingRemote CopiesLocal CopiesBackup copy4250 billion photos taken every year4.7 billion video streams monthly on YouTube3 Terabytes of photos are being uploaded to Facebook every dayWeb 2.0 applicationsThese include, but are not limited to, social networking sites, like Facebook, video sites, like YouTube, blogs, wikis, file sharing, photo sharing, like Flickr. All of which are driving more content. As one example, Facebook recently announced a milestone – members of the social media site have uploaded 10 billion photos resulting in over a petabyte of storage and growing at an additional 2-3 terabytes of uploads daily.Ubiquitous content-generating devicesDigital content is being generated by more users, employing a much wider array of devices, not just typical computers. Examples include cell phones, digital cameras, and 3G/4G-compatible devices, all of which are capable of generating content anywhere, anytime.Longer data retention periodsIncreased business and regulatory requirements like HIPAA and Sarbanes-Oxley require that data be kept available – meaning stored and readily accessible – for longer periods of time. This creates a burden of not only long-term retention, but also rapid recovery and availability of information.Secure collaborationGiven the speed of business, access to information needs to be virtually instantaneous – whether from headquarters, a remote office, the home office, or even an airport. Ensuring that data remains available and accessible is critical.SEC 17a-4Freedom of Information ActHIPAASarbanes-OxleyRegulation Landscape
118Question 3What percentage of the .8 zettabytes of digital information is created by individuals?A. 30%B. 50%C. 70%D. 90%Ask a Colleague50:50Ask the AudienceAsk the Audience
119The Digital Information World TitleMonth YearThe Digital Information WorldIndividuals create data …companies manage it!Corp.Of the digital universe will be the responsibility of companies to manage and secure85%Individuals as publisher and companies as custodians.While nearly 70% of the digital universe will be created by individuals, organizations (businesses of all sizes, agencies, governments, associations, etc.) will be responsible for the security, privacy, reliability, and compliance of at least 85% of that same digital universe.Most user-generated content will be touched by an organization along the way – on a network, in the data center, at a hosting site, in a PBX, at an Internet switch, or a back-up system.Budgets and staff growth will be far behind not only the growth of digital information, but also the increased responsibilities of enterprise IT. While more than 70% of the information in the Digital Universe in 2012 will be created by individuals (consumers and information worker, organizations (businesses, government agencies, non-profits) will have responsibility or liability for 85% of the same information.Case Study/Discussion:Incredible growth of information is a management nightmare…How do you take care of 10,000 iPods worth of information?When one breaks, how do you know where it is?Are they all running at their peak performance?What if the information on an iPod is stolen?Is all the information needed? Is any redundant?How do I protect all of this information in case of disaster?Ind.Of the digital universewill be created by individuals70%CreateManageSource: IDC Digital Universe Study, sponsored by EMC, May 2010119119119
120Question 4How much storage capacity was available on the first Symmetrix 4200 that EMC shipped in 1990?A. 24 GigabytesB GigabytesC. 24 TerabytesD ExabytesAsk a Colleague50:50Ask the AudienceAsk the Audience
121EMC’s Tiered Storage Platforms Broadest Range of Function, Performance, and ConnectivityiSCSIFibre ChannelIPFICONSANNASCASADIC Scalar familyEMC Disk LibraryDL4400DL4100 DL4200DL210EMC Disk LibraryDL710DL720DL740DL210EMC CenteraCLARiiONCX3 UltraScale SeriesAX150CelerraRainfinityGlobal File VirtualizationNS350NS40GNSXNS80GNS40 NS80CelerraRainfinityGlobal File VirtualizationNS500G NS700GNS500NS700 NS704NSXNS704GNS350InvistaConnectrixSymmetrixSymmetrixDMX1000DMX-3DMX800iSCSIFC & iSCSIDMX-3 950DMX-3EMC Centera4-NodeLow-cost Fibre Channel500 GB7,200 rpmRefrigerator-sized products… DMX-3 is actually like 10 refrigerators bolted together…Wind, heat generated by products…Did you know that there is more storage capacity on your iPod than was on the first Symmetrix storage system EMC first shipped. The Symmetrix 4200 contained 24 GB’s of capacity when introduced in 1990.SATA250 GB7,200 rpmSATA500 GB7,200 rpmFibre Channel73 GB10k/15k rpmFibre Channel146 GB10k/15k rpmFibre Channel300 GB10k rpm19902009Symmetrix 4200 Integrated Cached Disk Array introduced with a capacity of 24 gigabytes.Symmetrix V-Max Systems are available with up to 2 petabytes of usable storage in a single system.
122Managing Information Storage Trends, Challenges and Options EMC Education Services conducts an annual survey of IT hiring managers to gain insight into how this proliferation of digital data is impacting their strategy, direction, and day-to-day operations. The most recent study (published May 2010) included:1,400+ IT managers and storage professionalsNorth America, Europe, and Asia-PacificEMC users and users of other storage vendorsData centers of large enterprise and small & medium enterprisesConducted – Dec’09–Jan‘10** The study resulted in a white paper available on the Academic Alliance website – Managing Information Storage: Trends, Challenges & Options** This research will assist IT/storage managers in comparing and correlating their environments and plans with overall industry trends and the impact of emerging technologies such as storage virtualization and cloud computing.EMC –
123Question 6What is the number 1 challenge identified by IT and storage managers?A. Storage consolidationB. Designing & deploying multi-site environmentsC. Managing storage growthxD. Making informed strategic / big picture decisionsAsk a Colleague50:50Ask the AudienceAsk the Audience
124Digital Information Storage Challenges Most important activities/constraints identified as challengesby IT/storage managersManaging Storage GrowthDesigning, deploying, and managing backup and recoveryDesigning, deploying, and managing storage in a virtualized server environmentDesigning, deploying, and managing disaster recovery solutionsStorage consolidationMaking informed strategic / big-picture decisionsIntegrating storage in application environments (such as Oracle, Exchange, etc.)Designing and deploying multi-site environmentsLack of skilled storage professionalsWith the increasing complexity and criticality of storage, highly skilled and focused storage groups are as mission-critical as the technology being deployed. A very significant part of infrastructure budgets is allocated to storage-related products and services.IT managers and storage managers must ensure that:• Formalized storage groups are built and adequately staffed• Skills assessments and development of storage professionals are top priorities• Storage teams include specialists for each of the deployed storage technology segments• Application, systems, database, and network administration groups learn storage technology concepts and principles, and work closely with the storage groupThe incredible growth of data represents an untapped opportunity for students and universities to help businesses take control of managing the data. The serious shortage of skilled storage professionals also creates attractive opportunities for the next generation of IT professionals and for those looking for a different career in a challenging, high-growth, dynamic industry.Managing Information Storage: Trends, Challenges and Options*SourceInput from over 1,450 storage professionals worldwide
125Building an Effective Storage Mgmt Organization Hire an additional 22%+ storage professionals . . .According to our 2010 Managing Storage industry survey, managers plan to hire more people, but there is a shortage of storage-educated work force in the industry:A well structured storage group of highly skilled professionals is critical to building and maintaining high-performance, highly available storage infrastructures.22%+ growth in 2010 for storage professionals up from 17% in 2009Over 70% of companies represented have a formal storage management groups70% existing professionals require additional skillLack of Formal Education on Storage TechnologyBased on EMC study ‘ Managing Information Storage: Trends, Challenges & Options ( )’
126Where Managers Plan to Find Storage Expertise The majority of managers prefer to hire experienced professionals to reduce the learning period and risks associated with hiring new employees followed by internal transfers or appointments.The next-best alternative is to hire well-trained and certified individuals.There appears to be an increase in engaging external consultants (from 56% in to 62% in ).The interest in hiring fresh college graduates has gone up from approximately 50 percent in to 61 percent over the last two years.So a combination of factors contribute to making information storage a very attractive specialty:* exponential growth of data with no signs of slowing means storage roles will be required regardless of economic conditions* previous lack of formalized education created a knowledge gap that still needs to be filled, creating opportunity for new entrants to the field* specialized nature of storage skills generally leads to favorable salaries in the industryBased on EMC study ‘ Managing Information Storage: Trends, Challenges & Options ( )’
127Top IT Certifications by Salary Over 40,000 IT professionals from 150+ countries respondedSource: Certification Magazine, December 2009
128Storage Role Across IT Disciplines Leverage the functionalities of storage technology products to…..Systems Architects/AdministratorsMaximize performance, increase availability, and avoid costly server upgrades.Network AdministratorsMaximize performance of your network and to help you plan in advance.Database AdministratorsMaximize performance, increase availability, and realize faster recoverability of your database.Application ArchitectIncrease the performance and availability of your applicationIT Project ManagersPlan & execute your IT Projects, which involve or are impacted by Storage technology componentsIn addition to need for skilled storage professionals, the IT industry also benefits from specialists in the other pillars having a foundation storage knowledge. Whether a database architect, network administrator, or IT project manager, understanding storage technologies gives IT professionals a more well-rounded background and ability to make decisions that take into account the “big picture”, recognizing implications of actions and decisions across the infrastructure.
130Pillars of Information Technology Key Pillars of ITBusinesses IT perspective on the data center in the last 20 years have focused on 4 pillars of Information Technology: operating systems, databases, networking, and software application developmentBased on today’s IT infrastructure, Information Storage is the 5th pillar of IT!Pillars of Information TechnologyTo deal with this explosion of the digital universe in size and complexity, IT organizations will need to transform their existing relationships with the business units and expand their definition of the key pillars of IT.Likewise, traditional computer science and information technology programs at colleges and universities focused on these 4 pillarsNow many in the industry consider these to be commoditiesBecause of its complexity, if you look at today’s IT infrastructure, Information Storage should be considered the 5th pillar of IT. OS, RDBMS, Networks, Applications and Information Storage are integrated together to form the 5 pillars of IT. Information Storage is integral to IT scalability, disaster recovery, security, and adhering to new rules and regulations. Information Storage knowledge increases the effectiveness of IT professionals who specialize in the other four pillars, by broadening their perspective on implications to the infrastructure.
131Question 7What is the name of the EMC authored booked that was released in May 2009?A. Storage Area Networks for DummiesB. Storage Networks ExplainedC. Administering Data CentersxD. Information Storage and ManagementAsk a Colleague50:50Ask the AudienceAsk the Audience
132Information Storage and Management (ISM) ModulesSection 1.StorageSystemSection 2.Storage NetworkingTechnologies& VirtualizationSection 3.BusinessContinuitySection 4.Storage Security& ManagementThe ISM book fills the need for a central reference resource that addresses the fastest growing segment of IT. The book’s ‘open’ approach covers concepts, principles, and deployment considerations - rather than product specifics - across all technologies used for information storage and management. Topics covered:Challenges and solutions for data storage and data managementIntelligent storage systemsStorage networking (FC-SAN, IP-SAN, NAS)Backup, recovery and archive (including CAS)Business continuity and disaster recoverySecurity and virtualizationManaging and monitoring key areas of the data center
133Information Storage and Mgmt (ISM) Section 1. Storage SystemStudent ProfilesExperiencedAspiringKEY CONCEPT COVERAGEData and InformationStructured and Unstructured DataStorage Technology ArchitecturesCore Elements of a Data CenterInformation ManagementInformation Lifecycle ManagementHost, Connectivity, and StorageBlock-Level and File Level AccessFile System and Volume ManagerStorage Media and DevicesDisk ComponentsZoned Bit RecordingLogical Block AddressingLittle’s Law and the Utilization LawHardware and Software RAIDStriping, Mirroring, and ParityRAID Write PenaltyHot SparesIntelligent Storage SystemFront-End Command QueuingCache Mirroring and VaultingLogical Unit Number (LUN)LUN MaskingHigh-end Storage SystemMidrange Storage System‘Open’Section 1.Section 2.Section 3.Section 4.Key concepts for both experienced and aspiring information storage professionals.- Experienced professionals may be too embarrassed to acknowledge the gaps in their conceptual understanding- Aspiring professionals have the opportunity for building a solid fundamental understanding of technology principles and concepts that are applicable across many IT infrastructure environments regardless of vendor origin.
134Information Storage and Mgmt (ISM) Section 2. Storage Networking Technologies and VirtualizationKey initiatives for all companiesConsolidationVirtualizationPhysical / Smaller FootprintLogical / Greater Flexibility+KEY CONCEPT COVERAGEInternal and External DASSCSI ArchitectureSCSI AddressingStorage ConsolidationFibre Channel (FC) ArchitectureFibre Channel Protocol StackFibre Channel PortsFibre Channel AddressingWorld Wide Names (WWN)ZoningFibre Channel TopologiesNAS DeviceRemote File SharingNAS Connectivity and ProtocolsNAS Performance and AvailabilityMTU and Jumbo FramesFixed Content and ArchivesSingle-Instance StorageObject Storage and RetrievalContent Authenticity‘Open’Section 1.Section 2.Section 3.Section 4.iSCSI ProtocolNative and Bridged iSCSIFCIP ProtocolKey to being a successful information storage professional is to have the understanding across all segments of storage networking technologies.Build a short story of Enterprise, SME, SMB data center environments being taken over by two to four different types of storage networking technologies.Over the course of last 10 years, companies have gone through phases of centralization / de-centralization, then targeted consolidation.Now, companies small and large are deploying ‘virtualization’ technologies to achieve better flexibility while achieving denser consolidation factor.All the key concepts discussed in Section 2 would likely become staple for ‘informed decision making’.Memory VirtualizationStorage VirtualizationNetwork VirtualizationIn-Band and Out-of-Band ImplementationsServer VirtualizationBlock-Level and File Level Virtualization
135Information Storage and Mgmt (ISM) Section 3. Business ContinuityAlways available / Never lostData CenterRemote SiteMaximize Data AvailabilityMinimize chances of data lossCustomer/ BusinessData3156Copy for archiving+Remote CopiesLocal CopiesBackup copy42KEY CONCEPT COVERAGEBusiness ContinuityInformation AvailabilityDisaster RecoveryBC PlanningBusiness Impact AnalysisOperational BackupArchivalRetention PeriodBare-Metal RecoveryBackup ArchitectureBackup TopologiesVirtual Tape LibraryData ConsistencyHost-Based Local ReplicationArray-Based Local ReplicationCopy on First Access (CoFA)Copy on First Write (CoFW)Restore and RestartSynchronous and Asynchronous ReplicationLVM-Based ReplicationHost-Based Log ShippingDisk-Buffered ReplicationThree-Site ReplicationData Consistency‘Open’Section 1.Section 2.Section 3.Section 4.Regardless of company size, business continuity needs to be an integral part of IT infrastructure. It is important not only to understand the concept but also to be able to articulate the value (or risk) associated with business continuity (or lack there of).As pervasive virtualization continues in your customer’s IT environment, IT professionals must ensure that every virtualized server node has appropriate degree of business continuity and/or disaster recovery solutions applied.At the end of the day, DOWNTIME has become very expensive to companies any size, in any industry. Just think about your not being available for several hours…These concepts along with real-world case studies will prepare both experienced and aspiring information storage professionals to lead the business continuity and disaster recovery discussions and decision-making.
136Information Storage and Mgmt (ISM) Section 4. Storage Security and ManagementIs my data secure?Data storage security considerationsConsolidatedVirtualizedKEY CONCEPT COVERAGEStorage Security FrameworkThe Risk TriadSecurity DomainInfrastructure Right ManagementAccess ControlAlertsManagement Platform StandardsInternal Chargeback‘Open’Section 1.Section 2.Section 3.Section 4.and in the Cloud
137EMC Academic AllianceDeveloping tomorrow’s Information Storage Professionals…today!Partnering with leading Institutes of Higher Education worldwide to bridge the storage knowledge gap in IndustryProviding EMC, Customers and Partners with source to hire storage educated graduatesHundreds of institutions globally, educating thousands of studentsOffering unique ‘open’ course on Information Storage and ManagementFocus on concepts and principlesOpportunity for EMC to give back as the industry leaderFor the latest list of participating institutions and to introduce us to your Alma Mater, visitTo help address the widening knowledge gap in the industry, the EMC Academic Alliance program was introduced to enable university students to take advantage of an ‘open’ information storage and management curriculum to build a successful career in this high-growth industry, and to help build a highly skilled pool of future storage managers and professionals.As of May 2010 over 400 institutes have educated over 25,000 students worldwide in 20 countries such as Brazil, Russia, India, China, United States, Mexico, Columbia, UK, Ireland, Germany, Switzerland, Singapore, Philippines, Poland, Thailand, Australia, South Korea and South Africa.Calls to Action: Ways EMC Academic Alliance can help EMC customers, partners, internals, and industry-at-largeHire students from Universities and Colleges in the program:Reduce time to readinessEncourage more students to opt for Information storage as a careerEncourage Customers and Partners to hireTake advantage of the qualified pool of studentsHelp customers meet their hiring and Storage management challengesHelp identify and ‘recruit’ top Colleges and UniversitiesBroaden awareness of the Academic Alliance program across EMC and in the industryPosition EMC as technology and thought LeaderPromote Academic-EMC interactionsEncourage EMC experts to facilitate lectures, workshops in colleges – Give back to the Community!Promote customers and Academic Alliance interactionsIntroduce faculty interaction day, invite customers and employees, evangelize new technologies and innovations like Cloud Computing, Green IT, Information Security.Involve Faculty in Marketing Events- to bring the Academia perspective.
138Becoming an Academic Partner Required Steps . . . Institution enrolls via the EAA online application.Institution identifies faculty to teach course and administer the program.Institution identifies faculty to attend the 5 day ISM Faculty Readiness Seminar (FRS) and clear ISM certification exam.Institution accesses secure Faculty website to download teaching aids such as chapter PowerPoints, quizzes, simulators, etc.Institution promotes ISM course to students.Institution schedules and begins teaching the ISM course.Administration tasks include providing program information to EMC and serving as Institution point of contact.
139SummaryInformation storage is one of the fastest growing sectors within IT.Information growth and complexity creates challenges and career opportunitiesBusiness and industry are looking for IT professionals who know all 5 pillars.Those who obtain the skills through formal education and industry qualification have an advantage.