Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12: Secondary-Storage Structure. Outline n Cover 12.1 -12.6 n (Magnetic) Disk Structure n Disk Attachment n Disk Scheduling Algorithms l FCFS,"— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 12: Secondary-Storage Structure
Outline n Cover n (Magnetic) Disk Structure n Disk Attachment n Disk Scheduling Algorithms l FCFS, SSTF, SCAN, LOOK n Disk Management l Formatting, booting, bad sectors n Swap-Space Management l Performance optimization n Not covered: l RAID Structure l Disk Attachment l Stable-Storage Implementation l Tertiary Storage Devices l Operating System Issues l Performance Issues
Magnetic Disk Storage Structure n Magnetic disks provide bulk of secondary storage of modern computers l Drives rotate at 60 to 200 times per second l Transfer rate is rate at which data flow between drive and computer l Positioning time (random-access time) is time to move disk arm to desired cylinder (seek time) and time for desired sector to rotate under the disk head (rotational latency) l Head crash results from disk head making contact with the disk surface Thats bad n Disks can be removable n Drive attached to computer via I/O bus l Busses vary, including EIDE, ATA, SATA, USB, Fiber Channel, SCSI l Host controller in computer uses bus to talk to disk controller built into drive or storage array
Moving-head Disk Machanism
Overview of Mass Storage Structure (Cont.) n Magnetic tape l Was early secondary-storage medium l Relatively permanent and holds large quantities of data l Access time slow l Random access ~1000 times slower than disk l Mainly used for backup, storage of infrequently-used data, transfer medium between systems l Kept in spool and wound or rewound past read-write head l Once data under head, transfer rates comparable to disk l GB typical storage l Common technologies are 4mm, 8mm, 19mm, LTO-2 and SDLT
Disk Structure n Disk drives are addressed as large 1-dimensional arrays of logical blocks, where the logical block is the smallest unit of transfer. n The 1-dimensional array of logical blocks is mapped into the sectors of the disk sequentially. l Sector 0 is the first sector of the first track on the outermost cylinder. l Mapping proceeds in order through that track, then the rest of the tracks in that cylinder, and then through the rest of the cylinders from outermost to innermost.
Disk Attachment n Host-attached storage accessed through I/O ports talking to I/O busses n SCSI itself is a bus, up to 16 devices on one cable, SCSI initiator requests operation and SCSI targets perform tasks l Each target can have up to 8 logical units (disks attached to device controller n FC is high-speed serial architecture l Can be switched fabric with 24-bit address space – the basis of storage area networks (SANs) in which many hosts attach to many storage units l Can be arbitrated loop (FC-AL) of 126 devices
Network-Attached Storage n Network-attached storage (NAS) is storage made available over a network rather than over a local connection (such as a bus) n NFS and CIFS are common protocols n Implemented via remote procedure calls (RPCs) between host and storage n New iSCSI protocol uses IP network to carry the SCSI protocol
Storage Area Network n Common in large storage environments (and becoming more common) n Multiple hosts attached to multiple storage arrays - flexible
Disk Scheduling n The operating system is responsible for using hardware efficiently for the disk drives, this means having a fast access time and disk bandwidth. n Access time has three major components l Seek time is the time for the disk are to move the heads to the cylinder containing the desired sector. l Rotational latency is the additional time waiting for the disk to rotate the desired sector to the disk head. l Transfer time is the time between disk surface to disk head n Minimize seek time l Seek time seek distance (performance evaluation criteria) l Total seek distance between the first request to the completion of the last transfer.
Disk Scheduling (Cont.) n Several algorithms exist to schedule the servicing of disk I/O requests. n We illustrate them with a request queue (0-199). 98, 183, 37, 122, 14, 124, 65, 67 Head pointer 53
FCFS n Illustration shows total head movement of 640 cylinders. n Can you improve this (easy …)?
SSTF n Selects the request with the minimum seek time from the current head position. n SSTF scheduling is a form of SJF scheduling; may cause starvation of some requests. n Illustration shows total head movement of 236 cylinders.
SSTF (Cont.) n Is this optimal/fair? Can you find a more optimal schedule? n How to improve this?
SCAN n The disk arm starts at one end of the disk, and moves toward the other end, servicing requests until it gets to the other end of the disk, where the head movement is reversed and servicing continues. n Sometimes called the elevator algorithm. n Illustration shows total head movement of 208 cylinders.
SCAN (Cont.) n Is it fair enough (middle vs. edge cylinders)? Can you further improve this?
C-SCAN n Provides a more uniform wait time than SCAN. n Circular SCAN l The head moves from one end of the disk to the other, servicing requests as it goes. When it reaches the other end, it immediately returns to the beginning of the disk, without servicing any requests on the return trip. n Treat the cylinders as a circular list that wraps around from the last cylinder to the first one.
C-LOOK n Version of C-SCAN n Arm only goes as far as the last request in each direction, then reverses direction immediately, without first going all the way to the end of the disk.
Selecting a Disk-Scheduling Algorithm n Which one has better performance? l SSTF vs. FCFS? l SCAN/C-SCAN vs. SSTF? n What does performance depend on? l What if the disk queue/load is always 1? Does the disk scheduling algorithm matter? l What also matters? File-allocation method. n The disk-scheduling algorithm should be written as a separate module of the operating system, allowing it to be replaced with a different algorithm if necessary. n Either SSTF or LOOK is a reasonable choice for the default algorithm.
Disk Management n Low-level formatting, or physical formatting Dividing a disk into sectors that the disk controller can read and write. l Done by factory n To use a disk to hold files, the operating system still needs to record its own data structures on the disk. l Partition the disk into one or more groups of cylinders. l Logical formatting or making a file system. n Boot block initializes system. l The bootstrap is stored in ROM. l Master boot record (MBR) on the first sector of disk l Boot partition
Booting from a Disk in Windows 2000
Bad Sectors n Mechanical parts and prone to failures n Bad sectors at factory n How to detect bad sectors? l Error correcting code (ECC) n How to handle bad sectors on disks? l Reserve some spared sectors … l Sector sparing or forwarding l Sector slipping
Swap-Space Management n What is swap space? l Virtual memory uses disk space as an extension of main memory. n Should swap space be placed in normal file system? l Why or why not? l Performance vs. space efficiency tradeoff?
Cost of External Storage Devices n Magnetic Disks l NTD 3.5 per Gigabyte (1 T ~ NTD 3560) l Access time: 10 ms n Tapes: l NTD 10 per Gigabyte (old) l Can only write/read pages in sequence n Flash memory: l NTD 50 per Gigabyte (16 G ~ NTD 800) l Access time? n DRAM: n NTD 300 per Gigabyte (2 G ~ NTD 600) n Access time: 10s ns n Other types of persistent storage devices: l Optical storage (CD-R, CD- RW, DVD-R, DVD-RW) 26
Price per Megabyte of DRAM, From 1981 to 2004 n Why DRAM manufacturers are in trouble? l 2008 (USD10/GB ~ USD0.01/MB)
Price per Megabyte of Magnetic Hard Disk, From 1981 to 2004 n 2008 (USD 100 per Terabyte, or USD per MB)