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Ch 31 Disks and Formatting. Ch 32 Overview The need for formatting a disk will be discussed.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch 31 Disks and Formatting. Ch 32 Overview The need for formatting a disk will be discussed."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch 31 Disks and Formatting

2 Ch 32 Overview The need for formatting a disk will be discussed.

3 Ch 33 Overview The difference between partitioning and formatting a disk will be explained.

4 Ch 34 Overview The structure of a disk will be described.

5 Ch 35 Overview Will learn to format a disk, electronically label it, and then how to change the label.

6 Ch 36 Overview Various file systems will be compared and contrasted.

7 Ch 37 Overview Some of the parameters that can be used with the FORMAT command will be discussed and then used with the FORMAT command.

8 Ch 38 Why Format a Disk? Disks used for: è Permanent storage of data and programs è Distributing data from one computer to another è Making copies

9 Ch 39 Why Format a Disk? Formatting ( initializing ) the disk: è Process of preparing disk so that it is compatible with an operating system

10 Ch 310 Why Format a Disk? All disks (including hard disks) must be formatted.

11 Ch 311 Partitioning and Formatting Disks Hard disks must be: è Partitioned è Formatted with file system

12 Ch 312 Partitioning and Formatting Disks Partition terms: è Primary partition è Partition table è Volume è Active partition è Extended partition

13 Ch 313 Partitioning and Formatting Disks Dual booting system: è Create partition for each OS è Only one OS active at a time è Each OS formats disks in own way è Precautions in running multiple OS

14 Ch 314 Partitioning and Formatting Disks File system: è Organizational scheme of OS åOS is what makes one computer compatible with another

15 Ch 315 Partitioning and Formatting Disks Windows XP Professional supports four file systems: è NTFS è Three FAT file systems - åFAT12 å FAT16 å FAT32

16 Ch 316 Partitioning and Formatting Disks Types of disk storage configuration: è Basic disks è Dynamic disks

17 Ch 317 Structure of a Disk Two parts to formatting a disk: è Low-level ( physical ) formatting è High level ( logical ) formatting

18 Ch 318 Structure of a Disk Low-level (physical) formatting: è Sequentially numbers tracks and sectors è Identifies each track and sector è Disk is physically prepared to hold data

19 Ch 319 Structure of a Disk High-level (logical) formatting: è Determines how OS uses a disk è Builds structure to keep track of location of files è Done so files can be stored and retrieved.

20 Ch 320 Structure of a Disk Windows XP Professional monitors status of all disk data sectors.

21 Ch 321 Structure of a Disk One or more sectors are combined into logical units called clusters or allocation units.

22 Ch 322 Structure of a Disk Cluster (allocation unit): è Smallest unit that OS can work with

23 Ch 323 Structure of a Disk Cluster overhang: è Wasted space on the disk.

24 Ch 324 Structure of a Disk Master Boot Record & Boot Sector Master boot record (MBR): è First part of hard disk è Locates bootable partition of hard disk and gives control over to it

25 Ch 325 Structure of a Disk Master Boot Record & Boot Sector Boot sector: è First sector on logical drive è Has table of drives characteristics è Has bootstrap loader program

26 Ch 326 Structure of a Disk Master Boot Record & Boot Sector All disks ( including non-system disks ) have a boot sector.

27 Ch 327 Structure of a Disk Master Boot Record & Boot Sector FAT non-system error messages: è Non-system disk or disk error è Replace disk and press any key when ready

28 Ch 328 Structure of a Disk Master Boot Record & Boot Sector NTFS non-system error messages: è Invalid partition table è Error loading operating system è Missing operating system

29 Ch 329 Structure of a Disk Master Boot Record & Boot Sector Floppy disk non-system error messages: è NTLDR is missing è Press any key to restart

30 Ch 330 Structure of a Disk Master Boot Record & Boot Sector Windows uses boot sector to identify the type of disk.

31 Ch 331 Structure of a Disk FAT16, VFAT & FAT32 FATs formatting program creates: è Boot record è File Allocation Table (2 copies) è Root directory

32 Ch 332 Structure of a Disk FAT16, VFAT & FAT32 Fig 3.1 Logical Structure of a Disk p. 100

33 Ch 333 Structure of a Disk FAT16, VFAT & FAT32 è FAT is a map of disks data clusters. è FAT number indicates status of cluster. åNumbers in FAT link clusters that belong to same file

34 Ch 334 Structure of a Disk FAT16, VFAT & FAT32 Table 3.1 Cluster Size and Disk Size p. 100

35 Ch 335 Structure of a Disk FAT16, VFAT & FAT32 FAT essential for: è Managing data è Following trail of clusters that make up a file

36 Ch 336 Structure of a Disk FAT16, VFAT & FAT32 VFAT maintains backwards compatibility and accommodates long file names.

37 Ch 337 Structure of a Disk FAT16, VFAT & FAT32 FAT32: è Enhancement of FAT file system è Introduced to overcome limitations of VFAT è Does not apply to floppy drives

38 Ch 338 Structure of a Disk FAT16, VFAT & FAT32 Table 3.2 Comparison of FAT and FAT32 p. 101

39 Ch 339 Structure of a Disk FAT16, VFAT & FAT32 FAT32: è Movable Root Directory å Can be located anywhere on hard disk è Can use backup copy of FAT è Internal backup copy of some critical FAT data structures è Entries in Root Directory limited

40 Ch 340 Structure of a Disk FAT16, VFAT & FAT32 Structure of a Disk FAT16, VFAT & FAT32 With smaller clusters: è More clusters on partition è FAT larger - store more data è Takes longer to locate/access file

41 Ch 341 Structure of a Disk FAT16, VFAT & FAT32 With larger clusters: è Table smaller è Takes less time to locate/access file è Increases wasted disk space from cluster overhang

42 Ch 342 Structure of a Disk FAT16, VFAT & FAT32 è FAT32 is best for many small files. è FAT is best for mostly large files.

43 Ch 343 Structure of a Disk The Root Directory Root Directory: è Table that records information about each file on the disk

44 Ch 344 Structure of a Disk The Root Directory Changes in root directory table make Windows XP Professional compatible with older Windows and DOS programs.

45 Ch 345 Structure of a Disk FAT and the Root Directory è Root directory tells what is on the disk. è FAT tells where data is on the disk.

46 Ch 346 Structure of a Disk FAT and the Root Directory è Number in FAT points to next cluster that holds data in file. è EOF (end-of-file) marker indicates there is no more data in file.

47 Ch 347 Structure of a Disk FAT and the Root Directory Fig 3.2 The Root Directory and FAT p. 103

48 Ch 348 Structure of a Disk Data Portion or the Files Area Largest part of disk is used for storing files. Space is allocated to files on an as- needed basis.

49 Ch 349 Structure of a Disk Data Portion or the Files Area A file is written to a disk in: è Contiguous clusters or è Noncontiguous clusters.

50 Ch 350 Structure of a Disk Understanding FAT & Root Directory Table Fig 3.3 Storing Files p. 105

51 Ch 351 Structure of a Disk NTFS File system used determines OS advanced features available to user. For disk security, performance, and efficiency use NTFS file system.

52 Ch 352 Structure of a Disk NTFS Advantages of NTFS: è Secure file system è Efficient storage of data è Faster file access è Better data recovery è Can compress files/assign disk quotas è Encryption of files

53 Ch 353 Structure of a Disk Clusters and NTFS NTFS: è Uses FAT cluster scheme for allocating data. è Has less overhead.

54 Ch 354 Structure of a Disk Clusters and NTFS Table 3.3 NTFS Cluster Size p. 106

55 Ch 355 Structure of a Disk Clusters and NTFS Fig 3.4 Structure of an NTFS Volume p. 106

56 Ch 356 Structure of a Disk Master File Table (MFT) Master File Table ( MFT ): è Database of all files in system è Used by NTFS to track all files and directories in a volume è Dynamic

57 Ch 357 Structure of a Disk Master File Table (MFT) MFT is different from FAT.

58 Ch 358 Structure of a Disk Master File Table (MFT) MFT: è Adds security descriptor attribute to file system è Data in file considered to be attribute of file å Allows fast access to files å Eliminates file fragmentation

59 Ch 359 Structure of a Disk Master File Table (MFT) MFT: è Attribute stored in MFT considered resident attribute è Any resident forced out to an extent is nonresident attribute

60 Ch 360 Structure of a Disk Master File Table (MFT ) Folders treated as files in NTFS: è Small folder - Index Root attribute è Folder entries will fit into MFT - new extent nonresident attribute called index buffer

61 Ch 361 Structure of a Disk Deciding on a File System Formatting: è Floppy disk - always FAT file system è Hard disk - you decide

62 Ch 362 Structure of a Disk Deciding on a File System è Can convert FAT to FAT32/NTFS è Cannot convert FAT32/NTFS to FAT

63 Ch 363 Clarifying Procedures Procedural assumptions: è System utility files subdirectory è Type of disk è Lab procedures

64 Ch 364 ActivityFormatting a Floppy Disk KEY CONCEPTS: è Function of screen prompt è Internal vs. external commands è Result of keying in FORMAT C: è Using the FORMAT command è Unique serial number used for disk identification by application programs.

65 Ch 365 Formatting a Disk with a Volume Label FORMAT command parameters: è FORMAT volume [/FS:file-system] [/V:label] [/Q] [A:size] [/C] [/X] è FORMAT volume [/V:label] [/Q] [/F:size]

66 Ch 366 Formatting a Disk with a Volume Label FORMAT command parameters: è FORMAT volume [/V:label] [/Q] [/T:tracks /N:sectors] è FORMAT volume [/V:label] [/Q] è FORMAT volume [/Q]

67 Ch 367 Formatting a Disk with a Volume Label Basic syntax of FORMAT command: è FORMAT volume [/V:label] [/Q]

68 Ch 368 Formatting a Disk with a Volume Label /F size parameter: è Easy way to format floppy disks that do not match capacity of a floppy disk drive

69 Ch 369 Formatting a Disk with a Volume Label è Volume label is electronic name. è Partial command diagram FORMAT A: /V[:label] å No spaces between colon and label

70 Ch 370 ActivityUsing the /V Option KEY CONCEPTS: è Purpose/function of VOL command è Need of descriptive volume label è Two ways to display volume label è [drive:] - variable parameter

71 Ch 371 The LABEL Command LABEL command: è External command è Used to change volume label without reformatting disk

72 Ch 372 The LABEL Command Partial syntax: è LABEL [drive:] [label]

73 Ch 373 The LABEL Command LABEL (external) command: è Used to change volume label VOLUME (internal) command: è Used to see volume label

74 Ch 374 ActivityUsing the Label Command KEY CONCEPTS: è Importance of including A: parameter è Deleting volume label on disk è Placing volume label on disk è Use of spaces in LABEL and VOLUME commands

75 Ch 375 Formatting a Disk using the /Q Parameter /Q parameter: è Fast way to clear previously formatted disks è Works like usual FORMAT command åSkips low level formatting è Clears FAT and root directory è Does not check for bad sectors

76 Ch 376 ActivityUsing the /Q Parameter KEY CONCEPTS: è Reason /Q parameter can be used è Eliminate previous volume label when formatting disk


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