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THE IMPORTANCE OF THE LOCATION OF A PORT IN THE LOGISTIC-CHAIN. ZARATE, VISIT ON JANUARY 5 2009 OF MBA-STUDENTS OF THE TEXAS CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY OF FORT.

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Presentation on theme: "THE IMPORTANCE OF THE LOCATION OF A PORT IN THE LOGISTIC-CHAIN. ZARATE, VISIT ON JANUARY 5 2009 OF MBA-STUDENTS OF THE TEXAS CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY OF FORT."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE IMPORTANCE OF THE LOCATION OF A PORT IN THE LOGISTIC-CHAIN. ZARATE, VISIT ON JANUARY OF MBA-STUDENTS OF THE TEXAS CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY OF FORT WORTH, ACCOMPANIED BY DR. NANCY DIX, M ember of the Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals 1

2 In 1989, a new port-bill was under discussion in Congress, which would permit the construction of private ports to operate with general cargo. In 1989, a new port-bill was under discussion in Congress, which would permit the construction of private ports to operate with general cargo. For the first time private ports would be allowed to compete with the Port of Buenos Aires. All parties were in favor. For the first time private ports would be allowed to compete with the Port of Buenos Aires. All parties were in favor. Murchison decided to buy land with the intention to have it ready to eventually construct a private container-port. Murchison decided to buy land with the intention to have it ready to eventually construct a private container-port. But in 1995, the multinational car-manufacturers of Brazil and Argentina, decided to start building certain models in Brazil and others in Argentina. But in 1995, the multinational car-manufacturers of Brazil and Argentina, decided to start building certain models in Brazil and others in Argentina. 2

3 The idea was to supply both countries, from one plant in either country, that would be selected to construct a certain model. The idea was to supply both countries, from one plant in either country, that would be selected to construct a certain model. There were no Car-terminals in Arg, and these need much space. Therefore it was decided in 1996 to start a Car-terminal first. There were no Car-terminals in Arg, and these need much space. Therefore it was decided in 1996 to start a Car-terminal first. But the goal always has been to become one day an important container-terminal. But the goal always has been to become one day an important container-terminal. 3

4 WHEN WE SPEAK TO STUDENTS IN ARGENTINA ABOUT PORTS, MANY LIKE TO HEAR A LITTLE BIT ABOUT GENERATIONS OF PORTS. SO LET US DO THIS FIRST 4

5 GENERAL CARGO BREAKBULK FIRST Generation of Ports Simple Interface Ship- Land pallets- Containers SECOND Generation SOME PORTS OFFER Transport and Distribution Containers THIRD GENERATION Info.Techn. International Platforms of Trade Logístic- Centers. C.F.S. INDUSTRIES 4 th GENERATION INCREASED USE OF INFORMATION- TECNOLOGY PORT COMMUNITY SYSTEMS Ports provide Integrated Logístics Services TH GENERATION FOR SECURITY REASONS. ADVANCED USE OF I.C.T. (INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY) SATELLITES-G.P.S. PORTS PARTICIPATE IN SATELLITE TRACKING of the cargo they generate. EVOLUTION OF PORTS: 1945 TO 2010 : 5 GENERATIONS Much D/D, Few Sheds, mostly for Customs or Shipping-lines pre-reception / delivery after sailing. More Sheds. SOME BIG DISTRIBUTION CENTRES. 5

6 SOME STUDENTS WISH US TO GIVE A DEFINITION OF OUR PORT. SOME STUDENTS WISH US TO GIVE A DEFINITION OF OUR PORT. BUT FOR US IT IS NOT IMPORTANT, WHICH DEFINITION FITS BEST FOR THIS PORT, OR TO WHAT GENERATION IT BELONGS. BUT FOR US IT IS NOT IMPORTANT, WHICH DEFINITION FITS BEST FOR THIS PORT, OR TO WHAT GENERATION IT BELONGS. THE MOST IMPORTANT QUESTION IS: THE MOST IMPORTANT QUESTION IS: IS THIS PORT ABLE TO FULFIL ITS FUNCTION AS AN EFFICIENT LINK IN THE SUPPLY- CHAINS OF THE HINTERLAND WE INTEND TO SERVE ? IS THIS PORT ABLE TO FULFIL ITS FUNCTION AS AN EFFICIENT LINK IN THE SUPPLY- CHAINS OF THE HINTERLAND WE INTEND TO SERVE ? 6

7 LOGÍSTICA IN ARGENTINA IN ARGENTINA WE TALK A LOT ABOUT LOGISTICS : LOGISTIC CHAINS / ZONES OF LOGISTIC ACTIVITIES / LOGISTICS COMPANIES, AND SO ON : IN ARGENTINA WE TALK A LOT ABOUT LOGISTICS : LOGISTIC CHAINS / ZONES OF LOGISTIC ACTIVITIES / LOGISTICS COMPANIES, AND SO ON : –MR. SANCHEZ, WHO HAS THREE, 15 YR OLD TRUCKS AND A LEAKING OLD WAREHOUSE OF 2000 SQM, GRACEFULLY CALLS HIS COMPANY: COMPAÑÍA LOGÍSTICA SANCHEZ. (SANCHEZ LOGISTICS) ALTHOUGH MR. SANCHEZ MAY BE A 3PL, I CONSIDER THAT BY CALLING HIS COMPANY SANCHEZ LOGISTICS, HE MIGHT CONFUSE MANY PEOPLE ABOUT WHAT LOGISTICS REALLY MEANS, IT IS NOT JUST TRUCKS AND WAREHOUSES. ALTHOUGH MR. SANCHEZ MAY BE A 3PL, I CONSIDER THAT BY CALLING HIS COMPANY SANCHEZ LOGISTICS, HE MIGHT CONFUSE MANY PEOPLE ABOUT WHAT LOGISTICS REALLY MEANS, IT IS NOT JUST TRUCKS AND WAREHOUSES. THEREFORE I ALWAYS TRY TO GIVE A GENERAL PICTURE OF WHAT LOGISTICS USUALLY EMBRACE, MAKING CLEAR THAT IT IS NOT INTENDED AS A DEFINITION. THEREFORE I ALWAYS TRY TO GIVE A GENERAL PICTURE OF WHAT LOGISTICS USUALLY EMBRACE, MAKING CLEAR THAT IT IS NOT INTENDED AS A DEFINITION. 7

8 LOGISTICS IS THE MANAGEMENT OF THE FLOW OF GOODS, INFORMATION & RESOURCES, THAT STARTS AT THE MOMENT IT IS PLANNED TO BUY A BASIC OR FINISHED PRODUCT, LOGISTICS IS THE MANAGEMENT OF THE FLOW OF GOODS, INFORMATION & RESOURCES, THAT STARTS AT THE MOMENT IT IS PLANNED TO BUY A BASIC OR FINISHED PRODUCT, AND CONTINUES THROUGH ALL THE PHASES OF SUPPLY, PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION AND SALES. AND CONTINUES THROUGH ALL THE PHASES OF SUPPLY, PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION AND SALES. THIS GLOBAL MANAGEMENT MUST ASSURE THE BEST RESULTS THRU ALL THESE PHASES, THIS GLOBAL MANAGEMENT MUST ASSURE THE BEST RESULTS THRU ALL THESE PHASES, AND MUST MAKE SURE THAT THE PRODUCTS ARE AVAILABLE AT THE RIGHT MOMENT AND PLACE, AND MUST MAKE SURE THAT THE PRODUCTS ARE AVAILABLE AT THE RIGHT MOMENT AND PLACE, 8

9 THIS MEANS, WHEN THE PRODUCT IS NEEDED IN THE PRODUCTION-LINE OR AT A PLACE OF SALE, THIS MEANS, WHEN THE PRODUCT IS NEEDED IN THE PRODUCTION-LINE OR AT A PLACE OF SALE, WITH THE REQUIRED AND MOST ECONOMIC PACKAGING, WITH THE REQUIRED AND MOST ECONOMIC PACKAGING, UNITIZED AS NEEDED, IN ORDER TO PERMIT APPROPIATE HANDLING DURING THE INDIVIDUAL CHAINS, UNITIZED AS NEEDED, IN ORDER TO PERMIT APPROPIATE HANDLING DURING THE INDIVIDUAL CHAINS, TO BE TRANSPORTED AT THE LOWEST COSTS, TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE FINANCIAL COSTS OF TRANSPORTATION, TO BE TRANSPORTED AT THE LOWEST COSTS, TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE FINANCIAL COSTS OF TRANSPORTATION, INCURRING THE LEAST POSSIBLE COSTS OF WAREHOUSING & TO HAVE THE LOWEST POSSIBLE COSTS OF INVENTORY. INCURRING THE LEAST POSSIBLE COSTS OF WAREHOUSING & TO HAVE THE LOWEST POSSIBLE COSTS OF INVENTORY. 9

10 IT IS IMPORTANT TO BE ALWAYS ALERT, TO AVOID THAT SOMETHING GOES WRONG. IT IS IMPORTANT TO BE ALWAYS ALERT, TO AVOID THAT SOMETHING GOES WRONG. GOOD LOGISTIC-MANAGEMENT CAN ONLY BE ACHIEVED, WITH A WELL- STUDIED SYSTEM OF DISTRIBUTION- CENTERS, GOOD LOGISTIC-MANAGEMENT CAN ONLY BE ACHIEVED, WITH A WELL- STUDIED SYSTEM OF DISTRIBUTION- CENTERS, WHERE AND HOW MUCH. WHERE AND HOW MUCH. A COMPANY ( OR A COUNTRY) WITH GOOD LOGISTICS, IS A COMPETITIVE COMPANY (OR A COMPETITIVE COUNTRY). A COMPANY ( OR A COUNTRY) WITH GOOD LOGISTICS, IS A COMPETITIVE COMPANY (OR A COMPETITIVE COUNTRY). 10

11 GOOD LOGISTIC-CHAINS NEED EFFICIENT TRANSPORT-NETWORKS, GOOD LOGISTIC-CHAINS NEED EFFICIENT TRANSPORT-NETWORKS, AND THOSE NETWORKS NEED EFFICIENT TERMINALS FOR THE INTERCHANGES BETWEEN MODES, AND THOSE NETWORKS NEED EFFICIENT TERMINALS FOR THE INTERCHANGES BETWEEN MODES, GOOD LOGISTIC-CHAINS ALSO NEED THE APPLICATION OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN ALL THE INTERVENING PARTIES. GOOD LOGISTIC-CHAINS ALSO NEED THE APPLICATION OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN ALL THE INTERVENING PARTIES. 11

12 LOGISTIC-COSTS: OFTEN IT IS TRIED TO COMPARE LOGISTIC-COSTS OF COUNTRIES, BUT THERE IS NO UNIFORM CRITERION AND NOT ALWAYS DO THEY INCLUDE THE SAME COSTS. OFTEN IT IS TRIED TO COMPARE LOGISTIC-COSTS OF COUNTRIES, BUT THERE IS NO UNIFORM CRITERION AND NOT ALWAYS DO THEY INCLUDE THE SAME COSTS. MOREOVER VERY FEW COUNTRIES HAVE GOOD STATISTICS THAT ALLOW ITS CALCULATION, especially costs of stock. MOREOVER VERY FEW COUNTRIES HAVE GOOD STATISTICS THAT ALLOW ITS CALCULATION, especially costs of stock. BUT TRANSPORTATION-COSTS AND PORT-COSTS ARE ALWAYS AN IMPORTANT PART OF THE TOTAL COSTS IN THE SUPPLY-CHAIN. BUT TRANSPORTATION-COSTS AND PORT-COSTS ARE ALWAYS AN IMPORTANT PART OF THE TOTAL COSTS IN THE SUPPLY-CHAIN. VERY OFTEN THESE COSTS DECIDE IF A COUNTRY IS COMPETITIVE OR NOT. VERY OFTEN THESE COSTS DECIDE IF A COUNTRY IS COMPETITIVE OR NOT. 12

13 GLOBALIZATION : GLOBALIZATION : WE ARE ALWAYS REMINDED THAT WE LIVE IN THE ERA OF GLOBALIZATION, WE ARE ALWAYS REMINDED THAT WE LIVE IN THE ERA OF GLOBALIZATION, WHICH HAS CREATED A FIERCE WORLDWIDE COMPETITION, WHICH HAS CREATED A FIERCE WORLDWIDE COMPETITION, WHICH OBLIGES ALL COUNTRIES TO CREATE EFFICIENT SUPPLY CHAINS, WHICH OBLIGES ALL COUNTRIES TO CREATE EFFICIENT SUPPLY CHAINS, WITHIN THESE CHAINS, PORTS MUST FUNCTION AS INTERMODAL NODES WITHIN THESE CHAINS, PORTS MUST FUNCTION AS INTERMODAL NODES –IN THE PAST PORTS HAD THEIR OWN CAPTIVE HINTERLAND. ALL GENERAL CARGO COMING INTO OR LEAVING ARGENTINA, WENT THRU THE PORT OF BUENSO AIRES. –NOW OVER 52% OF THE MOVEMENTS OF THE PORT OF MONTEDEO IS ARGENTINE CARGO. 13

14 NOW PORTS ARE JUDGED ACCORDING TO THEIR POSITION IN THE SUPPLY- CHAIN AND THE TOTAL COSTS THAT ARE GENERATED FROM ORIGIN TO DESTINATION. NOW PORTS ARE JUDGED ACCORDING TO THEIR POSITION IN THE SUPPLY- CHAIN AND THE TOTAL COSTS THAT ARE GENERATED FROM ORIGIN TO DESTINATION. 14

15 IN ORDER TO KNOW HOW A PORT WILL BE ABLE TO FULFIL ITS MISSION IN THE SUPPLY-CHAIN, ONE MUST KNOW : IN ORDER TO KNOW HOW A PORT WILL BE ABLE TO FULFIL ITS MISSION IN THE SUPPLY-CHAIN, ONE MUST KNOW : WHAT TRANSPORTATION- NETWORKS ARE AVAILABLE (OR CAN REASONABLY BE EXPECTED ) IN THE PROPOSED HINTERLAND, WHAT TRANSPORTATION- NETWORKS ARE AVAILABLE (OR CAN REASONABLY BE EXPECTED ) IN THE PROPOSED HINTERLAND, ROADS, ROADS, RAILWAYS, RAILWAYS, RIVER-TRANSPORT. RIVER-TRANSPORT. 15

16 PAMPA HUMEDA - AGRICULTURE CATTLE-BREEDING, AGRO-INDUSTRIES. INDUSTRIAL BELT SEE POSITION T.Z. IN THE HEART OF THE ZONE OF MAJOR ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES. THE CENTRE OF ARG. GENERATES THE MOST IMPORTANT MOVEMENTS OF CARGOES. DOMESTIC CARGOES, IMPORTS, EXPORTS, CONTAINERS. KEEP THIS IN MIND WHEN WE SHOW THE MAPS OF ROADS AND RAILWAYS. FISHING FRUIT-EXP 16

17 NOTE THE IMPORTANT RIVER PARANA, NAVEGABLE WITH 34 FT TILL ROSARIO. MOST EXPORT- PRODUCTS HAVE THEIR ORIGIN TO THE NORTH AND TO THE WEST OF THE PORT OF BUENOS AIRES. IDEM DESTINATIONS OF IMPORTS 17

18 THE PORT-SYSTEM OF THE RIVER PLATE & PARANA –RIVER IS THE MOST IMPORTANT OF THE 3 SYSTEMS. ( 2 OTHERS: ATLANTIC / PATAGONIAN PORTS). OLD PORTS IN CITY- CENTRES SANTA FE / ROSARIO BUENOS AIRES, LA PLATA. IMPORTANT NEW TERMINALS OUTSIDE CITIES ON THE RIGHT BANK OF THE RIVER PARANA : GRAIN ROSARIO TIMBUES (N), PUNTA ALVEAR ( S OF ROSARIO) GENERAL CARGO AND CONTAINERS ZARATE-CAMPANA FISHING

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20 TRADITIONAL EXPORT- PRODUCTS PRODUCTORIGINDISTANCE- B.A. PRODUCTORIGINDISTANCE- B.A. BEANS/TOBACCO SALTA -JUJUY KM BEANS/TOBACCO SALTA -JUJUY KM WOODPROD. MISIONES/FORM KM WOODPROD. MISIONES/FORM KM TEA MISIONES/CORR KM TEA MISIONES/CORR KM TOBACCO MISIONES/CORR KM TOBACCO MISIONES/CORR KM COTTONCHACO KM COTTONCHACO KM WINE/FRUITMENDOZA KM WINE/FRUITMENDOZA KM PEANUTSCORDOBA 700 KM PEANUTSCORDOBA 700 KM 20

21 WITH SUCH LONG DISTANCES, THE COUNTRY SHOULD HAVE INTERMODAL POLICIES, WHICH REQUIRE AN INTERMODAL NETWORK, INTEGRATED WITH THE PORTS. 21

22 COMPETITIVE COUNTRIES DO STUDIES AND COMPARE TOTAL COSTS OF EACH MODE: ROAD, RAIL OR BY WATER. DO STUDIES AND COMPARE TOTAL COSTS OF EACH MODE: ROAD, RAIL OR BY WATER. –TAKE INTO ACCOUNT COSTS OF CONSTRUCTION – MAINTENANCE - OPERATION – ESPECIALLY FUEL-CONSUMPTION, –ESTIMATE COSTS TO CONSTRUCT HIGHWAYS, RAILWAYS, CHANNELS AND INTERFACES, »TAKE PRICES OF TRUCKS AND TRAILERS, LOCOMOTIVES AND WAGONS, TUGS AND BARGES, ETC, INTO ACCOUNT, »ESTIMATE COSTS OF MAINTENANCE AND LIFE-CYCLE OF EACH ELEMENT, »CALCULATE COSTS OF EACH OPERATION: PERSONNEL, HANDLING-COSTS IN THE TOTAL CHAIN, »AND ALSO INCLUDE EXTERNAL COSTS, ACC. ENVIRONMENT ETC. »THIS MEANS THAT THEY CONSIDER ALL THE COST- COMPONENTS INHERENT TO EACH MODE. IN OTHER WORDS, THEY CALCULATE WHAT THE WHOLE COMMUNITY FINALLY PAYS FOR A TRANSPORT IN EACH MODE. IN OTHER WORDS, THEY CALCULATE WHAT THE WHOLE COMMUNITY FINALLY PAYS FOR A TRANSPORT IN EACH MODE. 22

23 100 km ROAD GRAPH OF A STUDY IN HOLLAND INLAND WATERWAYS INLAND WATERWAYS RAIL 268 km* 200 km * ENERGY-CONSUMPTION PRODUCTION OF GASSES PRODUCTION OF GASSES WITH THE SAME AMOUNT OF ENERGY: ** LITTLE COUNTRY. BIGGER COUNTRIES SHOW MUCH HIGHER ADVANTAGES FOR RR AND WATERWAYS INITIAL / FINAL TRANSP. INITIAL / FINAL TRANSP. 23

24 WHAT DO WE COMPARE ? IN ARG. NOBODY COMPARES COSTS. IN ARG. NOBODY COMPARES COSTS. HERE WE COMPARE TARRIFFS / CHARGES, HERE WE COMPARE TARRIFFS / CHARGES, FOR INSTANCE WHAT A TRUCKER CHARGES TO BRING A LOAD OF BAGGED PEANUTS FROM CORDOBA, WITH WHAT THE RAILWAY- COMPANY N.C.A. CHARGES. FOR INSTANCE WHAT A TRUCKER CHARGES TO BRING A LOAD OF BAGGED PEANUTS FROM CORDOBA, WITH WHAT THE RAILWAY- COMPANY N.C.A. CHARGES. TRUCK: SUBSIDIZED FUEL, AVERAGE > 15 YRS, WEIGHT/POWER, ACCIDENTS, OVERLOADED. TRUCK: SUBSIDIZED FUEL, AVERAGE > 15 YRS, WEIGHT/POWER, ACCIDENTS, OVERLOADED. THIS COMPARISON GIVES A FALSE IMAGE AND CONFUSES : IT DOES NOT REFLECT THE FINAL PRICE THAT IS PAID BY THE WHOLE COMMUNITY, INCLUDING ALL ELEMENTS THAT COMPOSE THE FINAL COST OF TRANSPORT, WHICH WE SAW BEFORE. THIS COMPARISON GIVES A FALSE IMAGE AND CONFUSES : IT DOES NOT REFLECT THE FINAL PRICE THAT IS PAID BY THE WHOLE COMMUNITY, INCLUDING ALL ELEMENTS THAT COMPOSE THE FINAL COST OF TRANSPORT, WHICH WE SAW BEFORE. 24

25 HERE INTERMODALISM IS A SLOGAN, NOT A POLICY THERE IS MUCH TALK THAT INTERMODAL TRANSPORT SHOULD BE FAVORED, BUT NOTHING IS DONE. THERE IS MUCH TALK THAT INTERMODAL TRANSPORT SHOULD BE FAVORED, BUT NOTHING IS DONE. REAL TRANSPORT-POLICIES EFFECTUALLY PROMOTE THE MOST ECONOMIC MODES, REAL TRANSPORT-POLICIES EFFECTUALLY PROMOTE THE MOST ECONOMIC MODES, WHICH EVERYBODY KNOWS: WHICH EVERYBODY KNOWS: COASTAL NAVEGATION AND INLAND WATERWAYS, COASTAL NAVEGATION AND INLAND WATERWAYS, AND RAILWAYS. AND RAILWAYS. 25

26 ACCESES TO PORTS: A FUNDAMENTAL PART OF A PORT-SYSTEM. MODERN CONCEPT: A PORT WITHOUT EFFICIENT RAIL-CONNECTIONS IS NOT AN EFFICIENT PORT. MODERN CONCEPT: A PORT WITHOUT EFFICIENT RAIL-CONNECTIONS IS NOT AN EFFICIENT PORT. NEITHER IS A PORT EFFICIENT IF ITS ROAD-ACCESSES ARE NOT EFFICIENT. NEITHER IS A PORT EFFICIENT IF ITS ROAD-ACCESSES ARE NOT EFFICIENT. THE NEW PRIVATE TERMINALS IN THIS REGION (CAMPANA-ZARATE) CAN EASILY PROVE THEIR ADVANTAGES COMPARED WITH THE PORT OF BUENOS AIRES. THE NEW PRIVATE TERMINALS IN THIS REGION (CAMPANA-ZARATE) CAN EASILY PROVE THEIR ADVANTAGES COMPARED WITH THE PORT OF BUENOS AIRES. 26

27 THE PORT OF BUENOS AIRES IS TOTALLY STRANGLED BY 12 MILLION PEOPLE. SUCH A PORT CAN NEVER HAVE EFFICIENT ACCESSES 27 THIS PICTURE, WHICH SHOWS THE SAME FROM ALL ANGLES, TELLS MORE THAN A BOOK.

28 28 AMPLE POSSIBILITIES TO EXPAND. KM 91 7 KM N.C.A N.C.A. 2 BERTHS / 2 S-T-S-CRANES PHOTO 2001 ACCESSES TERMINAL ZARATE PANAMERICANA OVER WHICH MOST EXPO & IMPO TRAVEL. 28

29 29 T.I.L 33 hect SQM 2 tracks x 650 m N.C.A. 1 km STEEP SLOPE 2 tracks x 550 m 2 x 1200 m 120 hect T.I.L T.I.L CAN OPERATE With TRAINS OF 1200 m length TERMINAL ZARATE & THE INTERMODAL- TERMINAL. PHOTO later in HECT. +28 hectares HANDELSVEEM

30 MAPA ESC 1: / 75 %

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32 SO WHY ZARATE ? ITS POSITION, CHEAP LAND WITH EXISITING ROAD / IMPORTANT INDUSTRIAL PARK, WITH COMMITMENT OF THE PROVINCE OF B. A. TO MAINTAIN. ITS POSITION, CHEAP LAND WITH EXISITING ROAD / IMPORTANT INDUSTRIAL PARK, WITH COMMITMENT OF THE PROVINCE OF B. A. TO MAINTAIN. CLOSE TO PRINCIPAL RAILWAY-NETW. CLOSE TO PRINCIPAL RAILWAY-NETW. ENERGY SUPPLY AVAILABLE FOR CRANES, REEFER-CONT. ETC. ENERGY SUPPLY AVAILABLE FOR CRANES, REEFER-CONT. ETC. GOOD LABOR-FORCE - SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT / SCHOOLS. GOOD LABOR-FORCE - SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT / SCHOOLS. RIVER SELF-DREDGING. NATURAL DRAFT 35 AT THE FOOT OF THE PIER. (COFFEE-BREAK) RIVER SELF-DREDGING. NATURAL DRAFT 35 AT THE FOOT OF THE PIER. (COFFEE-BREAK) 32

33 ROADS (SHIELDS) MOST PARALLEL TO RAIL-RDS BELGRANO BLUE 1,00 m + / KM TRACKS, MOSTLY IN POOR CONDITIONS. RECENTLY TAKEN BACK BY THE STATE. Privately operated railways BY THE STATE. Privately operated railways A.L.L. (MESOP.) mm A.L.L. CENTRO mm BS.AS. – CUYO (PINK) N.C.A. (YELLOW) mm NCA: TUCUMÁN – Santiago del ESTERO – ROSARIO, S. del ESTERO – CORDOBA - ROSARIO FROM ROSARIO N.C.A. FOLLOWS THE COAST OF THE PARANA-RIVER. 33 MAP made in 2001 by MURCHISON with RIVER, ROADS & RAILWAY-SYSTEM OF THE NORTH AND WEST ANDESANDES The Govnmt should make this.

34 N.C.A and A.L.L. CONNECT just below ROSARIO AND FORM A SYSTEM THAT CONNECTS THE IMPORTANT ZONE OF THE CENTRE AND THE WEST WITH PORTS OF THE PARANA. SEE NEXT MAP FOR ZARATE- BUENOS AIRES.

35 35 PASSENGER-RAILWAYS IN RED A.L.L. N.C.A. BELGRANO

36 CONFLICTS OF INTERESTS EVERYWHERE WHERE HEAVY AND SLOW FREIGHT- TRAINS HAVE TO SHARE THE TRACKS WITH PASSENGER- TRAINS, A CONFLICT OF INTEREST IS CREATED. EVERYWHERE WHERE HEAVY AND SLOW FREIGHT- TRAINS HAVE TO SHARE THE TRACKS WITH PASSENGER- TRAINS, A CONFLICT OF INTEREST IS CREATED. THIS HAPPENS EVEN IN THE U.S.A., WHICH HAS THE BEST RAILWAY- SYSTEM OF THE WORLD. THIS HAPPENS EVEN IN THE U.S.A., WHICH HAS THE BEST RAILWAY- SYSTEM OF THE WORLD. ANOTHER EXAMPLE CLOSEBY CAN BE FOUND IN GREATER SAO PAULO - BRAZIL. ANOTHER EXAMPLE CLOSEBY CAN BE FOUND IN GREATER SAO PAULO - BRAZIL. IN THE CASE OF THE PORT OF BS. AS, IT PUTS THE FREIGHT-RAILWAYS NEARLY OUT OF THE COMPETITION. IN THE CASE OF THE PORT OF BS. AS, IT PUTS THE FREIGHT-RAILWAYS NEARLY OUT OF THE COMPETITION. 36

37 METROPOLITAN INTERESTS IMPROVE PUBLIC TRANSP. FOR PASSENGERS. IMPROVE PUBLIC TRANSP. FOR PASSENGERS. INCREASE FREQUENCIES, INCREASE FREQUENCIES, INCREASE SPEED OF TRAINS. INCREASE SPEED OF TRAINS. TRY TO STOP THE TREMENDOUS INCREASE OF CARS ENTERING THE CITY EVERY DAY. TRY TO STOP THE TREMENDOUS INCREASE OF CARS ENTERING THE CITY EVERY DAY. CONFLICTS: SLOW AND HEAVY FREIGHT-TRAINS INTERFERE / PRODUCE MAJOR WEAR OF TRACKS CONFLICTS: SLOW AND HEAVY FREIGHT-TRAINS INTERFERE / PRODUCE MAJOR WEAR OF TRACKS FREQUENT DERAILMENTS / DELAYS / ACCIDENTS FREQUENT DERAILMENTS / DELAYS / ACCIDENTS METROPOL. RAILWAYS IMPOSE RESTRICTIONS : METROPOL. RAILWAYS IMPOSE RESTRICTIONS : TIME-WINDOWS / NUMBER OF AXLES / 40 WAGONS TIME-WINDOWS / NUMBER OF AXLES / 40 WAGONS IN THE PORT AGP / SEPARATED TERMINALS / CUSTOMS-CONTROL / TRANSPORT RETIRO – PORT & v.v. BY TRUCK WITH HIGH EXTRA COSTS. IN THE PORT AGP / SEPARATED TERMINALS / CUSTOMS-CONTROL / TRANSPORT RETIRO – PORT & v.v. BY TRUCK WITH HIGH EXTRA COSTS. HARD FOR RAILWAYS TO COMPETE WITH TRUCKS, EVEN OVER LONG DISTANCES. HARD FOR RAILWAYS TO COMPETE WITH TRUCKS, EVEN OVER LONG DISTANCES. 37

38 INFORMATION N.C.A TUCUMAN – ROSARIO TERMINAL 6 : 880 KM. TUCUMAN – ROSARIO TERMINAL 6 : 880 KM. TRACKS REPAIRED (p. BAJO LA ALUMBRERA) TRACKS REPAIRED (p. BAJO LA ALUMBRERA) ONE-TRACK SYSTEM (11 CROSSING-ZONES OF 1,5 KM EACH) ONE-TRACK SYSTEM (11 CROSSING-ZONES OF 1,5 KM EACH) 2 LOCOs PULL 74 WAGONS TONS CARGO 2 LOCOs PULL 74 WAGONS TONS CARGO TOTAL CONVOY metres. SPEED. 30 km/hr TOTAL CONVOY metres. SPEED. 30 km/hr SECTOR CORDOBA - ROSARIO - ZARATE SECTOR CORDOBA - ROSARIO - ZARATE –MAX. 60 WAGONS PULLED BY 1 LOCOMOTIVE –IMPROVEMENTS PLANNED. ZARATE – RETIRO ZARATE – RETIRO –MAXIMUM 40 WAGONS / RETIRO-PORT BY TRUCK THIS EXPLAINS WHY FREIGHT- TRAINS LOSE COMPETITIVITY WHEN ENTERING BS AS. THIS EXPLAINS WHY FREIGHT- TRAINS LOSE COMPETITIVITY WHEN ENTERING BS AS. 38

39 CAMPANA-ZARATE 16 SPECIALIZED TERMINALS CONTAINERS / CARS / PIPES / FRUIT / FOREST-PRODUCTS / CHEMICALS. STRATEGIC ZONE WITH EXCELLENT LOGISTICS SERVICES 39

40 T.Z: UPRIVER 60 MILES UPRIVER FROM ENTRANCE TO THE B.A. PORT-CHANNEL 60 MILES UPRIVER FROM ENTRANCE TO THE B.A. PORT-CHANNEL 52 MILES EXTRA STEAMING 4 / 5 HRS 52 MILES EXTRA STEAMING 4 / 5 HRS RIVER 350 M / IF VSL DOCKS PORTSIDE-TO, NO TUG BOAT IS NECESARRY. FOR DEPARTURE NONE OR 1. RIVER 350 M / IF VSL DOCKS PORTSIDE-TO, NO TUG BOAT IS NECESARRY. FOR DEPARTURE NONE OR 1. COMPARED TO B.A.: COMPARED TO B.A.: PILOTAGE-COSTS ARE HIGHER. PILOTAGE-COSTS ARE HIGHER. TUGBOAT-COSTS AND PORT-DUES ARE LOWER, TUGBOAT-COSTS AND PORT-DUES ARE LOWER, OVERALL PORT-COSTS ARE LOWER AT T.Z. OVERALL PORT-COSTS ARE LOWER AT T.Z. 40

41 TERMINAL ZARATE: PORT AND RAIL-TERMINAL INTEGRATED SYSTEM : INTEGRATED SYSTEM : PORT TERMINAL PORT TERMINAL 120 HECTARES / 300 ACRES: 120 HECTARES / 300 ACRES: RAIL-TRANSFER AND LOGISTICS / T.I.L RAIL-TRANSFER AND LOGISTICS / T.I.L 33 HECTARES / 82 ACRES, 33 HECTARES / 82 ACRES, ONLY PORT IN THE COUNTRY WITH OWN NEAR - DOCK TRANSFER-TERMINAL. ONLY PORT IN THE COUNTRY WITH OWN NEAR - DOCK TRANSFER-TERMINAL. CLOSE TO MAIN MOTORWAYS/ RAILWAYS CLOSE TO MAIN MOTORWAYS/ RAILWAYS AWAY FROM URBAN TRAFFIC. AWAY FROM URBAN TRAFFIC. 41

42 ONE PORT, TWO SPECIALIZED TERMINALS CONTAINER TERMINAL PHASE ONE: CONTAINER TERMINAL PHASE ONE: 10 HECT + 50 HECT FOR EXPANSION. 10 HECT + 50 HECT FOR EXPANSION. CAR-DIVISION OVER 90 HECTARES PORT : m BORDERING RIVER x m PORT : m BORDERING RIVER x m 3 BERTHS / ROOM FOR 2 MORE. 3 BERTHS / ROOM FOR 2 MORE. NATURAL DRAFT 35. (34 RESTR. R. PLATE) NATURAL DRAFT 35. (34 RESTR. R. PLATE) NO NEED TO DREDGE. NO NEED TO DREDGE. 42

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48 ADVANTAGES TERM. ZARATE PROVEN STRATEGIC POSITION, PROVEN STRATEGIC POSITION, EXCELLENT ROAD CONNECTIONS, OUTSIDE OF URBAN ZONES, EXCELLENT ROAD CONNECTIONS, OUTSIDE OF URBAN ZONES, EXCELLENT RAIL CONECTIONS WITH DIRECT LINK TO TRUNK-SYSTEM N.C.A. & A.L.L. - CENTRAL / FFCC-BELGRANO EXCELLENT RAIL CONECTIONS WITH DIRECT LINK TO TRUNK-SYSTEM N.C.A. & A.L.L. - CENTRAL / FFCC-BELGRANO LOWER TRANSPORT COSTS FOR MOST EXPORT- AND IMPORT-CARGOES. LOWER TRANSPORT COSTS FOR MOST EXPORT- AND IMPORT-CARGOES. MUCH CHEAP LAND AVAILABLE AROUND THE PORT FOR LOGISTIC ACTIVITIES, WITHOUT FACING URBAN CONGESTION. MUCH CHEAP LAND AVAILABLE AROUND THE PORT FOR LOGISTIC ACTIVITIES, WITHOUT FACING URBAN CONGESTION. EXCELLENT POSSIBILITIES TO COMPETE WITH THE PORT OF BUENOS AIRES. EXCELLENT POSSIBILITIES TO COMPETE WITH THE PORT OF BUENOS AIRES. 48

49 RESULTS DURING 2003 & 2004 A WEEKLY SERVICE TO NORTH – EUROPE CALLED AT T.Z.: DURING 2003 & 2004 A WEEKLY SERVICE TO NORTH – EUROPE CALLED AT T.Z.: THE RAILWAYS TRANSPORTED > 40 % OF THE EXPORT-CARGO AND > 10 % OF THE IMPORT-CARGO. THE RAILWAYS TRANSPORTED > 40 % OF THE EXPORT-CARGO AND > 10 % OF THE IMPORT-CARGO. APPROX. 28% OF TOTAL MOVES. APPROX. 28% OF TOTAL MOVES. OTHER COMPANIES CONSTRUCTED WAREHOUSES IN THE ZONE. OTHER COMPANIES CONSTRUCTED WAREHOUSES IN THE ZONE. THIS DEVELOPMENT WAS CLEARLY TO THE BENEFIT OF OUR ECONOMY. THIS DEVELOPMENT WAS CLEARLY TO THE BENEFIT OF OUR ECONOMY. COMPARE: RAILWAYS HAVE A SHARE OF LESS THAN 6 % IN THE TOTAL MOVEMENTS OF THE PORT OF BUENOS AIRES. ( NEARLY ALL BY TRUCK FROM RETIRO-STATION ) COMPARE: RAILWAYS HAVE A SHARE OF LESS THAN 6 % IN THE TOTAL MOVEMENTS OF THE PORT OF BUENOS AIRES. ( NEARLY ALL BY TRUCK FROM RETIRO-STATION ) 49

50 OCT SETBACK T.Z. THE LINE DECIDED TO MAKE CHANGES / HAD TO TAKE OUT THE LINE TO N.E. / OFFERED LINE TO THE U.S.GULF. MORE CARGO / BIGGER SHIPS (243,3 m). THE LINE DECIDED TO MAKE CHANGES / HAD TO TAKE OUT THE LINE TO N.E. / OFFERED LINE TO THE U.S.GULF. MORE CARGO / BIGGER SHIPS (243,3 m). NORM = 230 m / 241,5 m WITH SPECIAL PERMISSION. NORM = 230 m / 241,5 m WITH SPECIAL PERMISSION. SIMULATIONS 265m/ REAL TRIAL / ALL SATISFACTORY. SIMULATIONS 265m/ REAL TRIAL / ALL SATISFACTORY COAST GUARD GAVE WRITTEN AUTHORIZATION TO ESTABLISH A REGULAR LINE WITH SHIPS OF 243,3 m TO TERMINAL. Z COAST GUARD GAVE WRITTEN AUTHORIZATION TO ESTABLISH A REGULAR LINE WITH SHIPS OF 243,3 m TO TERMINAL. Z FIRST SHIP ARRIVED AT THE ROADS OFF MONTEVIDEO, BUT WAS REFUSED TO PROCEED TO ZARATE. (ORDERS FROM THE MIN. OF HOME-AFFAIRS) FIRST SHIP ARRIVED AT THE ROADS OFF MONTEVIDEO, BUT WAS REFUSED TO PROCEED TO ZARATE. (ORDERS FROM THE MIN. OF HOME-AFFAIRS). EXPORT-CONTAINERS ALREADY IN T.Z. EXPORT-CONTAINERS ALREADY IN T.Z. OWNERS OBLIGED TO URGENTLY FIND A TERMINAL IN BUENOS AIRES TO DISCHARGE. OWNERS OBLIGED TO URGENTLY FIND A TERMINAL IN BUENOS AIRES TO DISCHARGE. IMPACT: T.Z. NEVER COULD RECOVER DEEPSEA CLIENTS, ATTENDS ONLY BARGES, ONE MIXED RO-RO SERVICE, 1 TRANSSHIPMENT SERVICE (MSC) AND A SERVICE TO BRASIL ONLY TEU. IMPACT: T.Z. NEVER COULD RECOVER DEEPSEA CLIENTS, ATTENDS ONLY BARGES, ONE MIXED RO-RO SERVICE, 1 TRANSSHIPMENT SERVICE (MSC) AND A SERVICE TO BRASIL ONLY TEU. 50

51 PLEASE SEE THE FULL EXPLANATION IN THE DOCUMENT HOW THE ALLOWED LENGTHS IN THE RIVER PARANÁ EVOLVED FROM THE EIGHTIES TO THE PRESENT. PLEASE SEE THE FULL EXPLANATION IN THE DOCUMENT HOW THE ALLOWED LENGTHS IN THE RIVER PARANÁ EVOLVED FROM THE EIGHTIES TO THE PRESENT. 51

52 WHILE T.Z IS IDLE: BUENOS AIRES & DOCK SUD SUFFER A GROWING CONGESTION, BUENOS AIRES & DOCK SUD SUFFER A GROWING CONGESTION, WHICH CAUSES STEEP COST- INCREASES, WHICH CAUSES STEEP COST- INCREASES, WHICH ARE PAID BY CONSUMERS AND PRODUCERS OF THE WHOLE COUNTRY. WHICH ARE PAID BY CONSUMERS AND PRODUCERS OF THE WHOLE COUNTRY. THE SHIPPING-LINES ALSO FACE GREAT PROBLEMS IN BUENOS AIRES. THE SHIPPING-LINES ALSO FACE GREAT PROBLEMS IN BUENOS AIRES. MORE AND MORE VESSELS TURN AROUND IN BRAZIL OR MONTEVIDEO, MORE AND MORE VESSELS TURN AROUND IN BRAZIL OR MONTEVIDEO, AND THAT IS THE DECLARED REASON WHY M.S.C. DECIDED IN APRIL 2008 TO START A SERVICE WITH TRANSSHIPMENT IN SOUTH BRASIL. AND THAT IS THE DECLARED REASON WHY M.S.C. DECIDED IN APRIL 2008 TO START A SERVICE WITH TRANSSHIPMENT IN SOUTH BRASIL. SEVERAL HAVE ANNOUNCED THAT THEY WILL FOLLOW THIS EXAMPLE IN SEVERAL HAVE ANNOUNCED THAT THEY WILL FOLLOW THIS EXAMPLE IN

53 TITLE UNCTAD STUDY 2004 AN ASSESSMENT OF THE LAND- SEA-PORT INTERFASE. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE LAND- SEA-PORT INTERFASE. ARGENTINA SHOULD PAY ATTENTION TO THIS UNITED NATION´S STUDY: ARGENTINA SHOULD PAY ATTENTION TO THIS UNITED NATION´S STUDY: 53 of 65

54 UNCTAD FOUND THAT MANY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES DO NOT EVALUATE CORRECTLY, HOW THEIR INEFFICIENT PORTS AFFECT THEIR NATIONAL ECONOMIES: MANY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES DO NOT EVALUATE CORRECTLY, HOW THEIR INEFFICIENT PORTS AFFECT THEIR NATIONAL ECONOMIES: –MANY ANALIZE ONLY HOW THE PORTS SERVE THE INTERESTS OF THE VESSELS, –THEY DO NOT PAY ATTENTION TO THE QUALITY OF THE SERVICE THEIR PORTS DELIVER TO THE PRINCIPAL CLIENT, –WHICH IS THE CARGO –WHICH IS THE CARGO –AND NOT THE VESSEL AS MANY BELIEVE OR WANT TO MAKE BELIEVE. AUTHORITIES SHOULD PAY MORE ATTENTION TO THE TOTAL COSTS. AUTHORITIES SHOULD PAY MORE ATTENTION TO THE TOTAL COSTS. 54

55 MANY PORTS ONLY INFORM : THE BIGGEST SHIP THEY CAN RECEIVE ( LENGTH, WIDTH, DRAFTS ETC.) THE BIGGEST SHIP THEY CAN RECEIVE ( LENGTH, WIDTH, DRAFTS ETC.) BERTHS, YARDS, CRANES AND EQUIPMENTS OF THE PORT, BERTHS, YARDS, CRANES AND EQUIPMENTS OF THE PORT, HOW MANY MOVES OR TONS PER HOUR THE PORTS CAN PERFORM, HOW MANY MOVES OR TONS PER HOUR THE PORTS CAN PERFORM, IF THE PORT IS FREE OF DELAYS AND CONGESTION, IF THE PORT IS FREE OF DELAYS AND CONGESTION, AND OTHER SIMILAR INFORMATION THAT HAS TO DO WITH THE SERVICE TO THE SHIP-OWNER. AND OTHER SIMILAR INFORMATION THAT HAS TO DO WITH THE SERVICE TO THE SHIP-OWNER. 55

56 BUT THIS IS NOT ENOUGH THEY DO NOT INFORM HOW THE PORT AFFECTS THE TOTAL COSTS FROM ORIGIN TO DESTINATION. THEY DO NOT INFORM HOW THE PORT AFFECTS THE TOTAL COSTS FROM ORIGIN TO DESTINATION. THE AUTHORITIES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES SHOULD PAY MORE ATTENTION TO THE QUALITY OF THE SERVICES THAT THEIR PORTS GIVE TO THE OWNERS OF THE CARGO: THE AUTHORITIES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES SHOULD PAY MORE ATTENTION TO THE QUALITY OF THE SERVICES THAT THEIR PORTS GIVE TO THE OWNERS OF THE CARGO: THEY MUST INFORM HOW THE POSITION OF THE PORT IS IN THE SUPPLY-CHAIN, THEY MUST INFORM HOW THE POSITION OF THE PORT IS IN THE SUPPLY-CHAIN, –WHAT LOGISTIC-CENTERS (Z.A.L.) ARE AVAILABLE AND WHAT INTERMODAL SERVICES ARE OFFERED, –THEY MUST EVALUATE BETTER HOW THE PORTS SERVE THE CARGO – INTERESTS 56

57 HOW DO WE SEE THE FUTURE 2009 CHANGES IN PORT-POLICIES IN BRAZIL CHANGES IN PORT-POLICIES IN BRAZIL. MANY NEW PROJECTS THAT WILL OFFER TRANSSHIPMENT SERVICES : MANY NEW PROJECTS THAT WILL OFFER TRANSSHIPMENT SERVICES : SEPETIBA / ITAGUAÍ, (75 km DE R.de J.) SEPETIBA / ITAGUAÍ, (75 km DE R.de J.) SANTOS !!!, SANTOS !!!, PARANAGUA, PARANAGUA, SAN FRANCISCO DO SUL / ITAPOÁ ( HSD) SAN FRANCISCO DO SUL / ITAPOÁ ( HSD) MSC: NAVEGANTES OR SANTOS ??? MSC: NAVEGANTES OR SANTOS ??? ( RIO GRANDE DO SUL) ( SOME SHIPPING-LINES ALREADY TURN AROUND IN RIO GRANDE AND TRANSSHIP CONTAINERS TO VESSELS OF THEIR OTHER LINES TO MVD AND BUENOS AIRES). ( RIO GRANDE DO SUL) ( SOME SHIPPING-LINES ALREADY TURN AROUND IN RIO GRANDE AND TRANSSHIP CONTAINERS TO VESSELS OF THEIR OTHER LINES TO MVD AND BUENOS AIRES). 57

58 Photo taken in Buenos Aires HAMBURG SUD LENGTH 286 m BREADTH 40 m DRAFT 44 FEET 13,5 m 58 THIS TYPE IS THE BIGGEST CONTAINER- VESSEL THAT ENTERED THE PORT OF BUENOS AIRES SO FAR, AND MOST PEOPLE AGREE THAT IT HAS THE MAXIMUM DIMENSIONS THIS PORT CAN SAFELY ACCEPT.

59 Knud Maersk ( 7000 TEU) which reportedly soon will enter the service between North Europe / East Coast South America. 59

60 60

61 Suape Buenos Aires Montevideo Santos EEUU Europa FAR EAST / S. AFRICA also 1 serv. F.E. ONE IMPORTANT SHIPPING-LINE PARTICIPATES WITH 12 VSLS IN 2 U.S.A. SERV. AND ANOTHER 12 VSLS in 2 SERVICES TO EUROPE RIO-SANTOS-PAGUA TEU 45% TEU 45% S.C R.G AND ALL CONTINUE TO THE SOUTH ALL 24 CALL AT SANTOS A FRICA CARGO-MOVEMENTS 2007 IMPO/ EXPO BRASIL / UR./ ARG TEU FULL CONT. ± TEU RIO GRANDE ARG TEU 23% s.c % S.C./R.G./ MDEO/ REST N. BRAZIL

62 IN THE PRESENT SYSTEM, NEARLY ALL VSLS CARRYING CARGO FOR ARGENTINA, CALL SANTOS WHERE THEY DROP A MAJOR PART OF THEIR CARGO, IN THE PRESENT SYSTEM, NEARLY ALL VSLS CARRYING CARGO FOR ARGENTINA, CALL SANTOS WHERE THEY DROP A MAJOR PART OF THEIR CARGO, AND THEN CONTINUE SOUTHWARD, AND THEN CONTINUE SOUTHWARD, SOME TURN AROUND IN RIO GRANDE, SOME IN MONTEVIDEO AND MANY CONTINUE TO BUENOS AIRES. SOME TURN AROUND IN RIO GRANDE, SOME IN MONTEVIDEO AND MANY CONTINUE TO BUENOS AIRES. THE BEST SIZE OF THE VESSELS TO SERVE THE REGION, IS NOT BASED ON THE VOLUME THAT ARGENTINA PROVIDES, BUT ON WHAT THE BRAZILIAN MARKET OFFERS. THE BEST SIZE OF THE VESSELS TO SERVE THE REGION, IS NOT BASED ON THE VOLUME THAT ARGENTINA PROVIDES, BUT ON WHAT THE BRAZILIAN MARKET OFFERS. THIS MEANS THAT AFTER SANTOS, VESSELS OF 5 / 6000 TEU SAIL SOUTH WITH SOME 2000 TEU, IN OTHER WORDS, LESS THAN 40% OF CAPACITY. THIS MEANS THAT AFTER SANTOS, VESSELS OF 5 / 6000 TEU SAIL SOUTH WITH SOME 2000 TEU, IN OTHER WORDS, LESS THAN 40% OF CAPACITY. 62

63 YOU CAN SEE THAT WITH TRANSSHIPMENT IN SANTOS, THE LINES CAN OFFER THE SAME QUALITY OF SERVICES FOR PORTS TO THE SOUTH, WITH LESS VESSELS. YOU CAN SEE THAT WITH TRANSSHIPMENT IN SANTOS, THE LINES CAN OFFER THE SAME QUALITY OF SERVICES FOR PORTS TO THE SOUTH, WITH LESS VESSELS. SO FAR THIS IS IMPOSSIBLE, BECAUSE BRAZILIAN PORTS CAN NOT YET OFFER THIS SERVICE. SO FAR THIS IS IMPOSSIBLE, BECAUSE BRAZILIAN PORTS CAN NOT YET OFFER THIS SERVICE. ( IT IS NOT YET CLEAR, HOW THE CRISIS, WITH PLUMMETING CHARTER-RATES, WILL AFFECT THE COST-CALCULATIONS). ( IT IS NOT YET CLEAR, HOW THE CRISIS, WITH PLUMMETING CHARTER-RATES, WILL AFFECT THE COST-CALCULATIONS). 63

64 DL ARG. +/ % SANTOS-RIO RIO-STS-PÁGUA +/ TEU 6000 TEU 64 DIRECT LINES

65 I BELIEVE TIME IS UP: ARGENTINA URGENTLY NEEDS TO DEVELOP REAL TRANSPORT - POLICIES : ARGENTINA URGENTLY NEEDS TO DEVELOP REAL TRANSPORT - POLICIES : IT MUST STUDY ALL TRANSPORT- PROBLEMS IN A GLOBAL MANNER : PORTS - AND INLAND- TRANSPORT TOGETHER, NOT SEPARATELY. ( NOW PRACTICALLY NOTHING AT ALL OF THIS IS STUDIED IN ARGENTINA ). IT MUST STUDY ALL TRANSPORT- PROBLEMS IN A GLOBAL MANNER : PORTS - AND INLAND- TRANSPORT TOGETHER, NOT SEPARATELY. ( NOW PRACTICALLY NOTHING AT ALL OF THIS IS STUDIED IN ARGENTINA ). –IT MUST CREATE A MORE EFFCIENT SYSTEM AND SEE HOW THE PORTS AND THE OVERALL TRANSPORT NETWORKS CAN BE INTEGRATED. –IT MUST SOLVE THE SERIOUS PROBLEMS OF THE FREIGHT-RAILWAYS (AND OUR CASE, T.Z.) ONLY BY LOWERING OUR EXCESSIVE INTERNAL TRANSPORTATION - COSTS, CAN THE COUNTRY BECOME COMPETITIVE. ONLY BY LOWERING OUR EXCESSIVE INTERNAL TRANSPORTATION - COSTS, CAN THE COUNTRY BECOME COMPETITIVE. TERMINAL ZARATE, WITH ITS REAL ADVANTAGES, SHOULD BE PROMOTED, INSTEAD OF BEING ELIMINATED FROM THE COMPETITION BY A MONOPOLY ( PORT OF B.A. & DOCK SUD). TERMINAL ZARATE, WITH ITS REAL ADVANTAGES, SHOULD BE PROMOTED, INSTEAD OF BEING ELIMINATED FROM THE COMPETITION BY A MONOPOLY ( PORT OF B.A. & DOCK SUD). 65


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