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The Skin Why Protect It Associate Professor Geoff Sussman.

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Presentation on theme: "The Skin Why Protect It Associate Professor Geoff Sussman."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Skin Why Protect It Associate Professor Geoff Sussman

2 Protects Transmits sensations: touch, pressure, pain Regulates body temperature Excretes wastes Prevents excessive loss of body fluids Synthesizes vitamin D

3 15 sebaceous glands 0.9 metres of blood vessels 100 sweat glands 3,000 sensory nerve cells 3.7 metre of nerves 25 pressure apparatus for touch 2 receptors for cold 12 receptors for heat 300,000 epidermal cells 10 hairs

4 Dermis loses 80% of its original thickness 40% less collagen Sebum and sweat production is reduced Epidermal layer separates more easily from the dermis Elastin fibres decrease in number but increase in size, thus making the skin stiff Decrease in Langerhan cells - thus the immune system functions Small blood vessels diminish by 40% vitamin D, collagen and moisture migration of capillary epithelial cells epidermal turnover fragility of capillaries

5 SKIN Ph SKIN MOISTURE SUN DAMAGE USE OF SKIN ADHESIVES

6 It is essential to ensure as the skin ages that appropriate measures are taken such as not using soap or other alkaline pH products that will increase the drying and therefore cracking of the skin

7 The acid mantle of the stratum corneum seems to be important for both permeability barrier formation and skin antimicrobial defense. Changes in the pH are reported to play a role in the cause of skin diseases like irritant contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, acne vulgaris and fungal infections. Repeated washings with soap may reduce the normal skin flora, leading to an increased colonization of the skin with coagulase- negative staphylococci.

8 The basic fat usually animal fat but may include vegetable fat is mixed with Caustic Soda to saponify the mixture and form the base soap mill. This is then mixed with additives, perfume, and other ingredients and then pressed into moulds to form the bar of soap. The issue is that the Caustic Soda is not neutralized so the final product is alkaline.

9 Most soaps and detergents are alkaline and induce an increase in cutaneous pH, which affects the physiologic protective acid mantle of the skin by decreasing the fat content. Disruption of stratum corneum and changes in pH are key elements in the induction of irritant contact dermatitis and pruritus by soaps. These conditions are exacerbated in the winter months in people with dry, sensitive skin.

10 BrandpH Neutrogena 9.5 Cussons Baby Soap 10.8 Cussons Imperial Leather 10.9 J & J Baby Soap 11.0 Palmolive Regular 11.0 Pears 10.8 Velvet 11.0 Simple Soap 11.2

11 Dove QV Bar Wash wounds with a pH 5-6 wash if basically clean Cetaphil Bar

12 Using appropriate moisturising agents to ensure suppleness and to minimise the drying effects of the ageing process on the skin including. Skin creams e.g. Sorbolene {little value} Skin ointments e.g. Wool Alcohols ointment Bath oils Barrier films

13 Sorbolene Sorbolene and other aqueous creams are of little value as Moisturizers. Recent published studies in the British Journal of Dermatology have reported a significant increase in transepidermal water loss. Another study reported Impacts on cellular and molecular level of the skin. Increased desquamatory and inflammatory protease activity. Changes in corneocyte maturity and size indicate an accelerated skin turnover induced by chronic application of this Emollient. Danby ey al The effects of aqueous cream on the skin barrier in patients withy a previous history of atopic dermatitis BJ Derm , Mohammed D et al Influence of aqueous cream on corneocyte size, maturity, skin protease activity, protein content and transepidermal water loss. B J Dermat ,

14 Products from Ego Products from Hamilton Products from Dermatech Products from Nivea Simple products with few preservatives and few ingredients.

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16 Use of a Lactic Acid Foot Heel Cream

17 1.WOUNDS SHOULD BE KEPT CLEAN AND DRY SO THAT A SCAB FORMS OVER THE WOUND 2.WOUNDS SHOULD BE EXPOSED TO AIR AND SUNLIGHT AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE 3.WHERE TISSUE LOSS IS PRESENT THE WOUND SHOULD BE PACKED TO PREVENT SURFACE CLOSURE BEFORE THE CAVITY IS FILLED 4.WOUNDS SHOULD BE COVERED WITH A DRY DRESSING

18 1.THE SCAB (DEHYDRATED EXUDATE AND DYING DERMIS) IS A PHYSICAL BARRIER TO HEALING THE DELAY BECAUSE EPIDERMAL CELLS CANNOT MOVE EASILY UNDER THE SCAB THERE MAY BE POOR COSMETIC RESULTS AND SCARRING. 2. EXPOSURE TO AIR REDUCES SURFACE TEMPERATURE OF THE WOUND AND DRIES THE WOUND CAUSING FURTHER DELAYS HEALING 3. GAUZE PACKING IMPAIRES THE QUALITY OF HEALING 4. THE DRESSING MAY ADHERE TO THE WOUND AND CAUSE TRAUMA WHEN IT IS REMOVED.

19 What factors effects wound healing Intrinsic - health status - immune function - age factors - body build - diabetes - nutritional status Extrinsic - mechanical stress - debris - temperature - drying/maceration - infection - chemical stress - other factors (e.g. smoking, drugs)

20 Antisepsis Acute injuries will often be contaminated by the surroundings where the injury occurred e.g. dirt, gravel, grass, clothing or other foreign material. The risk of infection developing in these wounds is high due to the inflammatory nature of the wound as the tissue commences the healing process.

21 Antisepsis The thorough decontaminating of the wound with a good surfactant product will help to remove most of the foreign material and reduce the risk of infection. It is also appropriate to apply a topical antiseptic before dressing the wound. This is usually left in place for 3-5 minutes and then washed off with clean water.

22 The use of alcoholic hand gels is superior to washing.

23 Out with the Old and in with the New

24 What should a home First Aid kit contain

25 Simple non-waterproof dressing Simple waterproof dressing Antiseptic solution Strips

26 Foam dressings Haemostatic dressing Hydrogel dressings

27 Bandages Cleaning swabs

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