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Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Chapter 11 Organizational Behavior Nelson & Quick, 6 th edition Power.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Chapter 11 Organizational Behavior Nelson & Quick, 6 th edition Power."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Chapter 11 Organizational Behavior Nelson & Quick, 6 th edition Power and Political Behavior

2 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Concept of Power Power - Power - the ability to influence another person Influence - Influence - the process of affecting the thoughts, behavior, and feelings of another person Authority - Authority - the right to influence another person

3 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Concept of Power Zone of Indifference - Zone of Indifference - the range in which attempts to influence a person will be perceived as legitimate & will be acted on without a great deal of thought Zone of Indifference Managers strive to expand employees zone of indifference

4 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Sources of Organizational Power: Interpersonal Reward Power - Reward Power - agents ability to control the rewards that the target wants Coercive Power - Coercive Power - agents ability to cause an unpleasant experience for a target Legitimate Power- Legitimate Power - agent and target agree that agent has influential rights, based on position and mutual agreement

5 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Sources of Organizational Power: Interpersonal Referent Power - Referent Power - based on interpersonal attraction; charismatic Expert Power - Expert Power - agent has knowledge target needs Photos courtesy of Clips Online ©2008 Microsoft Corporation

6 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Which Power is Most Effective? Expert Power! Strong relationship to performance & satisfaction Transfers vital skills, abilities, and knowledge within the organization Employees internalize what they observe & learn from managers they consider experts

7 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Information Power Information Power - Information Power - access to and control over important information Formal/informal position in communication network Interpreting information when passing it on (the spin) Can flow upward, downward, and laterally Photos courtesy of Clips Online ©2008 Microsoft Corporation

8 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Criteria for Using Power Ethically Does the behavior produce a good outcome for people both inside and outside the organization? Does the behavior respect the rights of all parties? Does the behavior treat all parties equitably and fairly? Photos courtesy of Clips Online ©2008 Microsoft Corporation

9 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Two Faces of Power Personal Power - Personal Power - power used for personal gain Social Power – Social Power – power used to create motivation or to accomplish group goals

10 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Characteristics of Successful Power Users Have high need for social power Approach relationships with a communal orientation Focus on needs and interests of others AltruismBelief in justice Belief in the authority system Preference for work & discipline Photos courtesy of Clips Online ©2008 Microsoft Corporation

11 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Sources of Organizational Power: Intergroup Control of critical resources strategic contingencies -Control of strategic contingencies - activities that other groups need to complete their tasks Photos courtesy of Clips Online ©2008 Microsoft Corporation

12 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Sources of Organizational Power: Intergroup Ways groups hold power over other groups (strategic contingency) –Ability to cope with uncertainty –High degree of centrality - functionality central to organizations success –Nonsubstitutability - groups activities are indispensable

13 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Power Analysis: A Broader View Organizational Power Coercive Power - Coercive Power - influence through threat of punishment, fear, or intimidation Utilitarian Power - Utilitarian Power - influence through rewards and benefits Normative Power - Normative Power - influence through using knowledge of members desire for belonging; letting members know they are expected to do the right thing

14 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Power Analysis: A Broader View Types of Membership Alienative Membership - Alienative Membership - members feel hostile, negative, do not want to be there Calculative Membership - Calculative Membership - members weigh benefits and limitations of belonging Moral Membership - Moral Membership - members have positive organizational feelings; will deny own needs

15 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Etzionis Power Analysis Type of Membership Type of Power AlienativeCalculativeMoral Normative Utilitarian Coercive SOURCE: Adapted from Amitai Etzioni, Modern Organizations (Upper Saddle River, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1964), Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, N.J.

16 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Kanters Symbols of Power Ability to intercede for someone in trouble Ability to get placements for favored employees Exceeding budget limitations Procuring above-average raises for employees Getting items on meeting agendas Access to early information Having top managers seek out their opinion Photos courtesy of Clips Online ©2008 Microsoft Corporation

17 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Kanters Symbols of Powerlessness First-line Supervisors Overly close supervision Inflexible adherence to rules Do job rather than train Key to overcoming powerlessness: share power & delegate decision making Managers Assign external attribution - Blame others Blame environment Top Executives Budget cuts Punishing behaviors Top-down communications Staff Professionals Resistance to change Turf protection

18 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Kordas Power Symbols Time Furnishings Size of desk Rectangular table Locked file cabinet Access Who has access to you? To whom do you have access? Photos courtesy of Clips Online ©2008 Microsoft Corporation

19 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Kordas Power Symbols Power - Power - there are more people who inconvenience themselves on your behalf than there are people on whose behalf you would inconvenience yourself Status - Status - a persons relative standing in a group based on prestige and deference

20 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Political Behavior in Organizations Organizational Politics - Organizational Politics - the use of power and influence in organizations Political Behavior - Political Behavior - actions not officially sanctioned by an organization that are taken to influence others in order to meet ones personal goals

21 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Conditions Encouraging Political Activity Unclear goals Autocratic decision making Ambiguous lines of authority Scarce resources Uncertainty Photos courtesy of Clips Online ©2008 Microsoft Corporation

22 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Effective Political Characteristics What characteristics do effective political actors possess? Photos courtesy of Clips Online ©2008 Microsoft Corporation

23 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Influence Tactics Upward Influence: the boss Downward Influence: an employee Lateral Influence: a coworker Pressure Upward appeals Exchange tactics Coalition Ingratiation Rational persuasion Inspirational appeals Consultation

24 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Most Effective Tactic: Influence by Rational Persuasion The person uses logical arguments and factual evidence to persuade you that a proposal or request is viable and likely to result in the attainment of task objectives. This new procedure will save us over $150,000. Photos courtesy of Clips Online ©2008 Microsoft Corporation

25 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Effective Tactic: Influence by Ingratiation The person seeks to get you in a good mood or to think favorably of him or her before asking you to do something. SOURCE: Information on slides from the first two columns from G. Yuki and C. M. Falbe. Influence Tactics and Objectives in Upward, Downward, and Lateral Influence Attempts. Journal of Applied Psychology 75 (1990): Copyright © 1990 by the American Psychological Association. Reprinted with permission. Only you can do this job right! Photos courtesy of Clips Online ©2008 Microsoft Corporation

26 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Frequently Used Tactic: Influence by Consultation The person seeks your participation in making a decision or planning how to implement a proposed strategy, policy, or change. This new attendance plan is controversial. How can we make it more acceptable? Photos courtesy of Clips Online ©2008 Microsoft Corporation

27 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Frequently Used Tactic: Influence by Inspirational Appeals The person makes an emotional request or proposal that arouses enthusiasm by appealing to your values and ideals, or by increasing your confidence that you can do it. Getting that account will be tough, but I know you can do it. Photos courtesy of Clips Online ©2008 Microsoft Corporation

28 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Political Skill Political Skill - Political Skill - ability to get things done through favorable interpersonal relationships outside of formally prescribed organizational mechanisms –Social astuteness –Interpersonal influence –Networking ability –Sincerity Learned traits Photos courtesy of Clips Online ©2008 Microsoft Corporation

29 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Managing Political Behavior Maintain open communication Clarify performance expectations Use participative management Encourage cooperation among work groups Manage scarce resources well Provide a supportive organizational climate

30 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Managing Up: The Boss Understand Your Boss and Her Context Her goals and objectives The pressures on her Her strengths, weaknesses, blind spots Her preferred work style Assess Yourself and Your Needs Your own strengths and weaknesses Your personal style Your predisposition toward dependence on authority figures

31 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Managing Up: The Boss SOURCE: Information on slides adapted and reprinted by permission of Harvard Business Review. From Managing Your Boss, by J. J. Gabarro and J. P. Kotter, (May- June 1993): p Copyright© 1993 by the Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation; all rights reserved. Develop and Maintain a Relationship that Fits both your needs and styles Is characterized by mutual expectations Keeps your boss informed Is based on dependability and honesty Selectively uses your bosss time and resources

32 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Sharing Power: Empowerment Empowerment - sharing power in such a way that individuals learn to believe in their ability to do the job!

33 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Empowerments Four Dimensions Meaning – Meaning – fit between the work role and the employees values and beliefs Self-determination - Self-determination - having control over the way one does ones work Impact - Impact - belief that ones job makes a difference within the organization Competence - Competence - belief that one has the ability to do the job well E 2s

34 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Guidelines for Empowering Express confidence in employees Set high performance expectations Create opportunities for participative decision making Remove bureaucratic constraints that stifle autonomy Set inspirational and meaningful goals

35 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Point A No Discretion Point B Task Setting Point C Participatory Empowerment Point D Mission Defining Point E Self-management Implement Follow-up Alt. Choice Alt. Eval Alt. Dev Problem Id. Alt. EvalAlt. Dev Alt. Choice Implement Follow-up Employee Empowerment Grid Decision-Making Authority over Job Content Decision-Making Authority over Job Content Amitai Etzioni, Modern Organizations, 1964, pp Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. Decision-Making Authority over Job Context Decision-Making Authority over Job Context

36 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Finkelstein: Why Executives Fail See themselves and their companies as dominant, without peers Think they have all the answers Eliminate those not 100% behind them Rely on what worked for them in the past No clear boundaries between personal interests and corporate interests

37 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Using Power Effectively Use power in ethical ways Understand and use all of the various types of power and influence Seek out jobs that allow you to develop your power skills Use power tempered by maturity and self-control Accept that influencing people is an important part of the management job

38 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Chapter 11: Reflect & Discuss Scarface Video Clip What to Watch for and Ask Yourself What are Mels sources or bases of power in this interaction with Tony Montana? What are Tony Montanas sources or bases of power? What type of power relationship forms between the two men?


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