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Session Title: Role of ULBs in Environment Management And Social Audit.

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1 Session Title: Role of ULBs in Environment Management And Social Audit

2 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session 12 2 The roll of municipalities / corporations in-The roll of municipalities / corporations in- environment management,environment management, basic features of environmental services,basic features of environmental services, measures taken in Indiameasures taken in India understanding of social audit in respect of right to information act.understanding of social audit in respect of right to information act. Session Overview Next

3 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session 12 3 Necessary discussions and lecture will enable the participantsNecessary discussions and lecture will enable the participants to be aware of importance of environment management,to be aware of importance of environment management, roll of municipality / corporation in this aspect and roll of municipality / corporation in this aspect and social auditsocial audit which will help them to grow their consciousness on auditing environment and social issues. which will help them to grow their consciousness on auditing environment and social issues. Learning Objective Next

4 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session 12 4 Modern day urbanisation Rapid urbanisation has become the order of the day.Rapid urbanisation has become the order of the day. It is, today a natural constituent of the process of civilisation and a key indicator of economic development.It is, today a natural constituent of the process of civilisation and a key indicator of economic development. Next

5 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session 12 5 Modern day urbanisation Cities and towns in most countries around the world have been gaining considerable attention due to the large number of households migrating to cities and its consequent effects.Cities and towns in most countries around the world have been gaining considerable attention due to the large number of households migrating to cities and its consequent effects. Next

6 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session 12 6 Modern day urbanisation Dramatic urban growth was noticed in the Asia and the Pacific region during the last two decades of the twentieth centuryDramatic urban growth was noticed in the Asia and the Pacific region during the last two decades of the twentieth century urban population doubled from 700 million in 1980 to 1.4 billion in 2000.urban population doubled from 700 million in 1980 to 1.4 billion in Next

7 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session 12 7 Modern day urbanisation It is estimated that by the turn of 2020,It is estimated that by the turn of 2020, half of the world population will be living in towns and cities. half of the world population will be living in towns and cities. A study by the United Nations predicts thatA study by the United Nations predicts that the level of urbanisation is slated to cross 50% mark in 2005 itself.the level of urbanisation is slated to cross 50% mark in 2005 itself. Next

8 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session 12 8 Modern day urbanisation The projection ibid further forecast thatThe projection ibid further forecast that by the year 2025, more than three-fifth of the world population (approximately 5.2 billion) will be urban settlers.by the year 2025, more than three-fifth of the world population (approximately 5.2 billion) will be urban settlers. Of this againOf this again 77% will be in the developing countries.77% will be in the developing countries. Next

9 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session 12 9 Forecast ibid shows growth of mega cities having population more than 10 million to reach 26 numbers by 2010, out of which 21 cities will be in the developing countries:Forecast ibid shows growth of mega cities having population more than 10 million to reach 26 numbers by 2010, out of which 21 cities will be in the developing countries: 14 in Asia,14 in Asia, 5 in Latin America and5 in Latin America and 2 in Africa).2 in Africa). Next Modern day urbanisation

10 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session by the year 2010, population of 33 Number of cities is projected to be between 5 to 10 million, (21 in the developing countries).by the year 2010, population of 33 Number of cities is projected to be between 5 to 10 million, (21 in the developing countries). (United Nations, World Urbanization Projects, New York, 1993). (United Nations, World Urbanization Projects, New York, 1993). Next Modern day urbanisation

11 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Major factors for urbanization are –Major factors for urbanization are – high rate of population growth,high rate of population growth, declining opportunities in the rural areasdeclining opportunities in the rural areas low paying agriculture sector to more paying urban occupations.low paying agriculture sector to more paying urban occupations. Next Modern day urbanisation

12 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Most cities have grown haphazardly showing signs of saturation ofMost cities have grown haphazardly showing signs of saturation of services,services, infrastructure andinfrastructure and employment potential.employment potential. Next Modern day urbanisation

13 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session This has resulted in:This has resulted in: congestion,congestion, slums,slums, inadequate water supply and sanitation,inadequate water supply and sanitation, urban poverty andurban poverty and environmental degradation.environmental degradation. Next Modern day urbanisation

14 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session The priority assigned to urban environmental issues has traditionally been low, resulting in irreversible damage to human health.The priority assigned to urban environmental issues has traditionally been low, resulting in irreversible damage to human health. Next Modern day urbanisation

15 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Natural assets in the environment are of three types:Natural assets in the environment are of three types: Non-renewable resources like minerals and fossil fuels;Non-renewable resources like minerals and fossil fuels; Renewable resources like food crops, forestry products and water supplies;Renewable resources like food crops, forestry products and water supplies; Capacity of the natural system on this planet to absorb emissions and pollutants of the human activities.Capacity of the natural system on this planet to absorb emissions and pollutants of the human activities. Next Modern day urbanisation

16 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Rapid techno-industrial development tuned with population explosion has forced this worldRapid techno-industrial development tuned with population explosion has forced this world to combat multifarious problems of environment- degradation causing enormous stain on the natural resources.to combat multifarious problems of environment- degradation causing enormous stain on the natural resources. Next Modern day urbanisation

17 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Population concentration in increasingly smaller land masses has causedPopulation concentration in increasingly smaller land masses has caused a drastic decline in the quality of living both in the residential and work fronts.a drastic decline in the quality of living both in the residential and work fronts. Next Modern day urbanisation

18 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Along with the benefits of urbanization come multifarious social ills likeAlong with the benefits of urbanization come multifarious social ills like lack of access to drinking water andlack of access to drinking water and sanitation services,sanitation services, pollution and carbon emissions,pollution and carbon emissions, disposal of huge solid wastes etc.disposal of huge solid wastes etc. Next Modern day urbanisation

19 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Components of urban environment ResourcesProcessesEffects Human resources SunlightLandWaterMineralsElectricityFuelsFinance Intermediary products Recyclable materials ManufactureTransportationConstructionMigration Population Growth Residence/Living Community Services (Education, Health….) Negative Effects: Pollution (air, water, noise) waste generation (garbage, sewage), congestion, overcrowding Positive Effects: Product value- addition, increased knowledgebase/ education, access to resources and better services Next

20 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session There is thus an urgent need to balance the environmental capacity and quantum of resource utilization.There is thus an urgent need to balance the environmental capacity and quantum of resource utilization. Next Modern day urbanisation

21 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session The Earth Summit in Rio in 1992 and the United Nations Frame work Convention on Climatic Change (UNFCCC) underlinedThe Earth Summit in Rio in 1992 and the United Nations Frame work Convention on Climatic Change (UNFCCC) underlined the urgency of harmonizing environmental sustainability and development goals.the urgency of harmonizing environmental sustainability and development goals. Next Modern day urbanisation

22 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session The Rio Declaration on environment and development called Agenda 21 reflectsThe Rio Declaration on environment and development called Agenda 21 reflects global consensus andglobal consensus and political commitment on development and environment cooperation.political commitment on development and environment cooperation. Next Modern day urbanisation

23 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Indian scenario In India-In India- the urban population has reached nearly 300 millions.the urban population has reached nearly 300 millions. Growth of population during the past decade indicated higher growth in metro cities. Growth of population during the past decade indicated higher growth in metro cities. Next

24 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Indian scenario There are six mega cities with population above 4 millions.There are six mega cities with population above 4 millions. Next

25 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Indian scenario Failure of the urban planning process has created chaotic conditions, specially in the metropolitan cities and left municipal services crumbling.Failure of the urban planning process has created chaotic conditions, specially in the metropolitan cities and left municipal services crumbling. Huge consumption and waste generated in the cities deplete the natural resources and pollute environment. Huge consumption and waste generated in the cities deplete the natural resources and pollute environment. Next

26 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Indian scenario Environment pollution created by human activities tells upon public health and hygiene.Environment pollution created by human activities tells upon public health and hygiene. The ecological footprints of urban activities expand far beyond the city limits and usurp natural resources of much larger areas.The ecological footprints of urban activities expand far beyond the city limits and usurp natural resources of much larger areas. Next

27 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Urbanisation and Waste Generation Urbanization results in waste generation.Urbanization results in waste generation. Unscientific waste handling causes health hazards and urban environment degradation.Unscientific waste handling causes health hazards and urban environment degradation. Next

28 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Urbanisation and Waste Generation Municipal solid waste (MSW) includes:Municipal solid waste (MSW) includes: refuse from the households, refuse from the households, non-hazardous solid waste,non-hazardous solid waste, discards of the industrial,discards of the industrial, commercial and institutional establishments,commercial and institutional establishments, market waste, market waste, yard waste and street sweepings.yard waste and street sweepings. Next

29 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Urbanisation and Waste Generation Cities and towns generate huge quantities of solid waste, and these increase with income.Cities and towns generate huge quantities of solid waste, and these increase with income. In cities of the developing countries, 20 to 50 % of the waste generated remains uncollected.In cities of the developing countries, 20 to 50 % of the waste generated remains uncollected. Next

30 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Urbanisation and Waste Generation In low income or squatter settlementsIn low income or squatter settlements garbage collection is often non-existentgarbage collection is often non-existent either because these settlements fall outside official service areas oreither because these settlements fall outside official service areas or because scavenger trucks are unable to maneuver along narrow unpaved streets/lanes.because scavenger trucks are unable to maneuver along narrow unpaved streets/lanes. Next

31 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Urbanisation and Waste Generation Uncollected domestic waste is the most common cause of blocked urban drainage channels in Asian cities, increasing thereby the risk of flooding and vector borne diseases.Uncollected domestic waste is the most common cause of blocked urban drainage channels in Asian cities, increasing thereby the risk of flooding and vector borne diseases. Next

32 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Urbanisation and Waste Generation In most of the urban areas 100 percent of the population is serviced by municipal waste collection.In most of the urban areas 100 percent of the population is serviced by municipal waste collection. However, with their higher consumption levels, they have to confront increasing mounds of garbage.However, with their higher consumption levels, they have to confront increasing mounds of garbage. Next

33 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Despite massive recycling and incineration projects, Tokyo is unable to cope with the more than 22,000 metric tons garbage generated each day.Despite massive recycling and incineration projects, Tokyo is unable to cope with the more than 22,000 metric tons garbage generated each day. As a result, officials are building islands of waste in Tokyo Bay, which threaten both the shipping and the fishing industry.As a result, officials are building islands of waste in Tokyo Bay, which threaten both the shipping and the fishing industry. Urbanisation and Waste Generation Next

34 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Example of adverse environmental impacts of the solid waste:Example of adverse environmental impacts of the solid waste: Ground water contamination;Ground water contamination; Surface water contamination;Surface water contamination; Foul odour, pests, rodents and wind- blown litter in and around the waste dumps;Foul odour, pests, rodents and wind- blown litter in and around the waste dumps; Urbanisation and Waste Generation Next

35 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Generation of the inflammable gas (methane) within the waste dumps;Generation of the inflammable gas (methane) within the waste dumps; Release of green house gases such as carbon dioxide and methane;Release of green house gases such as carbon dioxide and methane; Bird menace above waste dumps affecting traffic;Bird menace above waste dumps affecting traffic; Epidemics through stray animals and other disease vectors.Epidemics through stray animals and other disease vectors. Urbanisation and Waste Generation Next

36 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Given its sheer volume, sewage is a major threat to local urban waters.Given its sheer volume, sewage is a major threat to local urban waters. It also poses a significant risk to health from such sewage-borne pathogens as the cholera bacterium, hepatitis viruses, salmonella and the like.It also poses a significant risk to health from such sewage-borne pathogens as the cholera bacterium, hepatitis viruses, salmonella and the like. Next Urban waste and industrial pollutants

37 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Most of the worlds sewage is still disposed of untreated.Most of the worlds sewage is still disposed of untreated. In developing countries, 90 percent or more is released without treatment of any kind usually to a water body – a river, a lake or an ocean.In developing countries, 90 percent or more is released without treatment of any kind usually to a water body – a river, a lake or an ocean. Next Urban waste and industrial pollutants

38 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session As a result, fisheries are increasingly being damaged / destroyed by the volume of urban sewage.As a result, fisheries are increasingly being damaged / destroyed by the volume of urban sewage. Next Urban waste and industrial pollutants

39 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Major declines in fish catches have been documented in rivers and estuaries around cities in India, China, Venezuela and Senegal.Major declines in fish catches have been documented in rivers and estuaries around cities in India, China, Venezuela and Senegal. Next Urban waste and industrial pollutants

40 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Major sources of water pollution includeMajor sources of water pollution include chemical-intensive industries such aschemical-intensive industries such as tanneries,tanneries, metal plating operations,metal plating operations, pulp mills andpulp mills and refineries.refineries. Next Urban waste and industrial pollutants

41 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Typical contaminants:Typical contaminants: organochlorines like polychlorinated biphenylsorganochlorines like polychlorinated biphenyls dioxins,dioxins, pesticides, grease and oilpesticides, grease and oil acids and caustics,acids and caustics, heavy metals like cadmium and lead, andheavy metals like cadmium and lead, and synthetic organic compounds.synthetic organic compounds. Next Urban waste and industrial pollutants

42 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Environmental services as embodied in the Constitution of India The 74th Constitution Amendment Act, 1992:The 74th Constitution Amendment Act, 1992: has ushered in a new era in the history of the institution of the urban local government.has ushered in a new era in the history of the institution of the urban local government. Next

43 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Environmental services as embodied in the Constitution of India gives constitutional recognition to the ULBs as institutions of local self-governmentgives constitutional recognition to the ULBs as institutions of local self-government incorporates some landmark provisions of urban management responsibilities down to the grass-roots level.incorporates some landmark provisions of urban management responsibilities down to the grass-roots level. Next

44 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Environmental services as embodied in the Constitution of India 18 functions listed in the 12 th. Schedule.18 functions listed in the 12 th. Schedule. One of these functions is Urban forestry, protection of the environment and promotion of the ecological aspect.One of these functions is Urban forestry, protection of the environment and promotion of the ecological aspect. Next

45 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Environmental services as embodied in the Constitution of India this constitutional provision reflects the consciousness in respect of environmental degradation that the city- dwellers are threatened with.this constitutional provision reflects the consciousness in respect of environmental degradation that the city- dwellers are threatened with. Next

46 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session A number of functions listed in the Schedule may be construed as environmental services, e.g.:A number of functions listed in the Schedule may be construed as environmental services, e.g.: Regulation of land use and construction of buildings;Regulation of land use and construction of buildings; Public health, sanitation, conservancy and waste management;Public health, sanitation, conservancy and waste management; Environmental services as embodied in the Constitution of India Next

47 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Urban forestry, protection of the environment and promotion of the ecological aspect;Urban forestry, protection of the environment and promotion of the ecological aspect; Water supply for domestic, industrial and commercial purposes;Water supply for domestic, industrial and commercial purposes; Urban amenities and facilities such as parks, gardens and playgrounds;Urban amenities and facilities such as parks, gardens and playgrounds; Slum improvement and upgradation;Slum improvement and upgradation; Regulation of slaughterhouses and tanneries.Regulation of slaughterhouses and tanneries. Environmental services Next

48 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session ULBs have been providing these environmental services assigned to them by the States.ULBs have been providing these environmental services assigned to them by the States. With the growing concern about the urban environment, most of the municipal functions or services are perceived as essential environmental services.With the growing concern about the urban environment, most of the municipal functions or services are perceived as essential environmental services. Environmental services Next

49 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Since 1974Since 1974 A number of laws have been enactedA number of laws have been enacted rules framed,rules framed, some of the Acts are stated in the next slide:some of the Acts are stated in the next slide: Next Measures taken in India

50 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1974;Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1974; The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986;The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986; Hazardous Waste Rules, 1989;Hazardous Waste Rules, 1989; Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989;Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989; Bio-medical Waste Rules, 1998;Bio-medical Waste Rules, 1998; The Recycled Plastics Manufacture & Usage Rules, 1999;The Recycled Plastics Manufacture & Usage Rules, 1999; The Municipal Solid Wastes Rules, 2000.The Municipal Solid Wastes Rules, Next Measures taken in India

51 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session These Acts and Rules prescribeThese Acts and Rules prescribe various punitive measures for the defaulting units including closure of the defaulting units as well as disconnection of electricity.various punitive measures for the defaulting units including closure of the defaulting units as well as disconnection of electricity. Next Measures taken in India

52 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Social Audit

53 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Basic Concept Social Audit - Basic Concept The National Right to Information (NRTI) came into force in India, the worlds biggest democracy, on October 12, 2005.The National Right to Information (NRTI) came into force in India, the worlds biggest democracy, on October 12, The Act empowers the people to demand information on all public works from the government.The Act empowers the people to demand information on all public works from the government. Next

54 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Basic Concept Social Audit - Basic Concept Through social audit people make use of the RTI to obtain the actual status of the works undertaken by the Government Departments or any Local Public Bodies.Through social audit people make use of the RTI to obtain the actual status of the works undertaken by the Government Departments or any Local Public Bodies. By this audit people watch the manner in which the money is spent.By this audit people watch the manner in which the money is spent. Next

55 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session It is an important means to hold the public authorities accountable.It is an important means to hold the public authorities accountable. Thus creates a lot of public pressure on the establishments to take corrective steps.Thus creates a lot of public pressure on the establishments to take corrective steps. Next Basic Concept Social Audit - Basic Concept

56 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Basic Concept Social Audit - Basic Concept It seeks to achieve the twin objectives of transparency and accountability.It seeks to achieve the twin objectives of transparency and accountability. Has the potential of developing into an important tool for enhancing the effective delivery of public services by the urban local bodies.Has the potential of developing into an important tool for enhancing the effective delivery of public services by the urban local bodies. Next

57 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Basic Concept Social Audit - Basic Concept It may thus be termed as Peoples Audit;It may thus be termed as Peoples Audit; Under this mechanism, the people as a collective entity are afforded an opportunity of analyzing and assessing not only the issues pertaining to financial matters but also several other aspects as mentioned in the next slide;Under this mechanism, the people as a collective entity are afforded an opportunity of analyzing and assessing not only the issues pertaining to financial matters but also several other aspects as mentioned in the next slide; Next

58 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Basic Concept Social Audit - Basic Concept Identification of collective and individual needs of the local community;Identification of collective and individual needs of the local community; Selection of schemes and their location;Selection of schemes and their location; Selection of the potential beneficiaries; andSelection of the potential beneficiaries; and The manner in which the developmental and welfare programmes/schemes are being implemented.The manner in which the developmental and welfare programmes/schemes are being implemented. Next

59 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Proper social audit is feasible if Ward Committee members of the urban local bodies have free and ready access to all relevant information and documents regarding the works that they are empowered to audit.Proper social audit is feasible if Ward Committee members of the urban local bodies have free and ready access to all relevant information and documents regarding the works that they are empowered to audit. Basic Concept Social Audit - Basic Concept Next

60 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session A silent wave of revolution in the form of RTI campaign is sweeping across the country.A silent wave of revolution in the form of RTI campaign is sweeping across the country. The Supreme Court has observed that RTI is a part of right to Speech and Expression, a fundamental right under Article 19 (1) of the Constitution.The Supreme Court has observed that RTI is a part of right to Speech and Expression, a fundamental right under Article 19 (1) of the Constitution. Basic Concept Social Audit - Basic Concept Next

61 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session RTI laws have also been passed by nine State Governments in the country viz.-RTI laws have also been passed by nine State Governments in the country viz.- Goa,Goa, TamilNadu,TamilNadu, Karnataka,Karnataka, Delhi,Delhi, Rajasthan,Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh,Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra,Maharashtra, Assam andAssam and Jammu & Kashmir.Jammu & Kashmir. Basic Concept Social Audit - Basic Concept Next

62 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Right To Information (RTI) Act, 2005 The RTI Act, 2005:The RTI Act, 2005: received the assent of the President on the 15th June, 2005 andreceived the assent of the President on the 15th June, 2005 and published in the Gazette of India dated, June 21, 2005.published in the Gazette of India dated, June 21, Next

63 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session RTI Act, Salient Features The act -The act - provides the right to the citizens to secure access to information under the control of public authorities in order to promote transparency and accountability;provides the right to the citizens to secure access to information under the control of public authorities in order to promote transparency and accountability; extends of the whole of India except the state of Jammu and Kashmir;extends of the whole of India except the state of Jammu and Kashmir; Next

64 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session RTI Act, Salient Features Some of the provisions of the act shall come into force at once, while the rest shall take effect on the 120th day of its enactment;Some of the provisions of the act shall come into force at once, while the rest shall take effect on the 120th day of its enactment; Next

65 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session RTI Act, Salient Features The act provides for constitution of a Central Information Commission and State Information Commissions;The act provides for constitution of a Central Information Commission and State Information Commissions; Next

66 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Information means any material in any form including:Information means any material in any form including: records,records, documents,documents, memos,memos, s, s, opinions,opinions, advices,advices, press releases,press releases, circulars, orders etc.;circulars, orders etc.; RTI Act, Salient Features Next

67 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session RTI includes the right to:RTI includes the right to: Inspection of work, documents, records;Inspection of work, documents, records; taking certified copies of documents;taking certified copies of documents; taking certified samples of material;taking certified samples of material; obtaining information in electronic form; obtaining information in electronic form; RTI Act, Salient Features Next

68 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Every public authority shall maintain all its records duly catalogued and indexed and publish the same;Every public authority shall maintain all its records duly catalogued and indexed and publish the same; Every pubic authority shall designate a Public Information Officer;Every pubic authority shall designate a Public Information Officer; RTI Act, Salient Features Next

69 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session A person desiring to obtain any information shallA person desiring to obtain any information shall make a request in writing in English, Hindi or the official language of the area;make a request in writing in English, Hindi or the official language of the area; RTI Act, Salient Features Next

70 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session The designated Public Information Officer shall provideThe designated Public Information Officer shall provide the information on payment of prescribed fee or reject the request within 30 days of the receipt of request;the information on payment of prescribed fee or reject the request within 30 days of the receipt of request; RTI Act, Salient Features Next

71 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session If a request is rejectedIf a request is rejected the Public Information officer shall communicate the reasons for such rejection to the person making the request; the Public Information officer shall communicate the reasons for such rejection to the person making the request; RTI Act, Salient Features Next

72 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session The act expressly gives details of issues which are exempt from disclosure of information;The act expressly gives details of issues which are exempt from disclosure of information; Pubic authority shall have no obligation to give any citizen any information of such issues.Pubic authority shall have no obligation to give any citizen any information of such issues. RTI Act, Salient Features Next

73 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Some instances are given below:-Some instances are given below:- Information, disclosure of which would prejudicially affect the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security, strategic, scientific or economic interests of the State, relation with foreign State or lead to incitement of an offence;Information, disclosure of which would prejudicially affect the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security, strategic, scientific or economic interests of the State, relation with foreign State or lead to incitement of an offence; RTI Act, Salient Features Next

74 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session provided that the information which cannot be denied to the Parliament or a State Legislature cannot be denied to any person.provided that the information which cannot be denied to the Parliament or a State Legislature cannot be denied to any person. RTI Act, Salient Features Next

75 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session The Role of Jansunwai Findings of a social audit may be presented and discussed in the public meetings in a ward/area in the presence of the entire community and stakeholders.Findings of a social audit may be presented and discussed in the public meetings in a ward/area in the presence of the entire community and stakeholders. Such public meetings are titled public hearings or jansunwais.Such public meetings are titled public hearings or jansunwais. Next

76 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session The Role of Jansunwai The reports on works as per the official records are read out to the people in the meeting and the people publicly testify the veracity of such reports.The reports on works as per the official records are read out to the people in the meeting and the people publicly testify the veracity of such reports. Next

77 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session The Role of Jansunwai Thus the proceedings take shape in a completely transparent manner.Thus the proceedings take shape in a completely transparent manner. Hence, social audit and jansunwais are a big relief towards real participatory democracy.Hence, social audit and jansunwais are a big relief towards real participatory democracy. Next

78 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session The Role of Jansunwai The origin of such social audit and jansunwais can be traced fromThe origin of such social audit and jansunwais can be traced from an agitation for minimum wages by the Majdoor Kishan Shakti Sangathan (MKSS) oran agitation for minimum wages by the Majdoor Kishan Shakti Sangathan (MKSS) or the Organisation for Empowerment of Workers and Peasants the Organisation for Empowerment of Workers and Peasants in the rural Rajasthan in the late 1980, although it took full shape after in the rural Rajasthan in the late 1980, although it took full shape after Next

79 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session The Role of Jansunwai The pioneer in work of MKSS in rural Rajasthan has triggered offThe pioneer in work of MKSS in rural Rajasthan has triggered off similar initiative by Parivartan an NGO in the urban Delhi areas.similar initiative by Parivartan an NGO in the urban Delhi areas. Next

80 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session The Role of Jansunwai Sundarnagari and New Seemapuri are two re- settlement colonies in Delhi inhabitated by lower income groups.Sundarnagari and New Seemapuri are two re- settlement colonies in Delhi inhabitated by lower income groups. Using Delhi RTI Act, Parivartan obtained, in August, 2002, copies of all the civil works done by the MCD in Sundarnagari and New Seemapuri in the previous two financial years.Using Delhi RTI Act, Parivartan obtained, in August, 2002, copies of all the civil works done by the MCD in Sundarnagari and New Seemapuri in the previous two financial years. Next

81 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session The Role of Jansunwai Parivartan workers visited 18 blocks in these two colonies. Parivartan workers visited 18 blocks in these two colonies. The people were shocked to know that a number of works were half done and the claimed quality was far from being materialised.The people were shocked to know that a number of works were half done and the claimed quality was far from being materialised. Next

82 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session The Role of Jansunwai This gave a fair idea of the gap between what was declared in writing and what actually had happened.This gave a fair idea of the gap between what was declared in writing and what actually had happened. Next

83 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session The Role of Jansunwai A public hearing (jansunwai) was organised in Sundarnagari on 14th December, 2002 by Parivartan along-with the National Campaign for Peoples Right to Information (NCPRI) and MKSS of Rajasthan to discuss publicly the works audited.A public hearing (jansunwai) was organised in Sundarnagari on 14th December, 2002 by Parivartan along-with the National Campaign for Peoples Right to Information (NCPRI) and MKSS of Rajasthan to discuss publicly the works audited. Next

84 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session The Role of Jansunwai This public hearing was attended by almost 1,000 people including:This public hearing was attended by almost 1,000 people including: local residents of the area,local residents of the area, JournalistsJournalists eminent personalities like justice P.B.Sawant, Aruna Roy, Pravas Joshi, Arundhuti Roy etc.eminent personalities like justice P.B.Sawant, Aruna Roy, Pravas Joshi, Arundhuti Roy etc. Next

85 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Findings of Jansunwai A verification of the expenses as recorded in the account books revealed that-A verification of the expenses as recorded in the account books revealed that- 29 hand pumps with electric motors were supposed to be installed under ten contracts.29 hand pumps with electric motors were supposed to be installed under ten contracts. The residents however reported that only 14 hand pumps had actually been put.The residents however reported that only 14 hand pumps had actually been put. Next

86 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Findings of Jansunwai Electric motors were not installed in a single case.Electric motors were not installed in a single case. Loss on account of missing hand pumps and missing motors was estimated at Rs.7.86 lakhs.Loss on account of missing hand pumps and missing motors was estimated at Rs.7.86 lakhs. Next

87 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Findings of Jansunwai Out of a total of 253 iron gratings weighing 27,557 kg, for which payments have been made, only 30 iron gratings weighing 3,136 Kgs were actually put, according to the residents.Out of a total of 253 iron gratings weighing 27,557 kg, for which payments have been made, only 30 iron gratings weighing 3,136 Kgs were actually put, according to the residents. The loss on account of this is roughly estimated at Rs.7.31 lakhs.The loss on account of this is roughly estimated at Rs.7.31 lakhs. Next

88 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session drains on both sides of the street are supposed to be demolished and remade afresh. However, this is rarely done.drains on both sides of the street are supposed to be demolished and remade afresh. However, this is rarely done. Either no work is done on the drains or the level of the existing drains is raised by just one brick.Either no work is done on the drains or the level of the existing drains is raised by just one brick. Findings of Jansunwai Next

89 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Out of a total of 35 cases examined, payment has been made by MCD for construction of fresh drains in all these cases.Out of a total of 35 cases examined, payment has been made by MCD for construction of fresh drains in all these cases. However, fresh drains were not made even in a single case.However, fresh drains were not made even in a single case. Findings of Jansunwai Next

90 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session In 19 cases, the level was raised by one brick while in the rest of the cases, no work was done at all on the drains.In 19 cases, the level was raised by one brick while in the rest of the cases, no work was done at all on the drains. Loss on account of this has been roughly estimated at Rs lakhs.Loss on account of this has been roughly estimated at Rs lakhs. Findings of Jansunwai Next

91 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session In most of the cases the thickness of cement concrete layer was found to be 5 cm which was supposed to be 10 cm.In most of the cases the thickness of cement concrete layer was found to be 5 cm which was supposed to be 10 cm. Loss on this account has been roughly estimated at Rs lakhs.Loss on this account has been roughly estimated at Rs lakhs. Findings of Jansunwai Next

92 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session There are some roads and streets, which exist only on paper.There are some roads and streets, which exist only on paper. The residents of these areas informed that these streets/roads have not been made at all.The residents of these areas informed that these streets/roads have not been made at all. Findings of Jansunwai Next

93 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session In some cases, measurements have been shown in excess of the actual work done.In some cases, measurements have been shown in excess of the actual work done. Loss on account of missing roads and streets is roughly estimated at Rs lakhs. Loss on account of missing roads and streets is roughly estimated at Rs lakhs. Findings of Jansunwai Next

94 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session In two instances, it was discovered that payments have been made twice for the same work i.e. the work was done once but the bills were raised twice for the same work.In two instances, it was discovered that payments have been made twice for the same work i.e. the work was done once but the bills were raised twice for the same work. Findings of Jansunwai Next

95 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session There are some roads and streets,There are some roads and streets, which exist only on paper.which exist only on paper. The residents of these areas informedThe residents of these areas informed that these streets/roads have not been made at all.that these streets/roads have not been made at all. Findings of Jansunwai Next

96 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session In some cases, measurements have been shown in excess of the actual work done.In some cases, measurements have been shown in excess of the actual work done. Loss on account of missing roads and streets is roughly estimated at Rs lakhs.Loss on account of missing roads and streets is roughly estimated at Rs lakhs. Findings of Jansunwai Next

97 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session In two instances, it was discovered that the work was done once but the bills were raised twice for the same work.In two instances, it was discovered that the work was done once but the bills were raised twice for the same work. Findings of Jansunwai Next

98 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Out of 8 cases of road construction, in 6 cases only one layer (instead of two layers) of stone aggregate was put and in the other two cases, not even a single layer was put.Out of 8 cases of road construction, in 6 cases only one layer (instead of two layers) of stone aggregate was put and in the other two cases, not even a single layer was put. Findings of Jansunwai Next

99 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session A layer of red bajri is supposed to be put in the construction of roads. This has never been done in any of the roads.A layer of red bajri is supposed to be put in the construction of roads. This has never been done in any of the roads. Findings of Jansunwai Next

100 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session The impact of Jansunwai In fact, it triggered the series of debates and discussions in the community.In fact, it triggered the series of debates and discussions in the community. People discussed in amazement the amount spent on ghost works and work half done.People discussed in amazement the amount spent on ghost works and work half done. Next

101 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session The impact of Jansunwai Thus this public audit acted as a booster on the psyche and morale of the people of the Sundarnagari and Seemapuri.Thus this public audit acted as a booster on the psyche and morale of the people of the Sundarnagari and Seemapuri. Next

102 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session The impact of Jansunwai For the first time they realised that the public authorities could be held accountable in such a transparent manner.For the first time they realised that the public authorities could be held accountable in such a transparent manner. Next

103 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session The impact of Jansunwai There was a demand for a public platform for the people to raise their voice collectively.There was a demand for a public platform for the people to raise their voice collectively. Next

104 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session The impact of Jansunwai Soon after jansunwai Mohalla Samitis (Local Area Committees) were formed in Sundarnagari for each block.Soon after jansunwai Mohalla Samitis (Local Area Committees) were formed in Sundarnagari for each block. The Samitis went on monitoring, the execution of any civil work in their block until they were satisfied.The Samitis went on monitoring, the execution of any civil work in their block until they were satisfied. Next

105 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session A road was to be re-laid in F1 block of Sundarnagari.A road was to be re-laid in F1 block of Sundarnagari. The work began in January The people stopped the work and demanded to know the details of contract.The work began in January The people stopped the work and demanded to know the details of contract. The impact of Jansunwai Next

106 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session People were informed the quality and quantity of the material supposed to be used. The road has since been made with right materials.People were informed the quality and quantity of the material supposed to be used. The road has since been made with right materials. The quality of the road is far better than most of the roads made in Sundarnagari till now.The quality of the road is far better than most of the roads made in Sundarnagari till now. The impact of Jansunwai Next

107 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session In one case of street construction the people saw that ordinary sand was being used instead of red coarse sand.In one case of street construction the people saw that ordinary sand was being used instead of red coarse sand. The cement was being put in the ratio of 1:20 (which was supposed to be 1:2).The cement was being put in the ratio of 1:20 (which was supposed to be 1:2). The people immediately stopped the work.The people immediately stopped the work. The impact of Jansunwai Next

108 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session The contractor and the Junior Engineer were summoned by the people on the spot.The contractor and the Junior Engineer were summoned by the people on the spot. Both of them profusely apologized to the public and offered to get the entire material replaced with proper material.Both of them profusely apologized to the public and offered to get the entire material replaced with proper material. The impact of Jansunwai Next

109 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session But the people wanted strict action against the Junior Engineer.But the people wanted strict action against the Junior Engineer. About 30 people went and met the Executive Engineer and demanded that JE be suspended immediately.About 30 people went and met the Executive Engineer and demanded that JE be suspended immediately. The impact of Jansunwai Next

110 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session EXEN also apologized and requested people to forgive the JE. EXENEXEN also apologized and requested people to forgive the JE. EXEN Subsequently, the entire material was replaced and the work took place under the supervision of the people. The JE was also transferred subsequently.Subsequently, the entire material was replaced and the work took place under the supervision of the people. The JE was also transferred subsequently. The impact of Jansunwai Next

111 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session It is important that public actively participate in deciding which works should be carried out in their area and they also monitor the execution of these works.It is important that public actively participate in deciding which works should be carried out in their area and they also monitor the execution of these works. It will go a long way in ensuring proper utilization of funds.It will go a long way in ensuring proper utilization of funds. The impact of Jansunwai Next

112 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session After jansunwai some sites were jointly inspected by a team of Parivartan workers and MCD engineers;After jansunwai some sites were jointly inspected by a team of Parivartan workers and MCD engineers; The officials realised that the public could now scrutinize the records any time;The officials realised that the public could now scrutinize the records any time; The impact of Jansunwai Next

113 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session The officials were also scared because the detailed report of social audit was presented to the government.The officials were also scared because the detailed report of social audit was presented to the government. The impact of Jansunwai Next

114 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Jansunwai, vis-à-vis, Social Audit- some points to ponder RTI initiatives are stymied by, inter-alia, the inadequacy of civil society institutions to play a role;the inadequacy of civil society institutions to play a role; lack of popular awareness and interest;lack of popular awareness and interest; Next

115 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Jansunwai, vis-à-vis, Social Audit- some points to ponder the failure to sustain activism beyond the campaign period;the failure to sustain activism beyond the campaign period; the poor state of record-keeping and lack of equipment such as photocopier machines for copying documents.the poor state of record-keeping and lack of equipment such as photocopier machines for copying documents. Next

116 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session Jansunwai, vis-à-vis, Social Audit- some points to ponder NGOs are playing a crucial role in the process;NGOs are playing a crucial role in the process; Social audits, like many other community initiatives, need more champions and motivators and dedicated volunteers to sustain participatory functioning.Social audits, like many other community initiatives, need more champions and motivators and dedicated volunteers to sustain participatory functioning. Next

117 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session There is also a need for more interface between social audit and statutory audit in order to facilitate transparency at the level of the urban local bodies.There is also a need for more interface between social audit and statutory audit in order to facilitate transparency at the level of the urban local bodies. Jansunwai, vis-à-vis, Social Audit- some points to ponder Next

118 Training Module on Audit of ULBs Session The AuditorThe Auditor should be aware of social audits that have been carried out,should be aware of social audits that have been carried out, review the responsiveness of the urban local bodies to applications for information that may have been submitted by individuals/ organisations andreview the responsiveness of the urban local bodies to applications for information that may have been submitted by individuals/ organisations and make a comment on the operationalisation of the peoples Right to Information.make a comment on the operationalisation of the peoples Right to Information. Jansunwai, vis-à-vis, Social Audit- some points to ponder The End


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